Questions tagged [metaphysics]

Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the essence of things, of the fundamental nature of being and the world and the principles that organize the universe. Metaphysics is supposed to answer the question "What is the nature of reality?"

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What is a universe? (taboo the word “exist”)

It seems to me that "universe" and "exist" are defined cyclically. When not talking about many worlds or parallel universes, it's clear what it means to say whether or not a thing ...
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What is equality?

What is equality? Do philosophers agree that something that's physically identical to another thing 100% is equal? Or do philosophers believe there's a sort of hidden identifier like in database that ...
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A concept which “shows” why are we limited by speed of light?

These are my thoughts about the above: So, lets say at a given time t, I am in a room, and it has a state, which describes all the info about that state. Assume for simplicity that the room and its ...
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Arguments against the maintenance of an object's identity through disassembly and reassembly?

Say I were to have a LEGO set with which I could build a plane. At some later point in time, I destroy it, scattering its constituent bricks far and wide. Finally, at another point in time, I rebuild ...
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Could something which is, and is uncreated, ever become created? [closed]

If sin [disobeying God's law] is created and God is uncreated and God creates sin, then the sin He creates can never become part of Himself because He Himself is uncreated. [ It's a bit like a cook ...
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Is there anything a supernatural entity (e.g. God) could do to irrefutably prove its existence to humans? [closed]

I just posted a question in which I ask if spontaneously regrowing amputated limbs would constitute a proof of the supernatural, and several of the answers have presented interesting objections. This ...
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Is watching an amputated limb regrow proof of the supernatural?

A typical challenge skeptics present when confronted with claims of alleged miracles is "why won't God Heal amputees?". But, would that do the job? Consider the following thought experiment: ...
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Can the statement, “Suicide is Murder” be written as S = M? If so, could it then also be written as “Murder is Suicide” or M = S? Are either logical?

Webster defines murder as the "killing of another person" and suicide as the "killing of oneself." It seems, therefore, that these are mutually exclusive ideas. They simply are not ...
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Are there set-theoretical problems with modal metaphysics?

I'm trying to learn about modal logic and the metaphysics of modality, and there's something that has been bugging me about what I've read so far: are there set-theoretical issues with supposing we ...
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Are there philosophical problems for which there's only a trivial solution?

I can't really think of a philosophical example, but in mathematics, it would be something like 'find the x where f(x) = 0 given that f(x) = x', and the solution would be 'x = 0', which is trivial. Is ...
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Is there a philosophical agreement that the universe is deterministic?

Is there a philosophical agreement that the universe is deterministic? If the universe is not deterministic, then how come every law in the universe seems to be deterministic? What are the possible ...
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What motivation does an omnipotent god have to do anything? [closed]

For example, every human action is motivated by happiness. So what reason does god have, to do or create things? happiness can't be the only reason, because he can make himself infinitely happy ...
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A material-constitution model of truth

On one end, let there be the correspondence model of truth, that S is true if and only if S corresponds to the appropriate fact. On the other, let there be the identity model, that S is true if it IS ...
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What is the axiological basis of the preference of truth to falsity?

Axiologically speaking, why is truth the preferred logical value by humans? In general, why do we prefer true statements to false ones? What about the value of true makes a statement "right,"...
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Mathematical universe hypothesis: Why shouldn't all imaginable universes exist?

In his paper on mathematical universe hypothesis, Max Tegmark only responses with a single paragraph to this assumption: The MUH and the Level IV multiverse idea does certainly not imply that all ...
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What is a “local” metaphysics and how does it differ from conventional metaphysics?

A chapter is devoted to each of the eight major philosophers and movements in the Western canonical tradition: the pre-Socratics, Plato, Aristotle, Spinoza, Leibniz, empiricism, Kant, and Hegel. The ...
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Does science require the exclusion of the “infinite”?

And if so, are there any interesting implications? According to the storyline, Galileo launched modern science by declaring the necessity of rendering physical events countable. What is countable must ...
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Are figures of speech true and false?

I'm thinking about Gilbert Ryle, who I believe analyses category mistakes as figures of speech. An example like the teeth of crows are pearly white seems neither true nor false. But what about this ...
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How is spacetime as a construct defined by philosophers? [closed]

Is spacetime a construct? If spacetime is a construct, is space taken individually a construct, and is time taken individually also a construct, and time and space combined a construct? Does the ...
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If Parfit's objectivism metaphysical?

In On What Matters, Derek Parfit argues that we sometimes have objective reasons to have certain desires or aims. I find this to be a metaphysical claim, and other philosophers (such as Michael Smith) ...
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Difference between Differentia and Quality [duplicate]

No matter how many ways I think of it - just how Socrates is a Man, any differentia is a Quality. So for eg, one much used example is 'rational' - man is a rational animal, where man is species, ...
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Why isn't differentia just quality in Aristotle?

I will make it clear beforehand, that the little bit I know about Aristotle is from Aquinas (secondary material) and Deleuze (Difference and Repetition), so there may be some misunderstandings on my ...
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Does personal identity/“the self” persist through periods of unconsciousness, such as dreamless sleep?

http://existentialcomics.com/comic/1 I read the above comic, something which turned out to be a mistake because I have just enough understanding of physics, and philosophy to follow its line of ...
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Does This Answer The Two Hard Problems – Why Is There Anything? and How Do We Know It?

Question I imagine that most philosophers, professional or amateur, must have some kind of personal philosophical view of their preferred ontology/metaphysic, even if it is incomplete. This is mine as ...
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How is a computed existence different from a non-computed existence?

How is a computed existence different from a non-computed existence? Because some theorize our world is a simulation, it implies the existence of computed existences and non-computed existence. Did ...
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Responsibility for animals as human and does it undermine true equality?

I have been thinking lately, coming to an interesting point of view, which may not necessarily be mine (not yet sure about that), but still worth to talk about. Unfortunately, I came into heated ...
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Would life be possible in a world described by a quantum theory in which no classical limit can be obtained? [closed]

Some physicists entertain the idea that the universe consists of a very large number of regions in which the laws of physics take different forms. This idea is called the multiverse. Human beings ...
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What might it mean to “know” another living being? [closed]

Assuming for the moment that life involves change how can one "know" another living being? Indeed if they are changing can one fully know another living being? Who has written about knowing ...
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Who said: “Everything is meaningless, but nothing is chance”?

In the German movie series Heimat 2 (episode 8), the philosophy student Alex says at one point: Everything is meaningless, but nothing is chance [my tentative transcription from German: Alles ist ...
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Can someone explain to me Nozick's argument against epistemic closure?

On the other hand, some epistemologists, including Robert Nozick, have denied closure principles on the basis of reliabilist accounts of knowledge. Nozick, in Philosophical Explanations, advocated ...
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Questions about Marx's second, third, and fourth thesis in ''Theses on Feuerbach''

The question whether objective truth can be attributed to human thinking is not a question of theory but is a practical question. a. What does Marx mean here by ”objective truth,” what is he alluding ...
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What exactly is Time and Space? [closed]

Question description so that anyone can evaluate and answer accordingly I don't know what is the formal process for a theory to get accepted by the science community, please guide me on how to proceed ...
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Are all metaphysical claims flawed since they can't be proven?

Are all metaphysical claims flawed since they can't be proven? What's considered a flaw in a metaphysical claim if all of them can't be proven? Are there different types of flaw?
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Was Sellar the first philosopher to posit that someone's scientific view of the world is partially build on his/her normative values?

I was reading a text by Bas van Fraassen that casts some doubts about Sellar's manifest and scientific images and I was wondering of how much of the formers theory was new to him. So was Sellar the ...
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Is there a concept that refers to phenomena that are caused or seemingly caused by something outside the physical realm?

Is there a concept that refers to phenomena that are caused or seemingly caused by something outside the physical realm? I am referring to phenomena that seems to have been shown to be caused by ...
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Is there any contradiction in Phaedo 102d-103a and 103c-105b?

I'm a complete beginner in philosophy and have been reading Phaedo for the first time. While reading about Forms in this, I understood that a thing can share in tallness and shortness at the same time,...
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Why is time travel not possible at all?

Time: It is a mathematical dimension to measure the change of state (any motion) of Existence (includes universe/multiverse/entire creation). In order to travel in Time, one has to change the state of ...
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What is the relationship between the primitive notion and a priori?

The primitive notion is the origin of definition to avoid circularity since definition must be defined by other terminologies which involve new definitions. So in maths we have set, point, space and ...
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Are there any generalization of the lexical hypothesis that are being studied in philosophy?

The lexical hypothesis according to wikipedia is related to the following two postulates: The first states that those personality characteristics that are important to a group of people will ...
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Is atheism the null hypothesis on god's existence? Can the null hypothesis be accepted? Is the proposition “god does not exist” falsifiable?

 Is Atheism the Null Hypothesis?  Is Atheism Falsifiable?  Does Atheism Carry the Burden of Proof? Atheism has distinct definitions which can be categorized as follows: • Weak/Soft ...
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Can anyone explain to me explain to me what Robert Pirsig is trying to convey through the book ZAMM as a whole? [duplicate]

I feel that trying to go about analyzing his whole theory is pointless since his whole theory builds upon one point which is that analytical thinking shouldn't have taken the front seat in modern ...
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Can god violate the laws of thought (i.e., the logical absolutes)? If so, can such a god be ruled out of existence? [duplicate]

**The Laws of Thought** Laws of Identity, Non-Contradiction, Excluded Middle Something is what it is, ...
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Is the existence of all natural numbers equivalent to the existence of everything?

Imagine a static world, having no law of nature, hence no space and time and containing every natural number. So whatever model/concept of reality an existing being will ever create, it will be ...
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According to Kant, while thinking of empty concepts without intuitions, what do we synthesise?

(This will be my last question on this book, for those of you getting bored of my questions). Very briefly I will describe the method of Transcendental Deduction (TD) in an over-simplistic manner, and ...
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Can somebody explain the second argument of B-deduction in CPR?

For me, the Transcendental Deduction aims at proving two things: Categories or pure concepts of understanding must be applied to the manifold of intuitions, i.e, they are necessary for cognition. ...
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Who called death “the preoccupation of the wise”

Who called death "the preoccupation of the wise". It's something I read but can't find again. The idea was, I thought, that (the nature of) death was the unsolvable problem and the subject ...
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Problem with Refutation of Idealism

Can someone please defend Kant's refutation of idealism in the B-edition, because it seems untenable to me. First, he claims that 'I' am aware of myself being subjected to a specific temporal order ...
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What if the premise of CPR's Transcedental Deduction is wrong?

The transcendental unity of apperception is that unity through which all the manifold given in an intuition is united in a concept of the object. It is therefore entitled objective, and must be ...
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Why are concepts without intuitions blind?

I think at this point I understand all the transcendental arguments of CPR except this one - and probably this could considerably change my understanding of Kant as a whole. Here is my confusion. ...
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Did the physicist Erwin Schrödinger deny that reality existed?

I was having a conversation with a biographer of Schrödinger about the physicist's works and philosophy. I asked him if he eventually accepted that his "Cat (mental) experiment" could be actually real,...

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