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Questions tagged [knowledge]

Knowledge is a familiarity with someone or something, which can include facts, information, descriptions, or skills acquired through experience or education.

71
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19answers
30k views

Could 'cogito ergo sum' possibly be false?

I've heard it postulated by some people that "we can't truly know anything". While that does seem to apply to the vast majority of things, I can't see how 'cogito ergo sum' can possibly be false. ...
9
votes
2answers
529 views

Did Kant come to believe that we have access to things-in-themselves after all?

Kant's position on things-in-themselves is often described Socratically, of them we know only one thing, that they are. However, in an old but apparently still popular history of philosophy book I ...
14
votes
1answer
1k views

How did Kant define knowledge?

A recent question about the Plato's formula K=JTB (knowledge is justified true belief) made me curious as to what Kant thought on the matter. In the prefaces and the Introduction to the first Critique ...
13
votes
2answers
328 views

Was Locke right that analytic knowledge is vacuous?

According to Locke, it is impossible to obtain substantive knowledge from analytic propositions. Statements like "triangle has three sides" are analytic, but one cannot derive the Pythagorean Theorem ...
6
votes
1answer
234 views

What is the relation between 'knowledge-that' and 'knowledge-how'?

Quick bit of definitions for the words: Knowledge-that is knowledge that answers a question about a thing. It is informative of a thing's nature or kind. Knowledge-how is knowledge that is expressed ...
5
votes
5answers
479 views

Can “Gettier problems” be resolved by assuming JTB as the formal definition of truth? [closed]

What problems arise in responding to Gettier problems with an assertion "the formal definition of knowledge, as justified true belief, does not need to exactly correspond to intuitive notions of ...
3
votes
2answers
230 views

How is the conflict between created by reason and external aspects of knowledge resolved?

Pragmatism is, roughly, the stressing of actions in talking about the content of knowledge. Externalism is, roughly, the stressing of dependence on the external public world in talking about ...
15
votes
17answers
39k views

What is the difference between knowledge and belief?

Sometimes this image is used to explain what agnosticism is and how it's independent from belief: It makes some sense but I still have confusion understanding it. What is the difference between ...
12
votes
2answers
1k views

In what fundamental ways, if any, does Husserl break with Kant?

I've read only slim secondary works on Husserl some time ago, and recently started "The Crisis in the European Sciences." So far, the framework seems faithfully Kantian. Husserl, for example, ...
4
votes
1answer
100 views

Who/What is the source of knowledge?

This question mostly pertains to physics and math, but I think it fits best on this site. I am not very familiar with philosophy, so I apologize if my question is not very formal. Essentially, the ...
4
votes
4answers
1k views

Can a non-falsifiable belief ever be justified (besides for tautologies)?

Probably thanks to Popper, a scientific theory would never be taken seriously if it wasn't as least in some way falsifiable. Without getting into the nitty-gritty of the many theories of justification,...
9
votes
4answers
9k views

To what extent does our knowledge derive from the senses?

By tradition, the problem that dictates where our knowledge is derived divides from two philosophical circles; those who affirm that our knowledge of the world comes from our senses, such as David ...
15
votes
6answers
850 views

When given limited information, is the simplest solution that matches that information most likely correct?

Is there any basis in philosophy for the idea that when given limited information, the simplest solution that matches that information should be presumed correct or most likely to be correct? For ...
11
votes
4answers
1k views

Do machine learning algorithms have knowledge?

By "machine learning algorithm" I'm referring to basic, primarily statistical, machine learning algorithms; for concrete examples consider simple classifier algorithms like SVM or Bayesian classifier ...
10
votes
2answers
226 views

How does a realist account for causation between universals and particulars?

With respect to universals nominalists maintain that there are no universals and only particulars exists. Conversely, realists says that there are universals. Here is a sketch of an argument against ...
11
votes
4answers
438 views

What are the critiques of the “we might as well assume it” solution to the problem of induction?

I'm curious whether the following proposed solution to the problem of induction has ever been discussed in the literature: Either the future resembles the past or it does not resemble the past. If it ...
9
votes
4answers
664 views

What exactly is the persuasive power behind Jackson's “Mary's Room” argument?

The knowledge argument (also known as Mary's room or Mary the super-scientist) is a philosophical thought experiment proposed by Frank Jackson in his article "Epiphenomenal Qualia" (1982) and extended ...
8
votes
7answers
3k views

How can I know that I am not immortal? [closed]

You think that you will die just because everyone dies. And you would like to know if you are immortal. How can you know if you are immortal or not?
8
votes
2answers
7k views

How to distinguish between 'a priori/posteriori' and 'analytic/synthetic'?

What I think I know A priori knowledge that can be gained by contemplating only the meaning of a statement's words. A posteriori knowledge can be gained only by comparing a statement's meaning with ...
7
votes
5answers
843 views

Can there be information without a “knower”?

I am trying to wrap my head around the principle of conservation of information as formulated by Leonard Susskind and others, which seems to me at first glance to be incompatible with the 2nd law of ...
4
votes
5answers
562 views

is science against philosophy? [closed]

I am asking this because I've seen articles, graphics, and quotes of science against philosophy. I believe Hawking have said something about philosophy being killed by science, this article: Dear ...
13
votes
5answers
2k views

Is the concept of “knowledge” important for philosophy?

I learned the definition of “knowledge” of justified true belief. I wonder whether it is important in any branch of philosophy? If I think about information per se, this boils down to technical ...
7
votes
4answers
196 views

Are there formal theories for grouping different knowledge areas?

What do you know about the boundaries between different bodies of knowledge, e.g. bodies of science. I think it's a common question, e.g. "where's the boundary between mathematics and physics". But ...
5
votes
2answers
117 views

Can a statement about the past be a 'fact'?

There was an annular solar eclipse near where I used to live (about 20 years ago). It is pretty well certain that it did happen, because eclipses can be reckoned precisely and the likelihood of ...
5
votes
3answers
756 views

How could the concept of 'evidence' be defined, and how significant is it?

What is evidence, and how much of it means that a proposition is true? Does a partial / total lack of evidence mean that a proposition should be ignored? Is the concept evidence more important to ...
5
votes
2answers
382 views

Does non-empirical knowledge exist?

I think this question might be dismissed very easily, but I'd like to try to provoke a sort of blurring-the-lines idea that may be interesting. I'll start by putting two definitions here, the first ...
3
votes
3answers
2k views

If there is a difference between a priori knowledge and innate knowledge, what is it?

A priori knowledge is knowledge before or despite experience. But as such, does this not either mean or at least entail innate knowledge?
2
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2answers
153 views

We know substances by means of their accidents?

Where does Aristotle or St. Thomas Aquinas say we know substances by means of their accidents? For example: To know the substance of an apple, I first have to sense its quantity and qualities: shape, ...
8
votes
1answer
2k views

What consequences has Locke's theory of knowledge had on modern political thought?

According to John Locke's notion of tabula rasa, there are no innate ideas in the mind. All human knowledge comes from sensible experience. Assuming this principle, it follows that there is no innate ...
5
votes
1answer
317 views

What is Wittgenstein's “criterial solution” to the problem of other minds?

I'm having difficulty with the language in this article on the Problem of Other Minds. It provides 3 solutions to the epistemological problem of other minds in section 1.1 - "The Epistemological ...
4
votes
2answers
116 views

Indirect Realism – what are the main objections?

In dialog with others about philosophy, I have generally assumed that the basis of epistemology is a settled question – I. E. that the Locke/Russel/Popper approach, that our worldview is a hypothetico-...
4
votes
2answers
75 views

What relevance, if any, does collective memory in ants have to John Searle's Chinese Room argument?

In his Chinese room argument, Searle dismisses the possibility that a system of separate agents can possess collective knowledge even if the individuals don't have it. Yet, it's possible that ant ...
4
votes
2answers
174 views

What is the difference between expressivism and representationalism in modern philosophy of language?

Philosophers like Robert Brandom and Huw Price make a fairly sharp distinction between expression and representation (or at least expressivism and representationalism). Price goes so far as to ...
3
votes
3answers
436 views

Philosophers who wrote about limits of knowledge?

What if "the truth" about any concept (consciousness, reality, religion,physics, etc.), turns out to be a complex idea such that our brains can't simply process it in a single lifespan. For example, ...
3
votes
0answers
256 views

Does knowing imply knowing that you know? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Do we know whether we know something? I have come across this idea a few times now that knowing does not imply knowing that you know. However, I am having troubled ...
3
votes
2answers
424 views

When studying philosophy, is there a prioritization of primary or secondary sources/texts?

How do/did philosophers like Zizek, Cornel West, Derrida, Sartre study philosohy? Did they focus on primary sources or secondary? Both at the same time? I am currently reading a primary source and ...
2
votes
3answers
680 views

Is all knowledge dependent on culture?

Is all knowledge dependent on culture? how to define knowledge to our own perspective? if we don't exist does the knowledge disappear?
2
votes
1answer
119 views

Is there any relation between an Argument and corresponding conditional?

In my philosophy class, where we cover theory of knowledge, I leaned about Gettier problem. Gettier's counterexample to JTB is following: From A has Ford which is justified false belief, B can deduct ...
2
votes
4answers
1k views

Can a statement about the future be a 'fact'?

I am told that there will be a solar eclipse where I live next year. It is pretty well certain that it is going to happen, because eclipses can be reckoned precisely and the likelihood of anything ...
1
vote
1answer
69 views

Can we know a predicate without a subject, non-propositionally? [closed]

Can we have non-propositional knowledge, for example knowledge of a predicate without a subject? I think an example would be: only this is now, which uses indexicals. I'm asking because I wonder ...
1
vote
2answers
136 views

Why do some philosophers argue that we do not know, a priori, that something thinks?

The Cartesian argument seems to explicate the fact that I necessarily know that something thinks, and that I necessarily know that something thinks even if I don't checking the world to verify whether ...
1
vote
2answers
344 views

Are these logical arguments against the existence of a god? [closed]

Consider the two following observations... Observation 1 Randomly assigned individuals to watching a movie about death or a random movie about a very neutral subject. At the end of the movie, ask ...
1
vote
1answer
113 views

Aside from logical representations, what are other ways philosophers approach representing knowledge?

Of course different arguments can be neatly spelled out in logical symbols, but logic isn't sufficient for all kinds of knowledge. I know the issue is represented in different ontologies in the ...