Questions tagged [knowledge]

Knowledge is a familiarity with someone or something, which can include facts, information, descriptions, or skills acquired through experience or education.

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84
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20answers
44k views

Could 'cogito ergo sum' possibly be false?

I've heard it postulated by some people that "we can't truly know anything". While that does seem to apply to the vast majority of things, I can't see how 'cogito ergo sum' can possibly be false. ...
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2answers
881 views

Did Kant come to believe that we have access to things-in-themselves after all?

Kant's position on things-in-themselves is often described Socratically, of them we know only one thing, that they are. However, in an old but apparently still popular history of philosophy book I ...
12
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2answers
4k views

How did Kant define knowledge?

A recent question about the Plato's formula K=JTB (knowledge is justified true belief) made me curious as to what Kant thought on the matter. In the prefaces and the Introduction to the first Critique ...
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2answers
431 views

Was Locke right that analytic knowledge is vacuous?

According to Locke, it is impossible to obtain substantive knowledge from analytic propositions. Statements like "triangle has three sides" are analytic, but one cannot derive the Pythagorean Theorem ...
5
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1answer
2k views

What is the relation between 'knowledge-that' and 'knowledge-how'?

Quick bit of definitions for the words: Knowledge-that is knowledge that answers a question about a thing. It is informative of a thing's nature or kind. Knowledge-how is knowledge that is expressed ...
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5answers
534 views

Can “Gettier problems” be resolved by assuming JTB as the formal definition of truth? [closed]

What problems arise in responding to Gettier problems with an assertion "the formal definition of knowledge, as justified true belief, does not need to exactly correspond to intuitive notions of ...
2
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2answers
330 views

How is the conflict between created by reason and external aspects of knowledge resolved?

Pragmatism is, roughly, the stressing of actions in talking about the content of knowledge. Externalism is, roughly, the stressing of dependence on the external public world in talking about ...
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19answers
62k views

What is the difference between knowledge and belief?

Sometimes this image is used to explain what agnosticism is and how it's independent from belief: It makes some sense but I still have confusion understanding it. What is the difference between ...
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4answers
2k views

Do machine learning algorithms have knowledge (if not justified true beliefs)?

By "machine learning algorithm" I'm referring to basic, primarily statistical, machine learning algorithms; for concrete examples consider simple classifier algorithms like SVM or Bayesian classifier ...
11
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2answers
2k views

In what fundamental ways, if any, does Husserl break with Kant?

I've read only slim secondary works on Husserl some time ago, and recently started "The Crisis in the European Sciences." So far, the framework seems faithfully Kantian. Husserl, for example, ...
4
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1answer
172 views

Who/What is the source of knowledge?

This question mostly pertains to physics and math, but I think it fits best on this site. I am not very familiar with philosophy, so I apologize if my question is not very formal. Essentially, the ...
3
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2answers
221 views

We know substances by means of their accidents?

Where does Aristotle or St. Thomas Aquinas say we know substances by means of their accidents? For example: To know the substance of an apple, I first have to sense its quantity and qualities: shape, ...
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4answers
2k views

Can a non-falsifiable belief ever be justified (besides for tautologies)?

Probably thanks to Popper, a scientific theory would never be taken seriously if it wasn't as least in some way falsifiable. Without getting into the nitty-gritty of the many theories of justification,...
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3answers
296 views

Can knowledge exist without structure?

For reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knowledge https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/knowledge-analysis/ https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/knowledge-how/ https://plato.stanford.edu/...
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5answers
419 views

How do philosophers respond to global skepticism?

I saw a video of a philosopher (Robert Audi) who said that common sense is the best response we can give to global skepticism. I would agree, but it's not clear to me what the nature of common sense ...
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6answers
989 views

When given limited information, is the simplest solution that matches that information most likely correct?

Is there any basis in philosophy for the idea that when given limited information, the simplest solution that matches that information should be presumed correct or most likely to be correct? For ...
2
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3answers
847 views

Philosophers who wrote about limits of knowledge?

What if "the truth" about any concept (consciousness, reality, religion,physics, etc.), turns out to be a complex idea such that our brains can't simply process it in a single lifespan. For example, ...
7
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6answers
326 views

Philosophical assumptions underlying science

I am a medical student and have been interested lately in the foundations of the scientific research method I have been taught. I've read that there is in fact no such thing as a unique scientific ...
2
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1answer
190 views

When and under whose influence did the JTB conception of knowledge become standard in contemporary philosophy ( i.e. after Kant)?

My question is on the history of the Justified True Belief conception of knowledge. It is well known that this conception is considered in Plato's Meno, but dismissed. I think Hobbes comes close ...
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2answers
150 views

Not all knowledge is wisdom

It is clear from Big Internet Search Engine that not all knowledge is considered wisdom but, can some knowledge be foolish? "Wisdom cannot be imparted. Wisdom that a wise man attempts to impart ...
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2answers
171 views

Can we say that “I Think Therefore I Am” was never about “I”, or thinking, or “I” doing the thinking?

Strictly speaking, "Cogito ergo sum" simply means: "The existence of your own mind can never be in doubt." Item 1) also describes our true knowledge in its entirety. Or we can ...
12
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7answers
7k views

How can I develop my critical thinking skills?

I am a freshman engineering student going to college. I want to learn how to think critically and to become a critical thinker and a sharp arguer. I am interested in philosophy, because I am curious ...
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2answers
279 views

How does a realist account for causation between universals and particulars?

With respect to universals nominalists maintain that there are no universals and only particulars exists. Conversely, realists says that there are universals. Here is a sketch of an argument against ...
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2answers
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How to distinguish between 'a priori/posteriori' and 'analytic/synthetic'?

What I think I know A priori knowledge that can be gained by contemplating only the meaning of a statement's words. A posteriori knowledge can be gained only by comparing a statement's meaning with ...
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8answers
3k views

Why is belief necessary for justified true belief?

In justified true belief it is said that for a person to know a fact it must be true, she must believe in it and she must be justified in believing it. My question is: Is belief necessary? Why is the ...
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1answer
765 views

Big Data's effects on questions in philosophy of science

The Oxford English Dictionary recently named ‘post- truth’ its word of the year. The term, whose use is reputed to have increased 2000% in the past year, is defined as: “…relating to or denoting ...
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5answers
279 views

Do modern philosophers of mind believe that thinking is a symbolic or visual process by nature?

Do some philosophers regard thinking as a symbolic process only because they don't actually think for themselves -- rather, like most of us, they are "having thoughts", their ...
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4answers
563 views

What are the critiques of the “we might as well assume it” solution to the problem of induction?

I'm curious whether the following proposed solution to the problem of induction has ever been discussed in the literature: Either the future resembles the past or it does not resemble the past. If it ...
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4answers
1k views

What exactly is the persuasive power behind Jackson's “Mary's Room” argument?

The knowledge argument (also known as Mary's room or Mary the super-scientist) is a philosophical thought experiment proposed by Frank Jackson in his article "Epiphenomenal Qualia" (1982) and extended ...
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7answers
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How can I know that I am not immortal? [closed]

You think that you will die just because everyone dies. And you would like to know if you are immortal. How can you know if you are immortal or not?
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5answers
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Can there be information without a “knower”?

I am trying to wrap my head around the principle of conservation of information as formulated by Leonard Susskind and others, which seems to me at first glance to be incompatible with the 2nd law of ...
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6answers
4k views

Did Logical Positivism fail because it simply denied human emotion?

Did the denial of human emotion lead to the death of logical positivism?
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3answers
774 views

How could the concept of 'evidence' be defined, and how significant is it?

What is evidence, and how much of it means that a proposition is true? Does a partial / total lack of evidence mean that a proposition should be ignored? Is the concept evidence more important to ...
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5answers
678 views

is science against philosophy? [closed]

I am asking this because I've seen articles, graphics, and quotes of science against philosophy. I believe Hawking have said something about philosophy being killed by science, this article: Dear ...
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3answers
4k views

If there is a difference between a priori knowledge and innate knowledge, what is it?

A priori knowledge is knowledge before or despite experience. But as such, does this not either mean or at least entail innate knowledge?
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5answers
3k views

Is the concept of “knowledge” important for philosophy?

I learned the definition of “knowledge” of justified true belief. I wonder whether it is important in any branch of philosophy? If I think about information per se, this boils down to technical ...
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4answers
218 views

Are there formal theories for grouping different knowledge areas?

What do you know about the boundaries between different bodies of knowledge, e.g. bodies of science. I think it's a common question, e.g. "where's the boundary between mathematics and physics". But ...
6
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2answers
159 views

Can a statement about the past be a 'fact'?

There was an annular solar eclipse near where I used to live (about 20 years ago). It is pretty well certain that it did happen, because eclipses can be reckoned precisely and the likelihood of ...
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3answers
1k views

Does non-empirical knowledge exist?

I think this question might be dismissed very easily, but I'd like to try to provoke a sort of blurring-the-lines idea that may be interesting. I'll start by putting two definitions here, the first ...
3
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1answer
778 views

The coherentist solution to Agrippa’s Trilemma and the possibility of pure/impure justification?

I'm trying to get a grasp on coherentism and what is proposes is the epistemological justification for knowledge. From what I've taken so far, coherentism relies on what is commonly referred to as "...
3
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2answers
221 views

My first thought is always: I AM

This question is derivative of the question here: Could 'cogito ergo sum' possibly be false? It is noted by authors such as Nietzsche and Kierkegaard that there are several assumptions ...
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1answer
265 views

How to start Philosophy and find the branches that are related to my questions?

From Wikipedia: Ontology: philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations. Epistemology: study of the nature ...
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0answers
431 views

Are mental objects timeless?

Let's suspend for a moment the How? of the body mind problem and suppose an ontological paradigm where there are two classes of objects: mental and physical. Also that physical objects are spatially ...
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2answers
177 views

Why do some philosophers argue that we do not know, a priori, that something thinks?

The Cartesian argument seems to explicate the fact that I necessarily know that something thinks, and that I necessarily know that something thinks even if I don't checking the world to verify whether ...
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1answer
631 views

How can we differentiate between change and progress in the field of ethics?

I'm studying a branch of epistemology(theory of knowledge) and am currently working on a project concerned with the change and progress in knowledge. The topic I want to specialise in is ethics. How ...
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1answer
2k views

What consequences has Locke's theory of knowledge had on modern political thought?

According to John Locke's notion of tabula rasa, there are no innate ideas in the mind. All human knowledge comes from sensible experience. Assuming this principle, it follows that there is no innate ...
5
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1answer
553 views

What is Wittgenstein's “criterial solution” to the problem of other minds?

I'm having difficulty with the language in this article on the Problem of Other Minds. It provides 3 solutions to the epistemological problem of other minds in section 1.1 - "The Epistemological ...
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2answers
119 views

Do philosophers think beliefs are bearers of truth-value?

In the literature about what sorts of things have a truth-value, the idea that acts of belief bear truth-value seems present, yet uncommon. On the other hand, objects of belief like propositions or ...
4
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2answers
191 views

What relevance, if any, does collective memory in ants have to John Searle's Chinese Room argument?

In his Chinese room argument, Searle dismisses the possibility that a system of separate agents can possess collective knowledge even if the individuals don't have it. Yet, it's possible that ant ...
4
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2answers
373 views

What is the difference between expressivism and representationalism in modern philosophy of language?

Philosophers like Robert Brandom and Huw Price make a fairly sharp distinction between expression and representation (or at least expressivism and representationalism). Price goes so far as to ...