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Questions tagged [knowledge]

Knowledge is a familiarity with someone or something, which can include facts, information, descriptions, or skills acquired through experience or education.

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What is considered to be unknowable?

Has anyone tried to classify what is considered to be unknowable in the physical world to define it more precisely? I can think of some basic classes of ideas and some, perhaps disputable, examples ...
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Are humans naturally good at finding patterns or is it a trained ability? [closed]

When I once looked at the triangle illusion, I wondered why I was seeing a triangle in the middle of the screen, even though it was white space. This lead me to wonder why do humans find patterns in ...
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What articles or books are currently considered canonical in the discussion of a priori knowledge and justification?

Quine's "Two Dogmas", I think, would be one. Perhaps also Putnam's "Is Logic Empirical". If you wanted to doubt the existence of a priori knowledge or justification on the basis of the apparently ...
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What is the difference between expressivism and representationalism in modern philosophy of language?

Philosophers like Robert Brandom and Huw Price make a fairly sharp distinction between expression and representation (or at least expressivism and representationalism). Price goes so far as to ...
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Philosophical arguments that “knowledge is power”?

What philosophers have argued that "knowledge is power"? What sort of arguments did they put forward?
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What is knowledge for Quine? What is the criterion for determining what knowledge is and isn't?

Quine's holism is marked by a scientific methodology. Perhaps not all beliefs in Quine's web of belief are accurate, but at its best the web consists of the refined, matured string of beliefs which ...
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References for how to build knowledge and representations from discourse

First of all I would like to say that I am asking this for a friend and I have no previous knowledge of the field so the terminology that I am using might be erroneous. Feel free to leave comments ...
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164 views

Why isn't “I am Bill” a proposition?

In fleshing out the traditional definition of omniscience, William Lane Craig distinguishes between propositional knowledge and non-propositional knowledge, claiming that to be omniscient is to know ...
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Hypothetically observable

Question: When is it appropriate to assign the property "hypothetically observable" to a thing? The set up is that someone is discussing an object that they claim has some sort of existence. Maybe ...
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What is the relation between 'knowledge-that' and 'knowledge-how'?

Quick bit of definitions for the words: Knowledge-that is knowledge that answers a question about a thing. It is informative of a thing's nature or kind. Knowledge-how is knowledge that is expressed ...
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Knowledge is a limitation

What does it mean to be constrained by Epistemology? Can I "know" something without actually experiencing it? If I am but one person do I in fact know anything? Let me provide specificity to the ...
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for Descartes, God is guarantee of truth, why do i make mistakes?

Descartes uses intellect to prove that God is the guarantee of the truth, and disproving the evil demon. But if this is true, why when i make purely intellectual reasoning, (because i can make a ...
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In what fundamental ways, if any, does Husserl break with Kant?

I've read only slim secondary works on Husserl some time ago, and recently started "The Crisis in the European Sciences." So far, the framework seems faithfully Kantian. Husserl, for example, ...
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How does a realist account for causation between universals and particulars?

With respect to universals nominalists maintain that there are no universals and only particulars exists. Conversely, realists says that there are universals. Here is a sketch of an argument against ...
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What does it mean to know something?

Humans know trees. So do squirrels. Even though their mental concept of "tree" may be very different, I think we can agree that lots of animals recognise trees and have some sort of understanding of ...
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Law of Contrapositives?

The Law of Contrapositives states that if a conditional statement is true, then it's contrapositive will also be true. I can easily see this works through example conditional statements, but why does ...
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Example of knowledge representation as a surrogate for something in the world

I've been trying to learn about knowledge representations. According to a canonical definition, a knowledge representation is: a surrogate for real-world entities an ontological commitment ...
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1answer
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Where can I find a correlation to Russell's epistemology in the Tractatus?

According to the Structure of the Tractatus, there is: 1) the ontology at the beginning; 2) "a discussion to what Russell calls epistemology, but it is actually the foundation of possible knowledge ...
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Is the concept of “fact” useful?

In an answer to my question concerning facts about the past, it was stated: "We can never be certain that any given statement is true so we can never be certain of the facts of whatever matter we are ...
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Can a statement about the past be a 'fact'?

There was an annular solar eclipse near where I used to live (about 20 years ago). It is pretty well certain that it did happen, because eclipses can be reckoned precisely and the likelihood of ...
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Can a statement about the future be a 'fact'?

I am told that there will be a solar eclipse where I live next year. It is pretty well certain that it is going to happen, because eclipses can be reckoned precisely and the likelihood of anything ...
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713 views

Is all knowledge dependent on culture?

Is all knowledge dependent on culture? how to define knowledge to our own perspective? if we don't exist does the knowledge disappear?
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What do we know absolutely? [closed]

A frequent "starter question" for Self Inquiry is: "What do you know for sure?" How would Philosophy state, without question, what we can and do know? I don't mean everything that we know, I mean, ...
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Why is “the problem of criterion” problematic?

If I understand it correctly, the problem of criterion is essentially that you can only identify knowledge if you have the criteria for knowledge, but that you can only have the criteria for knowledge ...
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Is “Truth” something like a Dirac Delta Function?

To me, Truth is simply what is the case. It is not a matter of reasoning, and it could not be otherwise. Knowledge is a set of beliefs which accord with reality (what is true). Beliefs can be false. ...
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Is Philosophy “After The Fact” knowledge? [closed]

A professor once told me that there is no way to distinguish what is true and what is false in our knowledge except to "see what happens." This seems to imply that the only true knowledge is knowledge ...
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What kind of knowledge can be gathered without testing hypotheses?

Question What is the set of conditions under which a given knowledge can or cannot be acquired without testing (statistics) hypotheses? Thoughts on different fields Below is a list and definitions (...
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Can one pursue knowledge without their own personal perspective?

In my opinion, the pursuit of knowledge is directly linked the the individual pursuing it, and their perspective is crucial in the process. However, would anyone have an argument to why an individual ...
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IF knowledge were justified true belief, then would innate knowledge be impossible?

I realize that the JTB theory of knowledge has problems, but IF it were true, then innate knowledge would be impossible, right? This seems to follow from the 'justified' portion of JTB: justification ...
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580 views

Did Kant come to believe that we have access to things-in-themselves after all?

Kant's position on things-in-themselves is often described Socratically, of them we know only one thing, that they are. However, in an old but apparently still popular history of philosophy book I ...
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'God exists and does not deceive us': Why is this necessary for memory of proofs?

Source: p 38, Think: A Compelling Introduction to Philosophy (1 ed, 1999) by Simon Blackburn Caution: I modified Blackburn's syntax and organisation to ameliorate readability; I added all numbering. ...
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Suffering, the sacred, and the sublime: what should science make of the third kind of knowledge?

Ryle and Wittgenstein carved out knowledge-how (craft) as irreducible to the traditional propositional knowledge, Ryle gave accepting the irreducibility the scary name of anti-intellectualism. SEP ...
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1answer
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How did Kant define knowledge?

A recent question about the Plato's formula K=JTB (knowledge is justified true belief) made me curious as to what Kant thought on the matter. In the prefaces and the Introduction to the first Critique ...
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320 views

Was Socrates of the belief that knowledge was attainable after death?

I've begun reading The Phaedo, wherein Socrates argues against the case of suicide. He begins by assuming that since we as men are possessions of the gods, they would be angered were one of their ...
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How is knowledge most commonly defined today?

Maybe you will say justified true belief, but some claim that it doesn't account for Gettier's, so: is there a better definition which is becoming more prominent today? Or can the JTB, perhaps with ...
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How does Husserl's “bracketing” secure a truly presuppositionless study?

I'm reading from an anthology of essays by and about Husserl (collected by Joseph Kockelmans): More specifically, Husserl makes a strong argument against some of the internal problems of various ...
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Are there any philosophers that argued for knowledge having intrinsic value?

Many (if not most) philosophers agree that knowledge has value. However, does it have intrinsic value, or is its value purely in its ability to affect things outside of the realm of knowledge? Are ...
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What is Wittgenstein's “criterial solution” to the problem of other minds?

I'm having difficulty with the language in this article on the Problem of Other Minds. It provides 3 solutions to the epistemological problem of other minds in section 1.1 - "The Epistemological ...
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Relationship between intelligence, thinking and knowledge [closed]

A quick google search defines intelligence as "the ability to acquire and apply knowledge" and thinking as "the process of considering or reasoning about something" What is the relationship between ...
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108 views

Why does Russell prohibit judgments based on knowledge by description?

I'm new to philosophy and have picked up Bertrand Russell's 'The Problems of Philosophy'. I have a question relating to the end of the chapter on 'Acquaintance and Description'. Russell states that we ...
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190 views

Do philosophical theories stay independent of scientific discoveries?

I asked a question earlier about how the Genealogy of Morals by Nietzsche had held out in terms how accurate his philosophy was, now that we know more about the emergence of the human animal. The ...
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If there is a difference between a priori knowledge and innate knowledge, what is it?

A priori knowledge is knowledge before or despite experience. But as such, does this not either mean or at least entail innate knowledge?
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Definitions of: Fact, Theory, Hypothesis, Evidence and prediction [closed]

Motivations I recently answered to this question on Biology.SE. The question asks: Is evolution a fact? Is it true that human and chimpanzee evolved from ape? In my answer I started with a tiny ...
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1answer
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Is this a transcendental philosophical question?

If I ask the question: "Is it possible to define knowledge by proving that there exists something that can't be known?" to which branch of philosophy does this question belong? Is it transcendental ...
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What is the current state of the Correspondence Theory of Truth?

Is the Correspondent Theory of Truth currently the most important way of thinking about the nature of truth? What alternatives are important? Is there a version of the Correspondent Theory of Truth ...
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101 views

Relation between an argument and false premise on Knowledge

If I argue something from a premise such as "It's raining where I wrote this question" which is contingent false, then is it true that I could argue or deduct anything? For example, from the premise ...
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4answers
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Do machine learning algorithms have knowledge?

By "machine learning algorithm" I'm referring to basic, primarily statistical, machine learning algorithms; for concrete examples consider simple classifier algorithms like SVM or Bayesian classifier ...
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Is there any relation between an Argument and corresponding conditional?

In my philosophy class, where we cover theory of knowledge, I leaned about Gettier problem. Gettier's counterexample to JTB is following: From A has Ford which is justified false belief, B can deduct ...
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Question on the duality between necessity/knowledge and possibility [closed]

(1) Who first said that necessity and possibility are dual to each other? (2) Who first said that knowledge and possibility are dual to each other?
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Difference between science knowledge and religious knowledge [closed]

Why would both educated and uneducated people believe that earthquakes are the wrath of God?