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Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the essence of things, of the fundamental nature of being and the world and the principles that organize the universe. Metaphysics is supposed to answer the question "What is the nature of reality?"

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Why am I this particular person?

Some philosophers dismiss this as a question about a tautology: when Alice asks "Why am I Alice?", this is equivalent to her asking "Why is Alice Alice?", which is not an interesting question. But ...
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Is there a limit beyond which mathematics, if used correctly, cannot be applied to reality?

And if so, why, and which? Take this case: If I've two apples and I believe that with two more I'll have four apples, then I implicitly believe that summation applies to reality. Yet there are ...
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Does it matter possessing knowledge about the Universe if it is going to end?

To be specific, I'm referring to physical reality. Moreover, this question might seem awkward at first glimpse. Well, it does not appear that there are any meaningful relations between the end of the ...
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If the Universe(s) didn't exist, Would all maths still exist?

Many scientists say that maths transcends creation, the future, it exists for all time. For example the Mandelbrot is just an equation that can still exist when the universe goes cold. Because I don'...
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Is perception of time completely subjective?

I know that if you are into an interesting activity time seems to pass very quickly, whereas the opposite happens when you're bored, but that's not what I'm asking. Imagine conducting an experiment ...
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“Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics” - any future metaphysics except Kant's?

The title to one of Kant's most famous books is "Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics That Will Be Able to Present Itself as a Science", where he presents the outlines of his metaphysical theory ...
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Good resources for philosophers to learn more about quantum mechanics?

It is easy to find high-level descriptions of the implications of quantum mechanics, but they always seem a bit handwavy to me, or at least it is hard to know whether those interpretations are really ...
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If we imagine a world that functions without causality, how absurd could it be?

If we assume that there's a universe that is devoid of causality, and if we assume that it isn't eternally static, would that mean that everything can happen because there are no reasons inhibiting ...
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Can the principle of sufficient reason be applied to the whole of existence?

Many philosophers (Leibniz and Heidegger, to name but two) consider "Why is there something rather than nothing" the most difficult and important question. Given that "nothing" is a possibility among ...
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Is there an idea of non-spatial reality in philosophy?

Our world is spatial: in particular there are 3 dimensions and we can measure lengths of objects in either of them. However, when thinking about metaphysics I came to the conclusion that there might ...
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Time - Does the Big Crunch mean our existence would be cyclical?

Given Nietzsche's Eternal Return philosophy, would the Big Crunch mean that our existence is cyclical, and therefore coincide with Eternal Return philosophy?
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If time is going to end, then did it have a beginning? How do we know time will end?

Why do most physicists believe time is finite? What proof do we have that time is not infinite and therefore will never end? And how can 'time' actually come into existence if something coming into ...
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Philosophy - If Space and Time are infinite and therefore infinite copies of us would end up existing, then wouldn't we still be gone after we die?

I have a question pondering in my head that if Space and Time are infinite, then does that mean that Nietzsche's Eternal Return theory is true in the way that my life would recur that when 'I' ('I' ...
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Philosophy - Is Nietzsche's Eternal Return theory true?

Is Nietzsche's Eternal Return theory true? I am extremely worried that it is because of the very likely fact that Einstein's Block Universe theory is true, and what renders Einstein's Block Universe ...
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Philosophy - Does Einstein's Block Universe theory prove Nietzsche's Eternal Return theory is true?

If the Past, Present, and Future all exist in exactly the same way, then every single moment would be a ‘Now’ moment for me. it would also mean that me being dead in the future is equally real in the ...
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Philosophy - If both the Rebound Universe and Block Universe theories are true would that mean Nietzsche's Eternal Return theory true?

If the Block Universe is true, and if the Rebound Universe is also true where the universe goes from Big Crunch to Big bang then doesn't that mean that the Block Universe is shaped like a circle where ...
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Are all pancomputationalist models for the universe compatible with informational realism?

Pancomputationalist theories are a group of physical theories that try to describe the universe itself as a computer or an informational (processing) structure. Informational (structural) realism is ...
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Philosophy - Does the block universe theory of time mean that life will repeat after death?

I have suffered severe anxiety, sadness, regret, and depression since I was 13, I had 2 trapped-feeling panic attacks when I was 13 I am now 17 and fighting off frequent urges to have a trapped-...
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Without the concept of nothing, would you even know you exist?

Suppose person X lacks the concept nothing. Suppose, now, whether it would be possible for them to know they exist. By that I mean whether they know they, as a subject, exist. For to make the claim ...
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Is metaphysics completely subjective?

A little bit of background: As some of you may have noticed, my main interest in philosophy is of metaphysics. I've studied philosophy in a very postmodern environment; but contra to the people ...
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What are the logical fallacies of this argument?

SCIENTIFIC FACT: Nothing in the universe, ceases to exist, it just appears in some other form. LOGICAL FACT: We can be absolutely sure that what we experience right now, exists. Let's mark ...
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Did Tesla hold an absolute idealist philosophy?

I recently found a rather interesting paper (letter?) from Nikola Tesla called "Man's Greatest Achievement", in which appears the following paragraph: Long ago he recognized that all perceptible ...
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Does Kant consider extendedness metaphysically (analytic) a priori?

In Kant's famous division between a priori vs a postriori, and synthetic vs analytic, Kant's example for a priori analytic proposition is: All bodies are extended. Without immediately delving ...
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Metaphysical substrate and the Judeo-Christian legacy

Is the idea of a metaphysical substrate, of stories, meaningful? I have been listening to some talks by Jordan Peterson, and it seems he posits this idea of a metaphysical substrate as counterpoint to ...
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Can a physicalist be also realist about mathematical objects?

Is it possible to believe that mathematical objects enjoy some kind of mind-independent existence while holding physicalism? And if they are mind-dependent, should one embrace constructivism ...
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Is Deductive Reasoning Alien to the Material World?

A quick survey of literature: Goel V. Anatomy of deductive reasoning. Trends Cogn Sci. 2007 Oct https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2685028/ García-Madruga JA, Gutiérrez F, ...
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Does Plato’s theory of forms entail a kind of essentialism? Discuss [closed]

One of the questions asked in a paper I gave on philosophy, although I understand a bit of essentialism(based on what i read after facing the question in exam). I'd like to know the view of people who ...
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How did Aristotle arrive at the definition of substance/ousia?

In Aristotle's terminology, ousia, or substance, is that which is the subject of predication, but never itself predicated of anything. This is a highly technical definition; I don't expect it reflects ...
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Why is ousia translated as substance? Should it be?

From Aristotle's Metaphysics, translation Reeve 2016, Z1: What is being?---is just the question, What is substance? This statement is a lot more obvious in Greek: Ousia is a noun formed from ...
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What created the universe?

If nothing can come from nothing and the universe, and therefore all matter and energy, cannot be eternal according to the second law of thermodynamics, does this necessitate the existence of a non ...
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Philosophies that suggest that thoughts have an existence beyond their physical realization

I'm a beginner at Philosophy, and I'm trying to categorize this metaphysical belief: "Thoughts are thought by humans, but continue to exist, interact with other ideas, and exert power in some sort ...
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Bruno Latour on the globe

How do you understand what Bruno Latour means when he says, "The globe is not actually something which has any existence." at 46:59 https://t.co/CVgYmUHxsi and, "the destruction of the image of the ...
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Is nothing an entity?

An entity cannot not be and the definition of nothing is not being. Can we include "nothing" among the abstract entities or should we differentiate nuances of nothing, eg. the mathematical nothing, ...
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Was Descartes the first one to approach metaphysics epistemologically?

In his method Descartes approaches the questions of the first philosophy, i.e. metaphysics, via the method of doubt. One could say that he has an epistemological approach, by first asking what he can ...
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How can inanimate matter provide subjective experiences

We know that a long time ago life emerged from a bunch of amino acids. When I look at the world around me, I notice that it is made up mostly of inanimate matter. Yet this same inanimate matter must ...
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A clarification related to Saul Kripke's argument for posteriori necessity

Main argument for a posteriori necessity uses these premises: (P1) 'Hesperus' is a proper name that refers to the evening star. 'Phosphorus' is also a proper name and it refers to the morning star. ...
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Is Kant's postulate of the existence of God a metaethical assumption?

Also, I would like to get some bibliographical reference about Kantian metaethics.
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PSR and intelligibility

"Everything is intelligible" Jacques Maritain From a thomistic point of view and given the doctrine of transcendentals, it seems that everything is intelligible (PSR formulation). But from the fact ...
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How to understand the identity of matter in Aristotelianism?

I am currently reading "Real Essentialism" written by David Oderberg. He discusses the issue of substance individuation. The principle of individuation is matter. Now if we have Plato and Socrates, ...
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Is the “Both View” of Neutral Monism a form of Metaphysical Realism?

It seems quite clear to me that the "neither view", wherin a neutral entity is one that is neither mental or physical, is a form of metaphysical realism. But it gets confusing, and perhaps downright ...
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Is there a term for the philosophical view that claims nothing exists independently of interaction?

My view is following: Nothing exists on its own, existence is the property of interaction. But since every interaction is different, I conclude that existence itself is subjective. But then, what ...
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Does idealism allow other minds?

Wikipedia: Idealism is the group of metaphysical philosophies that asserts that reality, or reality as humans can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial. ...
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Ontological status of Axiom of Choice

Mathematical facts are necessary truths, either in a Platonic sense or by way of axioms. In the latter sense I mean that the Peano Axioms prove that 2+3=5, for example. In other words, "PA ⊨ 2+3=5"...
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Do unverifiable statements provide any knowledge?

I believe the following three examples are equally self-contradictory: A: Nothingness is blue B: Objects don't exist when we are not looking at them C: There exists a parallel universe that never ...
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What is bundle theory's response to the too-many-thinkers problem?

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/identity-personal/#TooManThiPro This page suggests that the only way to solve this problem would be to say that were are "organisms". What is bundle theory of the ...
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How consistent is Christian theology compared to Islamic and Buddhist theologies?

I'm not an expert on theology but I've heard that Christianity is filled with inconsistencies and incongruencies. My question, if this is the case, is whether this is normal for the major theologies ...
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Contact and Separation

If we say for argument that two objects are in contact withstanding physical properties of atoms that prohibit actual contact at that level of observation. From classical observation of the world if ...
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What should be first according to Aristotle: the nature of being or the nature of explanation?

I see that in his Metaphysics he starts speaking of the nature of explanation as if he thinks, I think, that it is key to be understood before moving to the investigation about being. But then, in his ...
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How does being come into being? How does existence come into existence?

So, the universe was created by the big bang. And the big bang was created by some stringy things, or branes or whatever. But what created those strings? And what created the thing that created them? ...
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physical approach to freewill

Here is what I think: Every action that takes place in this universe (Including me, writing this) is a consequence of motion and interaction of particles and energy transformation. All our thoughts ...