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Questions tagged [kant]

Immanuel Kant was a German Enlightenment philosopher.

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Was Kant anticipating Gödel's incompleteness in his antinomies?

Kant's attempts to prove that there's a limit to pure reason based on the existence of antinomies, i.e. pairs of propositions where each one is rational, but the propositions contradict each other. ...
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What was the impact of the discovery of non-euclidean geometry on Kantian thought?

This is mainly a historical question. In Gary Hatfields introduction to Kants Prologomena, he says: After the discovery of non-Euclidean geometry, Kant’s claims for the synthetic a priori status of ...
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What is Nietzsche's source of immediate knowledge in Beyond Good and Evil?

In Beyond Good and Evil, Section 16, Nietzsche uses "immediate certainties" in quotation marks. Who and from where is Nietzsche quoting this, or is he using the quotations marks to speak ironically? ...
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Kant's Transcendental Apperception and al-`Ilm al-Huduri

What is transcendental apperception in Kant's Philosophy? Is it an instance of knowledge-by-presence (al-Ilm al-Huduri) in Islamic philosophy (especially Mulla Sadra's al-Hikmah al-Mutaaliyyah)?
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In what fundamental ways, if any, does Husserl break with Kant?

I've read only slim secondary works on Husserl some time ago, and recently started "The Crisis in the European Sciences." So far, the framework seems faithfully Kantian. Husserl, for example, ...
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Are we born with Kantian Categories?

Following this question; given that Kantian Categories are required to sythesise Concepts and for the conditions of experience; does this mean that we are born with them?
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What's the meaning of the idea of necessity?

I'm reading critique of pure reason, from Immanuel Kant: Now, in the first place, if we have a proposition which contains the idea of necessity in its very conception, it is a¹ if, moreover, it ...
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Why does rationality + free will necessitate an objective morality for Kant?

So, I'm trying to tackle Kantian Ethics, and I would like to think that I know the most of it but I have some confusions So, what I understand of Kants ethical system is that a) We are rational ...
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Contemporary literature on Kantian ethics?

After reading some works, mainly by Kosgaard, I was wondering if there were any other in-depth contemporary literature looking into Kantian ethics and, more precisely, into its problems (and their ...
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Is the location of Wyoming a posteriori and analytic?

I answered the following question, but wasn't absolutely sure that I did so viably: Fallacy?: "Wyoming - It's like no place on Earth" Is the location of places, like Wyoming on earth, ...
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Kant on the Essential Ends of Reason

In the CPR, Kant defines philosophy as "the science of the relation of all knowledge to the essential ends of human reason." What is meant here by 'essential ends'? This phrase recurs a few times but ...
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Is it unethical, according to Kant, to break copyright and pirate books online?

I live in Bangladesh. In my country, I don't get authentic, high quality foreign books about science, philosophy, psychology etc. Even if some bookstores sell those books, the price due to import tax ...
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Kant in a German edition

I am aware that my question may be off-topic, but nevertheless need an answer or at least a hint towards a good answer. I need a German critical edition of Kant's three Critiques with an advanced ...
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Kant on being your own master

Kant mentions that only someone who is his own master can have right to be a citizen in On the Common Saying. I think in order to him, if you give your labor to someone, basically you cannot be your ...
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Is imagination more important than knowledge?

Einstein famously said: Imagination is more important than knowledge. Knowledge is limited. Imagination encircles the world. In answer to the question, “Do you trust more to your imagination ...
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Question about the categories in the Critique of Pure Reason

For the past couple of weeks I have been reading Critique of Pure Reason by Immanuel Kant. Currently I am stuck at the chapter on transcendental deduction of the categories (Version B). So far my own ...
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Is this proposition analytic or synthetic?

Consider the following statement: Cats have four legs This is an analytic statement, since its truth can be established by looking at the subject and predicate; one does not need to look further ...
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In Kant, is the value you have form being human the same as the duty I have to you?

In Kant, is the value you have form being human the same as the duty I have to you, such that someone I have more duties to has more value? Or is this nonsense anyway, because there is no sense I ...
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What was Kant's argument that causation is necessary for observation?

In this comic, the fictional Immanuel Kant talks about investigating David Hume's "An Inquiry Concerning Human Reason". Hume, in that work, argued that we only see two things happening in sequence and ...
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According to Kant - how is transcendental deduction of the forms of sensibility and categories of understanding possible?

It has been a long time since I've read the Critique of Pure Reason. My question is, how is the mind able to perform the transcendental deduction, according to Kant. What I'm getting at is... the way ...
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What is “intuition” for Kant?

Intuition appears to be a relatively abstract concept, an incomplete cognition, and thus not directly experienceable. Kant says that all knowledge is constituted of two parts: reception of objects ...
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If one agrees with Quine's dissolution of the Analytic/Synthetic distinction, what is left of Kant's epistemology?

One of Kant's most important (if not the most important) result is his argument (proof?) that synthetic a priori knowledge is possible. If one agrees with Quine's argument against Analyticity as ...
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What can a Kantian do in self-defense?

For Kant, we are prohibited from using people as purely means. Unfortunately things like physically stopping someone from doing violence onto you just because you don't want to be wounded seems to ...
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Is noumenon euphemism for undemonstrable or pseudoscientific?

Wiktionary: (philosophy) In the philosophy of Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) and those whom he influenced, a thing as it is independent of any conceptualization or perception by the human mind; a thing-...
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How specific to a set of circumstances can the categorical imperative be?

I'm having trouble understanding just how specific the circumstances can be when using the categorical imperative. My general understanding is that the categorical imperative urges you to consider ...
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Why does Kant consider “rational agents,” humans, as ends in themselves and not means?

This is according to the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: "Kant argues that the moral law must be aimed at an end that is not merely instrumental, but is rather an end in itself. Only rational ...
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Can Kant be said to be a supporter of enactivism?

Kant says that understanding makes nature, and he also says that in transcendental idealism that we create knowledge by our mind. So I think that these two can be related. But I am confused whether ...
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What sources discuss the polemic over the Feder-Garve review of Kant's Critique of Pure Reason?

The affair with the Garve-Feder review of Kant's Critique of Pure Reason in the Göttinger Gelehrten Anzeigenand is a well-known story (Kant felt misrepresented, and complained bitterly in the Appendix ...
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Categorical Imperatives and Imbalances of Power

My fundamental question here, is does Kant's categorical imperative only make sense when considering ethics among people with similar levels of power? It seems Kant's argument assumes that all people ...
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Is Kant's “noumenal self” argument on freedom flawed?

This is what is supposedly his claim: My noumenal self is an uncaused cause outside of time, which therefore is not subject to the deterministic laws of nature in accordance with which our ...
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Rethinking arithmetic operations after J.L. Austin's performativity?

According to Kant, arithmetic statements such as "7+5=12" are synthetic a priori. Could we alternatively think of this not as a statement, but as an arithmetic-logic operation to be executed (like a ...
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Kant's second formulation

In Kant's Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals, he gives examples of uses of the Humanity Imperative, the first being about suicide. I have a scenario in which there is a boy who has to choose ...
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Does 5 + 7 = 12 really say anything new?

I'm not sure why 5 + 7 = 12 should say anything new: I take it to be a shorthand notation to give a name to 5 + 7, which anyway is nothing but 5 times the unit + 7 times the unit, so there is not ...
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How to improve critical thinking?

What are some ways to improve Critical Thinking, which is at the heart of philosophy? For example: Kant's fundamental work Critique of Pure Reason advocates critical thinking already by its title. ...
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For Kant, why are all preferences only conditionally valuable?

It's not clear to me why rational beings are objective ends. It certainly seems possible that every rational being could hold itself as an end, but it is by no means the case necessary that they do ...
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What does Kant's universalisable principle have to say on arbitrary rules?

Act only according to that maxim whereby you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law How does that leave arbitrary rules, and conformity? If everyone disobeyed, for any ...
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Why did Kant talk about metaphysics of ethics?

How can there be a metaphysics of ethics? What does this even mean? I am completely lost on what this means.
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Did Kant explain how a person is able to make a reliable decision, given that the noumenal world is unknowable?

Kant argued that, in matters of perception, there is a noumenon and a phenomenon. The phenomenal world is that which a human can perceive. But the noumenal world exists independently of human ...
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Kant and causality as custom

According to Hume, causality cannot be found in "things themselves", nor can it be empirically accessible. Instead, it is we, the observers, who attach causal relations among things merely because we ...
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Is the entirety of Kant's transcendental logic synthetic a priori, and if so, why?

In my understanding, the argument at a certain place goes as follows: All synthetic judgements that can be true are about possible experience. All necessary conditions for existence of possible ...
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What did Kant mean by the term “category” and did the term change meaning with Hegel?

What does Kant mean by the term "category" and did the term change meaning with Hegel? I'm not asking about for an enumeration of his categories, but what the term means, therein. I read the ...
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“Repugnant conclusions” following from Kant's imperative to never use humans only as means to an end?

Many formulations of utilitarian consequentialism famously lead to a range of "repugnant conclusions", such as: it would be moral to execute an innocent person if this act could deter at least two ...
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What did Kant mean by 'courtesy of the heart'?

I bolded and italicised Kant's metaphor below. Source: p. 46 Bottom. Ethics: A Beginner's Guide (2015) by Peter Cave. Universal dignity: Arguing for the dignity of, and respect due, to all ...
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A companion or guide to Kant's Critique of Pure Reason

Which companion, or guide, would you recommend to someone trying to read and understand the original work, The Critique of Pure Reason? Why? I'm inclined towards these two, The Cambridge Companion to ...
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Why does Popper think there are no a priori synthetic statements?

Lately I´ve been reading Poppers "Logic of Scientific Discovery" and I am especially interested in his critics of induction as a scientific method. When he trys to show that a principle of induction ...
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Is Kant's idea of imperatives derived from stoicism?

Upon reading "The Meditations" by Marcus Aurelius, I felt that in the author's view a man should only be concerned about the things which he has control over what he can do, i.e. duty. "A man's ...
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How would Kant decide whether a law is ethical?

From what I understand, I know that Kant believes that the purpose of government is to "[hinder] a hindrance to freedom" that people could impose on others. Additionally, in a Kantian government ...
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Redefining the Analytic/Synthetic Distinction in Terms of Computational Complexity

I've been reading Kant for the first time and encountered Quine's objections to the analytic/synthetic distinction and am want to agree that they feel a little obscure in their definitions. That is, ...
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what is the difference between Descartes and Quentin Meillassoux in understanding the term of “Cogito”?

Having read Quentin Meillassoux's 《After Finitude》, I am still quite puzzled by the way he illustrating the 'Cogito, ergo sum' as his start-point to criticize on Kant. Kant established the ...
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Hume and Kant on causality: do their views really differ?

David Hume If one event always follows another we believe the first causes the second. But it is impossible to prove, empirically or logically, that the second event happened because the first ...