Questions tagged [kant]

Immanuel Kant was a German Enlightenment philosopher.

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Are Hume's 'impressions' Kant's 'phenomena'?

Why do some philosophers like Carl Stumpf or Immanuel Kant use the word 'Phenomena', whereas British empiricist philosophers, like Locke and Hume, or even Kant, use the word 'Impressions'?
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Should one consider it a 'miracle' that the world exists?

Miracles are used generally in theological/religious contexts. Outside of them they're seen as either rationally explicable as signifiers of theological truths that are uncovered by hermeneutics of ...
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Conditions for Deduction

Hume posited a well known critique of causality that goes back to al-Ghazali - that there is no necessary connection between a cause and an effect. The same argument it seems can be targeted to ...
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Is there an atheistic idealism that rejects noumena but isn't solipsism?

I know of one answered question on a similar subject, but mine is not quite the same thing. Berkeley's idealism holds that to be is to be perceived---nothing can exist, or can be thought to exist, ...
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Does Kant consider extendedness metaphysically (analytic) a priori?

In Kant's famous division between a priori vs a postriori, and synthetic vs analytic, Kant's example for a priori analytic proposition is: All bodies are extended. Without immediately delving ...
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Is Kant's noumenon very small or very big?

I've not read any full chapters on Kant, and even less of his work. Am just familiar with the idea that, for Kant, things as they really are in themselves, noumenal reality, is unknowable. I was just ...
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How can Hegel call philosophy a science?

At the tail end of Kant and the Critique of Pure Reason Gardner discusses Kant's influence on his successors. He claims---and I'm paraphrasing here---Hegel wanted his metaphysics to be scientific, i.e....
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Are propositions in mathematics synthetic or analytic?

I'm reading Kant's Critique of Pure Reason and I understand that he thought that "Mathematical Judgements are all synthetic". I would like to know where does this debate lies or if it is of interest ...
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Deontology: Perfect vs. Imperfect Duties

I have a question regarding Kant's deontological Maxim of both Perfect and Imperfect duties. What I know about them is that Perfect duties require a person to perform a certain "action" all the time, ...
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What are some secondary texts, in the form of online articles, to read about Kant's Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics?

What are some secondary texts, in the form of online articles, to read about Kant's Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics before I jump into the text and to ease myself into understanding it? It ...
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What was the popular moral philosophy at the time when Kant lived?

On Wikipedia it is said: In Section II, Kant starts from scratch and attempts to move from popular moral philosophy to a metaphysics of morals. Therefore, there was some kind of popular moral ...
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Is Reality an intersection of Incompatible Ontologies?

Empiricists do not ask questions about the ontological status of mathematical or logical structures. Idealists don't explain how Ideas are developed, or how technological advancement in general takes ...
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How could maxims become universal laws? (What does Kant's Categorical Imperative mean?)

This states 'act only in accordance with that maxim through which you can at the same time will that it become a universal law'. How can I will a maxim to become a universal law, surely that kind of ...
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why did Kant say the only truly “good” thing in this world “without exception” is a “good will”?

why did Kant say the only truly “good” thing in this world “without exception”? if I understand him correctly, which I very well may not, I believe he states that good will is the only truly good ...
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Can a Kantian bluff in poker?

Kantians aren't allowed to lie---if it were a universal law of nature that everyone lied all the time, no communication would be possible at all, no words would have meaning, and lying itself would ...
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How does the Transcendental Doctrine Of Method connect to the rest of Kant's work?

I don't understand why Kant didn't end the critique of pure reason with the transcendental dialectic. Why did he need this part of the text? What had been left unresolved after the transcendental ...
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What did Kant mean by the “fountain of reason” in the Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics?

What did Kant mean by the "fountain of reason?" " … They must wait till those who endeavor to draw from the fountain of reason itself have completed their work … " — Kant, Immanuel. Prolegomena to ...
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Is Kant's postulate of the existence of God a metaethical assumption?

Also, I would like to get some bibliographical reference about Kantian metaethics.
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How does Kant actually resolve the free will / empirical causality contradiction? [duplicate]

I'm reading through the Critique of Pure Reason and I'm stuck on the section Resolution of the cosmological idea of the totality of the derivation of occurrences in the world from their causes and ...
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What does Kant mean by “Existence is not a predicate”?

What does Kant mean by "Existence is not a predicate"? How does that invalidate the ontological arguments? and how can he show that it's not a predicate? By predicate, I think he means a "property"...
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Why didn't Kant end up in anarchy?

Let us assume the proposition: one might take leader role. Then we apply universalization: if everyone takes leader role, no one is the leader. Thus, we proved that taking leader role is useless ...
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Was pietism an influence upon Kant's moral thoughts?

Pietism was a 17th century Lutheran theological movement emphasizing private religious study and kindness. Now, Kant was raised in a pietist household and enrolled in pietist schools. So is there any ...
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We may say that Sartre inverts Kant’s moral philosophy. What does Sartre share with Kant, and how does he overturn some of his thinking?

Compare and contrast Kant and Sartre. We may say that Sartre inverts Kant’s moral philosophy. What does Sartre share with Kant, and how does he overturn some of his thinking?
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Question about absoluteness

If you say: "Nothing is absolute, everything is relative". Then you make an absolute statement. How can this be?
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Kant and free will

Could someone explain Kant's view on free will to me? As I understand it, Kant says that it is necessary that we have free will, because otherwise it would be unreasonable to hold people responsible. ...
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Applying the Mere Means principle

I am trying to understand Kant's Second Categorical Imperative: Act in such a way that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, never merely as a means to an ...
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What would Utilitarian and Kantian say or react to this case?

Delores Heston, age 22 and unmarried, was severely injured in an automobile accident. She was taken to the plaintiff hospital where it was determined that she would expire unless operated upon for a ...
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Moral Duty and Happiness: Are Both Achievable?

I have studied a little Philosophy and done a lot of thinking about moral duty, individualism and communities. I have come to the belief that it is one person's duty to assist the community event at ...
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What are some cases that involve moral themes?

I am searching for a specific case that interests me, where I can discuss Kantian ethics, Utilitarianism (Mill and Bentham), and Aristotle's Virtue Ethics. So far, the cases I have come across on the ...
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According to Kant, What is the Purpose of Human Existence?

After reading Kant's Idea For a Universal History, I've become intrigued by Kant's notion of Nature guiding the dealings of men towards a "perfectly rightful civil constitution." Although the ...
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What are four ways in which Kant 's categories are different from Aristotle's?

What are the differences between Kant's Categories and Aristotle's?
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Does the Evolution Theory contradict Kant's Metaphysics?

I recently asked a series of questions about ET, and this is one of them :) Intuitively, it seems to me that ET is supposed to contradict Kant's (or more generally, the German Idealism's) Metaphysics ...
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Why shouldn't you lie to the future murderer of your children?

I've heard two versions of this anecdote about Kant's ethics: You are at home and a man with an axe rings the bell. He asks where your children are so that he can kill them. It is, according to ...
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How is Kant's transcendental idealism related to Berkeley's subjective idealism?

My understanding is that Berkeley considered the outside world to have no existence at all, and took the statement "It's all in the mind" literally, whereas Kant argued that the outside world exists ...
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Would Robin Hood be ethical in Kantian ethics?

In order for an action to have moral worth, it must be done from the motive of duty. Would Robin Hood be ethical, assuming that he has no other intent only acted out of the duty to help others, ...
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What are some examples of categorical imperatives/universalizable maxims relevant to modern ethics?

I know this question has been widely asked, and that the answer may not be as straightforward as the question, which is partly why I'm asking. It's been a long time since I sat in a philosophy class, ...
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For Husserl, how can we know things in themselves?

I don't quite understand the nature of "going back to things themselves". How does Husserl break away from Kant?
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Why were Kant's categories used in the mathematical category theory?

I am curious exactly how mathematical categories were inspired by Kant's categories. The SEP article on category theory says: In order to give a general definition of the [natural transformation], ...
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What would it mean for morality not to be a consequence of rationality?

How would one manage to arrive at this morality, or when to apply it without reason? Some might say we directly experience morality, but this is inconsistent with the different different moral ...
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Kant's argument for experience of outer things

Have I got this right? I have empirical consciousness of my existence a determination such as this presupposes ‘something permanent in perception’ All that I inwardly intuit is my series of ...
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Why is Kant's Groundwork so much more popular than his other ethical works?

Kant has three main works on ethics: the Groundwork, the second Critique, and the Metaphysics of Morals, and some important short essays: "What is enlightenment?", "Toward perpetual peace", and "...
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'reason for speculative purposes finds the road of natural necessity […], yet for practical purposes'

Secondary Source: What's It All About? (2007 1 ed.) p. 120 Middle. Primary Source: Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals, Section 3, ON THE EXTREME BOUNDARY OF ALL PRACTICAL PHILOSOPHY ...
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Kant and the Categorical Imperatives

Did Immanuel Kant intend for the Categorical Imperatives to be used together, or separately, when trying to determine an actions ethicality or morality If you answer yes, individually, then how does ...
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How is a priori synthetic knowledge possible?

One of Kant's example of a priori synthetic knowledge is the knowledge of geometry, that is of space itself. It is a priori as it cannot be otherwise - it is independent of experience because it is a ...
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How does Kant derive the categories of the understanding from the logical forms of judgment in the Critique of Pure Reason?

I didn't arrive at any cogent and clear conception of the exact relation between Kant's logical forms of judgment and his categories, and most importantly, how he derives the latter from the former. &...
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How can one justify Newton's third law?

In one sense it is justified by the overall success if Newtonian Mechanics; still, one can ask are there arguments that can justify it from other principles; ie principle that are * a priori* in ...
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Does Rand appropriate Kant's Categorical Imperative?

Rand doesn't explicitly refer to Kant in her ouevre, however in her first essay in her book Objectivist Ethics, Rand writes: The basic social principle of the Objectivist ethics is that just as ...
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How would a Utilitarian and a Kantian solve this thought experiment?

In this thought experiment, you are a doctor, and you work on a roadside hospital. Only you and another doctor are working in the hospital, and a woman who tried to commit suicide arrives at the ...
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Is it generally taken that the thesis of Kant's first antinomy fails?

Kant presented four antinomies, each presented as a pair of thesis & antithesis. The first says that the world does have a beginning in time, he argues by contradiction: If we assume that the ...
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Is Kant's ethical theory adequate to the complexities of universalisation?

Kant argues that one should only act according to those principles which can be universalised. However human actions are often complex and motivated by multi-layered reasonings. They can rarely be ...

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