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Questions tagged [logical-positivism]

The philosophical view that only statements verifiable either logically or empirically would be cognitively meaningful.

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Is Karl Popper's falsificationism self-refuting?

I am referring here not to falsification as a tool used to judge if something is good science, but rather to judge the meaning of statements such as "God exists". Suppose that Flew's parable ...
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Why did Ayer consider every existential proposition synthetic?

....For, since existence is not a predicate, to assert that an object exists is always to assert a synthetic proposition.... What about math objects? If I say that the triangle with two angles exists,...
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Why did the logical positivists “reject metaphysics”?

True, my question is roughly identical to this one Did early analytic philosophers reject metaphysics? , yet I don’t find the answers fulfilling. I have done some light reading on logical empiricism. ...
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Statements about emotions

I have a quote from Ayer's "Language, truth and logic": If now I generalize my previous statement and say, ‘Stealing money is wrong,’ I produce a sentence which has no factual meaning – ...
Егор Галыкин's user avatar
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Ayer's denying of synthetic ostensive propositions

Let us suppose that I assert the proposition ‘This is white’, and my words are taken to refer, not, as they normally would, to some material thing, but to a sense-content. Then what I am saying about ...
Егор Галыкин's user avatar
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Ayer's criticism on Hume's definition of causation

He thus laid the way open for the view, which we adopt, that every assertion of a particular causal connexion involves the assertion of a causal law, and that every general proposition of the form ‘C ...
Егор Галыкин's user avatar
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Why wasn't Ayer satisfied with Hume's definition of causation?

He thus laid the way open for the view, which we adopt, that every assertion of a particular causal connexion involves the assertion of a causal law, and that every general proposition of the form ‘C ...
Егор Галыкин's user avatar
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Factual and linguistic propositions

This is from "Language, truth and logic": A good example of linguistically necessary proposition which appears to be a record of empirical fact is the proposition, ‘Relations are not ...
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Symbols and Signs by A.J. Ayer

This is from Ayer's "Language, truth and logic": A factor which complicates the structure of a language such as English is the prevalence of ambiguous symbols. A symbol is said to be ...
Егор Галыкин's user avatar
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Signs and symbols in "Language, truth and logic"

"A factor which complicates the structure of a language such as English is the prevalence of ambiguous symbols. A symbol is said to be ambiguous when it is constituted by signs which are ...
Егор Галыкин's user avatar
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Does Austrian logical positivism have anything to see with Comte's positivism?

Does Austrian logical positivism have anything to see with Comte's positivism? I never saw any direct relation between the two, but the two have the same term in their name, and I don't understand why....
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Positivism in search for truth

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Positivism The notion that scientific theories must be tested experimentally is fundamental to the doctrine of positivism, which also requires that theories must always ...
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Is this a more unequivocal way to make an analytic v synthetic distinction?

NEW UPDATE: An analytic expression x is redefined as any expression of language verified as completely true (or false) entirely on the basis that x (or ~x) is derived by applying truth preserving ...
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Why do people hide the assumption contained in the philosophical zombies question/idea?

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy article called "Zombies" https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/zombies/ makes no mention of an assumption that seems to be hidden in the famous ...
Matthew Christopher Bartsh's user avatar
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Is there a name for when someone asserts something can't happen because it hasn't happened to them?

Recently on Twitter someone posted CCTV footage of a man leaving a launderette then one second later a drier explodes taking out the front of the building and the door he just left by, followed by ...
Sim Wood's user avatar
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Why did phenomenalism fall out of favour in analytic philosophy?

Modern analytic philosophy proposes various reductionist projects to reduce phenomenal terms (like redness e.t.c) into physical terms (like neural-states, functional states e.t.c) such as for example, ...
katten elvis's user avatar
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Is the unlearned nature of language a la Chomsky a way back into logical empiricist epistemology?

***I'm struggling to erect the supports of this question because of lack of knowledge, I hope that it makes sense and is useful and appropriate for this site. I'm hoping there's a form of logical ...
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The Vienna Circle and metaphysics

The Vienna Circle opposed to metaphysics. This is exposed in depth in Carnape's paper "'Überwindung der Metaphysik durch Logische Analyse der Sprache' in Erkenntnis, vol. 2, 1932 (English ...
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Is there such a thing as a moral statement?

Logical positivists, notably A.J. Ayer, have stated that there is no such thing as a moral statement. In his example, saying the words "you acted wrongly in stealing that money" are ...
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According to Logical Positivism, why is it that for a statement to be meaningful, its contradiction must also be meaningful?

I am trying to understand the argument for the supposedly paradoxical nature of the verifiability criterion. The argument goes as follows: Suppose that the principle of verifiability is itself ...
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Did logical positivists consider subjective statements verifiable?

Did logical positivists consider subjective statements such as "I like this cake" verifiable and therefore meaningful? Or did they consider that verificationism doesn't apply to claims of ...
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The relationship between Rationalism and logic

Here is an excerpt from the book An Introduction to Philosophy by Russ W. Payne (2015) which is causing me some confusion. Mathematics had long served as the rationalist’s paradigm case of knowledge ...
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Confidence margin for logical verification

I'm starting to read Wittgenstein and I keep circling around a problem, which I'll lay out with the following ideas: a. Logical space is the totality of external reality. b. A proposition is logical ...
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What are the "Simples" Wittgenstein discusses in Philosophical Investigations?

I first came across this term in §39 of Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations, wherein he writes [O]ne is tempted to make an objection against what is ordinarily called a name. It can be put ...
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What's the role of logic in logical positivism?

I'm reading up on a bit of the ideas of logical positivism. It seems that the main components were the distinction of synthetic and analytic statements, and the verification principle. Without giving ...
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Deductive reasoning & conditionals

What would be a good example of explicit deductive reasoning that doesn't seem to be possibly interpreted correctly as a conditional (If A, then B)?
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Collaborative work between Linguists and Computer Language designers to help fix the English Language

Is there work being done to help remove all the ambiguities and loose meaning of the English language by using low to mid level computer programming languages (avoiding more recent "high level" ...
Abercrombie Dorfen's user avatar
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Is Karl Popper a logical positivist?

Logical positivism is an important Western philosophy with a central idea of verification; the doctrine that all knowledge about matters of fact stems from and relies on sensory experience and remains ...
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Wittgenstein on Mechanics

Can someone explain what Wittgenstein was trying to say in Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus ? Specifically propositions 6.341-6.343. What does he mean when he says that a system like Newtonian Mechanics ...
Madhav Nair's user avatar
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How exactly Wittgenstein "inspired two schools of thought [logical positivism/logical empiricism and analytic/linguistic movement/Cambridge School]"?

In the page 527 of von Wright's Ludwig Wittgenstein, A Biographical Sketch in The Philosophical Review, Vol. 64, No. 4 (Oct., 1955), he tells: It has been said that Wittgenstein inspired two ...
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What are the accomplishments of critical theory vs. logical positivism

Coming from a natural science viewpoint, I find that logical positivism is much more important for scientific research than is critical theory. I've read the critics/flaws of logical positivism, and ...
CuriousIndeed's user avatar
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Is it possible to dissolve the hard problem of consciousness?

In the positivist tradition, it is common to “dissolve” certain ideas as being meaningless, and not worth further consideration. The statements corresponding to those elements of our mental experience,...
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In what way did the "Logical Positivist' movement influence contemporary Analytical Academic Philosophy? [closed]

Rudolf Carnap and the Vienna Circle made a concerted effort to 'move' Philosophy away from its traditional focus on 'speculative' metaphysics by establishing a regimen of scientific rigor within the ...
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Hilary Putnam's criticism of Carnap's 'Principle of Tolerance'

I am left quite confused at how Hilary Putnam showed that Carnap's response to the self-defeating objection of the verification principle was circular and hence unviable. Can anybody help explain it ...
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What does it mean to say that the relation between evidence and hypotheses is "syntactic"?

Positivists construe the relation between evidence and hypotheses to be syntactic (L1990, 23). Consequently, "what would count as evidence for a hypothesis is determined by the form of the ...
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A question on logical positivism and pragmatism with regards to meaning of a statement

‘Despite all its weaknesses, democracy is still the best form of government compared with all other forms of government that have been tried in human history.’ Which of the following is False ...
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Why can we not reduce necessity to analyticity?

Why can’t we eliminate talk of necessity and possible worlds, for talk of analyticity and (non-modal) logical consistency? Has there been any attempt in recent times to do this? I'm not 100% sure, but ...
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How can I use logical positivism in the philosophy of education?

Logical Positivism is a teacher centered philosophy that rejects intuition, matters of mind, essences, and inner causes. This philosophy relies on laws of matter and motion as valid, and bases truth ...
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How can I apply logical positivism in the philosophy of education?

How can I apply logical positivism in the philosophy of education? How would I use logical positivism to explore why teachers teach (objectives), what should be taught (curriculum) and how should ...
Quaine's user avatar
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Do logically incoherent statements still have meaning?

My reading of Carnap's "The Elimination of Metaphysics Through Logical Analysis of Language" suggests to me that it is possible to form sentences in a language that are grammatically correct but ...
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What is the distinction between positivism and logical positivism?

I've heard that positivism aimed to be purely empirical, while logical positivism recognised that empiricism needed to be combined with logic in order to actually be able to figure out anything. Is ...
Casebash's user avatar
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The effect of logical empiricism in research and education?

My teacher told to me that "logical empiricism" aborted the research and science. logical empiricism want to remove metaphysics from the science and built a "pure science". But that was an mistake and ...
Sed Ali's user avatar
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1 answer
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Logical positivism on religious language

I was searching for an essay on logical positivists’ view of religious language but I can't seem to find any good one. Can someone point out to me some links related to this?
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Sufficient & necessary conditions for singular and general statements

In David Rynin's 1956 address to the American Philosophical Association, "Vindication of L*G*C*L P*S*T*V*SM", he remarks upon the "tenuous logical relationship" between a general statement, "For any ...
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What is the relationship between Scientism and Logical Positivism?

I always assumed that Scientism was just the layman's version of Logical Positivism. Scientism is the view that the natural sciences are the only source of factual knowledge about the world, ...
Alexander S King's user avatar
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2 answers
336 views

What does later Wittgenstein and earlier Wittgenstein have in common?

Wittgenstein, while previously advocating a picture theory of semantics, later came to revoke his support of this position. But did Wittgenstein still hold on to certain ideas of his old school? ...
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Rudolf Carnap's opinion about free will

I know that the logical positivists thought that many old philosophical questions are meaningless, but I never found a source on the internet about their position on free will. So what was their ...
JonnyPython's user avatar
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3 answers
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Who/what was Horkheimer referring to when he said that "Reason, in destroying conceptual fetishes, ultimately destroyed itself."?

In his 1941 Paper "The End of Reason", Max Horkheimer states the following: Reason, in destroying conceptual fetishes, ultimately destroyed itself. On one hand, he seems to be referring the ...
Alexander S King's user avatar
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Why do old theories take priority over new ones?

Given two scientific theories that both agree with experiment, it seems that unless the new one is much simpler, the older one is accepted. Why is this so? Examples: Special Relativity wasn't ...
Christopher King's user avatar
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Is existentialism philosophy?

I believe that philosophy is defined by its method, which is based on logical analysis. It is not merely any discipline that investigates the world's conditions and the meaning of life. To be a ...
Jeremy Hadfield's user avatar