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Questions tagged [metaphysics]

Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the essence of things, of the fundamental nature of being and the world and the principles that organize the universe. Metaphysics is supposed to answer the question "What is the nature of reality?"

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Can anyone provide an argument against astralphysical dualism that is not reductionist materialist, purely physicalist/supportive of physicalism?

In one of my recent literary works, I have chosen to posit an advance of the concept of dualism, via coining the term astralphysical dualism. This concept requires understandings of three root terms: ...
Sebastianjoseph333's user avatar
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Revisiting Nietzsche and Scheler's Philosophies of Ressentiment

One often hears Nietzsche's views on ressentiment cited, but I contend that they are resentful. Nietzsche considered ressentiment as a central theme of his philosophy describing it as feelings of ...
Paradox Lost's user avatar
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is there any inconsistancy if i claim thing-in-itselmselves are giving our mind "causality"?

i'm simply testing this out the "problem of affection" in kant happens because kant says causality is an apriori knowledge can't we just say, thing-in-itself gives us "causality" ...
Parsa Fakhar's user avatar
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1 answer
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Is Aquinas's "act is the principle of action" a tautology?

In Summa Contra Gentiles II.6.7, Aquinas suddenly claims that "act is the principle of action" (actus autem actionis principium est). Is this phrase supposed to be a definition of act? Or a ...
Doubt's user avatar
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Is Heidegger's Dasein Free or Destined?

While Heidegger's Dasein seeks to redefine the human subject in terms of being-in-the-world, does he fully break away from Husserl's subjectivity and lebenswelt? In his detailed study Not Saved, Peter ...
Paradox Lost's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
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On the self being a relative or absolute entity?

I'm trying to understand various views on the self. Descartes: The self is an absolute entity Hume: The self is a relative entity Nagarjuna(?): The self is neither an absolute nor a relative entity I'...
More Anonymous's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
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Where in Aristotle's Metaphysics is Aquinas citing his claim about "two sorts of operations"?

In the beginning of book II of Aquinas's Summa Contra Gentiles, Aquinas writes Now the operation of a thing is twofold, as the Philosopher teaches in 9 Metaphysics ... A footnote is provided which ...
Doubt's user avatar
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Problem of Affection in Kant's Thing in themselves as Causes, Neo Kantians and Post Kantians Responses

We all know "the problem of affection" raised by Schulze: "if causality is apriori structure of the mind and exist inside the mind, how can we claim thing-in-themselves cause phenomena ...
Parsa Fakhar's user avatar
3 votes
4 answers
123 views

What are some logically equivalent formulations of “uniqueness”?

A monoid is a mathematical structure with an associative law of composition and an identity element. It can be proven that if an element of a monoid has an inverse, then the inverse is unique: Assume ...
Julius Hamilton's user avatar
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12 answers
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Negation of "I think therefore I am"?

My idea is to assign a truth value to this statement of Descartes. However, if I apply a negation I should get a false value to its negation and equally non-trivial. So the negation could be: "I ...
More Anonymous's user avatar
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1 answer
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How is the logos of a well-functioning entity related to that entity's telos?

The question I'm asking is essentially how the formal cause of an entity is related to its final cause, though I'd also appreciate feedback on whether these questions are the same. From what I know, ...
john-nazianzen's user avatar
5 votes
3 answers
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Idealization and Abstraction of Space

I found myself pondering about space and realized that aside from the general notion of dimension (that being the minimum number of coordinates needed to specify an entity in the space under ...
Max Maxman's user avatar
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1 answer
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Does all the existence have a will to remain existing? [closed]

First of all: i am a layman. Body/bodies: Material Being/Has mass and volume And what i mean by the title: Everything that exists (that is composed by any chemical element) has the will/determination ...
Augosto's user avatar
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Static Eternity Model (SEM) - Thoughts, Ideas and Criticism?

I would welcome any thoughts, ideas and criticism on the following hypothesis/thought experiment, especially if you notice inconsistencies or that it contradicts current physical theories: Static ...
JustPassingThrough's user avatar
5 votes
6 answers
679 views

What's the difference between saying everything is made from mental substance and everything is made from physical substance?

Today it occurred to me that, to me, mental and physical content only really seem different when co-existing. But let's say everything is made of mental content: You're saying the mind and physical ...
edelex's user avatar
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On the simultaneity of cause and effect?

So I understand the physicists framing of casuality as follows: given an initial value of a system, say a cart on a piece of land. I add a fictitious (and privileged) initial condition, say a push. ...
More Anonymous's user avatar
1 vote
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Symbolic logic and that which cannot be commited to language? [closed]

Imagine I have a one to many mapping function. Whatever x is it maps it to all other elements except x. So if I have x=1 then it maps it to every number except 1. Now, I claim this is nothing but the &...
More Anonymous's user avatar
2 votes
3 answers
103 views

What does the essence of anything matter, if its effect is the same?

This came to me as a generalization of another question: What does the algorithm matter, if the input-output game plus performance is the same? And lead me to a rabbit hole of following philosophical ...
retrospace's user avatar
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1 answer
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Are all the “needs and wants” of the universe already thought of?

Technology is always progressing and science appears to be bottomless. But is there a limit to the needs and wants of a living being? Our ancient ancestors weren’t that much different than us. I’m ...
Max's user avatar
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what is difference between "trumping preemption," "preemption," and "not trumping"?

I'm reading Lewis's paper "Causation as Influence," and I understand the example of the Major-Sergeant command as a case of trumping preemption, while the example of Suzy and Billy throwing ...
유준상's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
130 views

What do you think about all existence following the very same laws? [closed]

So, i was wondering: Planets, Stars, etc. Have a similar behavior to us, humans. I mean, they consume energy to stay "alive" and when this energy ends up they "die". And in the end ...
Augosto's user avatar
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why necessary being is at least one?

some one answered this but I could not wrap my mind on it. He said The identity of multiple necessary beings will depend upon their distinction from one another. Both of them will then be contingent ...
Moha Moha's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
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Kantian Subjectivism Contradiction?

Kant rendered the judgments of reason as subjective, neither narrating nor accurately reflecting the reality of things. "We only sense from external objects, thus perception does not express ...
Sam's user avatar
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6 votes
4 answers
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Is there an infinite number of logic systems?

Is there an infinite number of logic systems? To answer that question you need to determine what the lego blocks are. To my knowledge, the only lego blocks that exist that make up logic systems are ...
Sayaman's user avatar
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4 votes
6 answers
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Ground vs justification?

I'm wondering if there is a technical distinction I've been missing between 'ground' and 'justification' in philosophy. If I say that my true belief is 'grounded', isn't that the same as saying that ...
John Smith's user avatar
5 votes
4 answers
186 views

Certainty for the existence of tomorrow?

The title might not be the best but it was the best I could do. The question presses on the matter of continuity of time and the necessity of existence as a connected metaphysical phenomena. Just like ...
How why e's user avatar
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1 answer
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Is understanding nothing the answer to everything [closed]

Is the philosophy of nothing still in serious debate somehow/somewhere?. As a concept of the existence of "stuff". I always come quickly to the conclusion that because something is now ...
Bryan Major's user avatar
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1 answer
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Wittgenstein and the primary elements

What does it mean to say that we can attribute neither being nor non-being to the elements? One might say: if everything that we call “being” and “non-being” consists in the obtaining and non-...
Егор Галыкин's user avatar
8 votes
6 answers
782 views

What do we mean when we ask "What's the – fundamental – nature of reality?" [duplicate]

This is a very popular question within metaphysics and I'd like to understand what do we are really mean with the question. In particular, what do we mean when we use the words "fundamental" ...
Jon's user avatar
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Distinction between classical essential (primary) and non-essential (secondary) properties of matter vs. modern primary-secondary qualities?

Primary qualities according to modernity (Galileo, Descartes, Hobbes) are qualities that are quantitative/mathematical. Everything else cannot be reduced to mathematics—e.g., a sensible is a secondary ...
ashadow4u's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
59 views

How does mathematical atomism do away with the classical conception of man?

I've been reading E.A. Burtt, The Metaphysical Foundations of Modern Science. I keep going back to Galileo and his idea of motion, space, and time. I still can't internalize what he means by man ...
ashadow4u's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
35 views

What are the main terms and their (relatively) proper definitions that a beginner in metaphysics/philosophy should know of?

I've recently come across many intelligent individuals in the field of metaphysics. Their intellectual prowess impressed me; since their field of expertise informs all other fields, they demonstrated ...
ashadow4u's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
79 views

Are quantifiers metaphysically ineluctable?

I am starting to realize that quantifiers are a very deep topic that I must study on their own. A simple idea of a quantifier is that it determines a quantity of some thing. If I have a collection of ...
Julius Hamilton's user avatar
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1 answer
50 views

Whether under Thomistic metaphysics the human embryo (which not a human being) and the later fetus (which is a human being) are one or two entities

In Summa Theologica a human being is a biologically human body with a rational soul. An early human embryo is not a human being. At some point when the fetus is sufficiently developed God creates a ...
MichalRyszardWojcik's user avatar
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4 answers
241 views

Does any strand, school, or proponent of moral realism say anything about what happens to moral offenders?

Suppose that: (some form of) moral realism is true, that is, there exists at least some moral claims/assertions/principles that are themselves 'true', in some adequate sense a person knows/is aware ...
ac15's user avatar
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3 votes
5 answers
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Do brute facts exist, and if so, how can we tell if a given fact is brute or requires further explanation?

In contemporary philosophy, a brute fact is a fact that cannot be explained in terms of a deeper, more "fundamental" fact. There are two main ways to explain something: say what "...
Mark's user avatar
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What inconsistencies arise from a first, or uncaused cause?

If it's uncaused it didn't begin, but then if it causes something, that itself couldn't begin thus the effect must have been coexisting. If it's uncaused, it means it can't be reached via external ...
Myers Hertz's user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
2k views

Can the laws of physics and the constants of nature exist in a fundamental sense without mathematical realism?

Can the laws of physics and fundamental constants of nature exist without fundamental mathematical constants, operators, and equations also existing? In other words, can there be fundamental physical ...
Mark's user avatar
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How can immaterial soul exist without matter but immaterial redness can't?

So as the title says Aristotle and Aquinas held that soul which is substantial form of living things can exist even after separation from body. This is because soul is taken as immaterial substantial ...
Vihan 's user avatar
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0 answers
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Can every idea including mathematical ideas be reduced to a series of simpler idea without information loss?

Can every idea including mathematical ideas be reduced to a series of simpler idea without information loss? You would naturally think this is the case since most ideas could be explained using a ...
Sayaman's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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Derivation of Davidson's Slingshot Argument in Standard FOL

Davidson's slingshot argument employs two principles: Equivalence: If two sentences are logically equivalent, then they correspond to the same fact. Co-reference: Substituting co-referring terms ...
zzz's user avatar
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1 answer
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Why things don't happen all at once?

Why was there a time between Big Bang and now? Why it did not happen all at once? Why is there a delay between two changes? Why delay (time) exists? Why are not all changes compressed into extremely ...
Alexa's user avatar
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15 votes
15 answers
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Is the surprising applicability of mathematics to the physical world a brute fact, or something crying out for a theistic explanation?

William Lane Craig proposed the following argument for God's existence: For those who are unfamiliar with the argument for God from the applicability of mathematics to the physical world, here is a ...
Mark's user avatar
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0 votes
2 answers
74 views

Is there a study on logic and what is possible within a logical system?

People use logic to determine what's possible within our worlds, but is there a field of study that studies what's possible within a logical system? So instead of using logic to determine what's ...
Sayaman's user avatar
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Leibniz's Best of All Possible Worlds and the Divine Right of Monarchies

In my Modern European Philosophy class, we briefly talked about Leibniz's theodicy and his idea that the actual world is the best world that God could have created and the PSR as it pertains to God. I ...
Musical Taco's user avatar
6 votes
7 answers
796 views

Is physicalism the simplest worldview in terms of the complexity of its ontology? [closed]

Does physicalism enjoy the simplest ontology among all worldviews? Are there alternative conceivable views of reality with a simpler ontology than physicalism's that can explain the same data? For ...
Mark's user avatar
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0 votes
2 answers
99 views

Constructing an infinite interval with a definite starting point given an infinite past [duplicate]

I had a question regarding constructing an infinite interval with a starting point given an an infinite past. I wish to model an infinite past in a non-formal non-rigorous set theoretic manner and was ...
AminGow's user avatar
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4 votes
4 answers
119 views

Is there anything continuous within a "time-slice" of experience?

This is a problem with which I have genuinely been struggling for some time. Unfortunately, it is not a "mainstream" problem, and could be misconstrued as a development of my own mind, but I ...
DanielFBest's user avatar
3 votes
3 answers
442 views

How can quantum field theory contribute to clarifying the ontological nature of objects, mereologically?

How can physics, particularly Quantum Field Theory (QFT), contribute to clarifying the ontological nature of objects, in light of different mereological positions such as mereological nihilism, ...
Marco Fabbri's user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
84 views

According to Aristotle are actions substances?

Actions can have qualities and be subjects, like when we say "walking is good for health". Would Aristotle say that actions are substances?
Marco Disce's user avatar

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