Questions tagged [logic]

For questions about logic, whether it concerns syllogistic logic, mathematical logic or the nature of logic itself.

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Is there any logical flaw in the arguments in this story between a professor and a student on the problem science has with God? [closed]

I found the following story on this site An atheist professor of philosophy speaks to his class on the problem science has with God, The Almighty. He asks one of his new students to stand ...
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1answer
145 views

What kind of definition is a definition based on a Turing-test?

Given that an extensional definition is one that defines the definienda by enumerating (partially or exhaustively) examples that belong to it (i.e. the list defines the concept), and intensional is a ...
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1answer
297 views

David Lewis' conception of properties as classes [closed]

David Lewis' conception of abundant properties which he identifies with sets/classes ("no matter how oddly defined") is not quite clear to me. Since according to this position there cannot be - in no ...
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What is the philosophical problem with Skolem's Paradox?

I guess there are two questions here. QUESTION 1: Skolem's Paradox shows that countability is relative in first-order logic, but where is the relativity? In this first question, I will do the ...
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250 views

Formal treatments for Stoic Logic

Philosophers such as Susanne Bobzien have provided work that provides a basis for axiomatising Stoic logic, however, the treatments I have seen focus on exposition of ancient works, with little ...
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Can there exist Nothing in Something? [closed]

Is it possible for Nothing to exist in Something ? e.g. if something is the whole set can nothing be an element of it ? If you take Nothing from something something remains. If nothing cannot exist ...
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508 views

Descartes's *Cogito* from a modern, rigorous perspective

In Descartes's Meditations, in order to establish a firm foundation upon which he could build a framework to determine philosophical and material truths, he begins by removing all of his then-current ...
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3answers
859 views

How do mathematical objects relate to the real world?

I am just going to give an example of what I mean using Skolem's Paradox. I DO NOT want to get into Skolem's Paradox itself or its "resolution." Skolem's showed that countability is relative in ...
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What is the best way to learn logical fallacies? [closed]

I want to learn logic better, I know a few fallacies but I've read no books mostly just stuff on the Internet. I see them everywhere, but sometimes I don't know what the fallacy is called. I am a ...
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1answer
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What is the symbol (c with a line through it)?

Can someone please advise as to the meaning of the symbol here? Please note that this is a symbol utilized in logic or possible calculations utilizing triangles (though still logical). Its not the ...
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Can the existence of God be proved from mathematics? [closed]

This question of highest importance for everybody could not be answered in MO and will not be answered in Mathematics.SE. I can understand why the set-theorists there dive and attack it like vultures. ...
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Does Cox's theorem implicitly assumes the three classic laws of thought?

I read about Cox's theorem a long time ago in "Jaynes Probability Theory: The Logic of Science". It was used to justify the so-called "logical" interpretation of probability. My impression was that ...
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797 views

Is “nothing” easy to understand? [closed]

Let's first define nothing as the absence of something. Not talking about universe here. How early on do we grasp this concept of nothing? Are there people who get old without that basic ...
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692 views

Is implying the same as asserting?

I need to understand if implying something, knowingly or unknowingly, is the same as asserting it. I also need to understand if it is merely semantics or there is a philosophical rigor to it. EDIT: ...
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Is reductio ad absurdum a valid logical proof?

It strikes me that atheists often in the religion debate will try to characterize religion in a funny or silly way, often comparing religion to belief in fairies or unicorns or flying spaghetti ...
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When given limited information, is the simplest solution that matches that information most likely correct?

Is there any basis in philosophy for the idea that when given limited information, the simplest solution that matches that information should be presumed correct or most likely to be correct? For ...
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What is Kant's argument about the relationship between logic and reason?

At Wikipedia, I read: Logic arose (see below) from a concern with correctness of argumentation. Modern logicians usually wish to ensure that logic studies just those arguments that arise from ...
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180 views

an argument about a logic question

I've had an argument with someone and I would like to know for sure if I'm right. I don't know if you have heard of the board game "Catan", it's not really important. Well, long story short, at the ...
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Can an eternal god destroy himself? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Is the definition of God consistent? (primary) also: An immovable object and an irresistible force God's paradoxes and their implications To many, at first sight, ...
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471 views

Is the notion in Hume that you cannot deduce an “ought” from “is” related to his assertion that reason must be the servant of the passions?

I hear it asserted that David Hume said one cannot deduce an "ought" from an "is". I also find it asserted that he said reason must be only the servant of the passions. I had long uncritically ...
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1answer
166 views

What is a mathematical or logical name for the process of proving a statement by exhausting the domain?

I am trying to understand logic and I came across a set of actions that I describe below that I can't get my head around. Suppose you have a bag of multiple colored balls. Situation 1. Argument: ...
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1answer
61 views

Term for a reduction to an unanticipated result

I'm looking for a term that describes the logical argument I am making. Both to just have a way to describe it and ensure that it is indeed a sound argument. Somewhat formally the argument is as ...
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314 views

Name for this illogical technique?

I recently noticed a pattern of interaction with someone. This person will start talking about something, give overly elaborate explanations that wander wildly between disconnected ideas, often using ...
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1answer
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Seemingly invalid piece of reasoning in The Republic

In the beginning of The Republic, when discussing the nature of justice, Socrates leads Polemarchus to agree with him in this line of reasoning (the numbering is mine): But let us consider this ...
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1answer
431 views

Is there a category or grouping of logical strategies that focuses on “anti-fallacious” techniques?

Original Question: I am a newbie, but am interested in some perspective here. I find it fascinating to examine and read about fallacies commonly used as techniques to gain an upper hand in debate. ...
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187 views

Human in Outer space [closed]

Is it true that human in outer space can't differ right side and left side? Around human no another solid. Thanks.
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Do we need reason for “Not Doing” something? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Does a negative claimant have a burden of proof? I have always wondered if NOT doing something requires reason like doing something does. As an example, do you think the ...
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303 views

How to distinguish premise in an argument

I am studying a logic text book and there is the following example which I don't get: Because I had decided, right off, that I liked John, what I heard in his answer was toughness and ...
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1answer
310 views

Underlying logical structure behind Descartes' Ontological argument?

Quoting SEP: Version A: Whatever I clearly and distinctly perceive to be contained in the idea of something is true of that thing. I clearly and distinctly perceive that necessary ...
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When can we call an explanation “rational”?

There are a lot of questions involving rational judgment, rational choice, rational explanation, etc... And at the same time, it seems that "being rational" is a guiding principle for a lot of people. ...
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Where is the weakness in the ontological proof for God's existence?

I read the ontological proof for God's existence. As much as I understood, it says that if you consider that existence is part of essence, then the most complete essence should also exist. Now, I see ...
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166 views

There must be a reason we were given reason, no? [closed]

Let's assume that God created man for no reason, that there was no purpose (or goal or plan) to our general being. If there was no overall purpose to our being, then the only thing we can say about ...
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Falsifiability, facts, opinions, and tautologies

Wikipedia says: In the same way, "all men are mortal" is unfalsifiable: even if someone is observed who has not died so far, he could still die in the next instant. By contrast, "all men are ...
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Entailment/Presupposition in if-clause [closed]

In our semantics class we were arguing about the exercise 3.(7) from page 33 in Chierchia et al.: What relationship holds between the sentences in the following example?: a) "If John discovers that ...
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Logical NOT of an Implication [closed]

How could you write NCpq in terms of moving the negation inside the conditional and keeping the conditional? The question got posed here originally by someone else. I can't post there at the moment, ...
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Are there any potential flaws in the definition of validity as “provable or falsifiable”?

I have made an argument in another thread that a proposition must be provable or falsifiable to be valid. Are there any flaws in this definition of validity? What might be a potential counter-argument ...
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What is the sense of the phrase “(no) fact of the matter about/as to”?

Could someone explain to me what exactly is meant by the phrase "fact of the matter about" (or "no fact of the matter about")? Another variant is: "(no) fact of the matter as to". In some cases, ...
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Does it make sense to think that algorithms can be specified only for all that which is manmade? [closed]

I've been asking myself the following question over and over again: can one write an algorithm (a series of steps for solving a problem) for something that came about through a process that is at ...
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Is it possible to deny that affirming a logical contradiction implies every possible proposition?

I find myself aligned with the motivation behind paraconsistent logic, they seem to me reason enough to warrant an attempt to structure logical systems which deny logical explosion. It does seem very ...
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671 views

Hempel's ravens (the confirmation paradox) [closed]

While taking a group of benefactors on a tour through the new aviary they had just helped to build, a noted ornithologist commented, "And here we have two of the finest examples of ravens that I have ...
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796 views

What does Hegel mean by “Quality”?

In the Science of Logic, Hegel initially presents quality as existent determinateness. He further distinguishes two modes of determining quality in accordance with the moments of existence: ...
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Is the argument that a claim is “too strange to be made up” an appeal to logos or pathos?

When someone tries to persuade you of the truth of something they said and they use the argument that it is too strange to be made up (or any variations of this, such as "too complicated to be fiction"...
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Is reductionism the primary means of logical analysis in analytic philosophy?

I was reading a philosophical article about analytic philosophy and I saw the claim: Russell and many philosophers influenced by him asserted that complex statements can be reduced to simple ...
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What's an intuition for material implication?

The paradoxes of material implication show that the usual interpretation of implication as "if ... then" statements leads to counter-intuitive results. For example, from (P & Q) -> R we can ...
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An immovable object and an irresistible force [closed]

If an immovable object is an object that cannot be moved no matter what and an irresistible force can move anything, what would happen if an irresistible force is used on the immovable object?
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What is an 'argumentum ad baculum'? [closed]

I've seen philosophical arguments descriped as 'argumentum ad baculum', but never quite understood what the criticism is trying to indicate. As best I can tell, it's using force or the threat of force ...
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God's paradoxes and their implications [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Is the definition of God consistent? As many of you, I've come across a few paradoxes of all sorts, from logic to math, linguistics and so forth. Some of such involve God or, ...
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What is an 'argumentum ad lapidem'? [closed]

I've seen philosophical arguments descriped as 'argumentum ad lapidem', but never quite understood what the criticism is trying to indicate. As best I can tell, it's a dismissal of an argument with ...
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What is a “straw man” argument? [closed]

What is a "straw man" argument? Assuming an interlocutor is utilizing such an argument against you, what are some techniques for countering it? What motivations might lie behind a disputant using a ...