Questions tagged [metaphysics]

Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the essence of things, of the fundamental nature of being and the world and the principles that organize the universe. Metaphysics is supposed to answer the question "What is the nature of reality?"

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The “meaning” of the universe [closed]

I think i've discovered something big. There is no meaning of the universe rather it only has an intention. For example take art. A certain piece of art has a meaning however, the intention of the art ...
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What does St.Thomas Aquinas teach about state of the univerese after renewal in Summa Theologica?

In Summa Theologica suppl.q.91, St.Thomas teaches clearly about the state of the world after its renewal. In article 5 of the same question I said above, he says plants and animals will not remain in ...
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Do philosophers think beliefs are bearers of truth-value?

In the literature about what sorts of things have a truth-value, the idea that acts of belief bear truth-value seems present, yet uncommon. On the other hand, objects of belief like propositions or ...
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157 views

Can humans reject God?

If someone said to Moses, "Would you like to ride in my Rolls-Royce"? And if Moses replied, "No". Moses might not be rejecting going in a "Rolls-Royce" but rejecting something he did not understand. ...
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Informal fallacies and their fallacious nature

What imparts to informal fallacies their fallacious nature? I have been reading Wikipedia because of the ease of access, as well as some references listed there, like https://www.humanities.mcmaster....
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Where can I study this in more detail?

I am finding al-Farabi's Philosophy of Plato and Aristotle on pages 13-17, paragraphs 1-9, (pages 11-13 in the pdf file linked below), very interesting: http://traditionalhikma.com/wp-content/uploads/...
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In What Sense is Substance Epistemically Prior?

In Metaphysics Z (1028a32), Aristotle outlines different senses in which a substance can be considered to be "first": there are several senses in which a thing is said to be first; yet substance is ...
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Harm Principle and the eventual harm of creating needs

A necessity or a need is a necessary condition for something else. A need in Economics and particularly a consumer need is something needed to be consumed, a necessary condition for achieving higher ...
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238 views

The Meaning of 'Undecidable' in Metaphysics

It is often said that metaphysical questions are undecidable but not so often explained what this word means in a metaphysical context. I'm wondering whether a mathematician would class metaphysical ...
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Can there be a universe with different mathematics?

I do not know what exactly I mean by other universes, but I just have a feeling that mathematics is somehow inevitable. For example the law of "excluded middle" (LEM). If there are aliens, can we ...
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Physical correlates of consciousness

The term neural correlates of consciousness is well established (~ 277,000 Google results, one Wikipedia article), but I'd like to ask for more general physical correlates of consciousness (~ 6,000 ...
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Why would an actual “Truman Show” have all the hired townspeople actors perform the exact same tasks every day? [closed]

This question is not about the movie "The Truman Show", but about the idea of having a person unwittingly live his life inside a "fake town" from which he is never allowed to escape, with cameras and ...
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Universal Analytic Framework [closed]

I've been working on a philosophical framework called Universal Analytic Framework. This is actually a personal philosophical project. I am in the process of designing a framework that has fluidity, ...
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What would happen to the soul as the form of the body, according to scholastics, under massive changes to the body?

Aristotle (and later the Scholastics) considered the soul to be the form of the body. But back then, though many changes of the living body could obviously be observed (considered to be “accidental ...
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951 views

How can the soul be a form in Aristotle's metaphysics but continue to exist after the body's destruction?

Many authors, especially in introductory books, seem to characterize Aristotle's forms as some kind of structure or organizational feature of matter, which seems to be compatible with a reductionist ...
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164 views

Did Stephen Hawking think that logic is contingent on physics?

According to this book*: Extrasensory Perception: Support, Skepticism, and Science, it says that Stephen Hawking thought that logic was contingent on physics, i.e that logic depends on the physics of ...
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Zeno's “Stadium” with the same metaphysical assumptions as his other paradoxes

“The Stadium” paradox is described by Aristotle as follows: The fourth argument is that concerning the two rows of bodies, each row being composed of an equal number of bodies of equal size, ...
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Why is it not necessary to to tell what force is?

In his book, "Science and Hypothesis" on page no. 98, Henri Poincaré write on subject of defining force: [.....When we say force is the cause of motion, we are talking metaphysics; and this ...
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Heaviness in eternal recurence

In The Unbearable Lightness of Being, it is said that: In the world of eternal return the weight of unbearable responsibility lies heavy on every move we make. That is why Nietzsche called the idea ...
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Does God need to create mathematics?

If someone knows the detail of everything and has endless life, did s/he need to create mathematics to describe the world?
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Does Existence Belong to the Nature of Substance?

In Proposition 7, Part I of the Ethics Spinoza claims: Existence belongs to the nature of substance. This means that substance exists necessarily or, to put it even simpler, that each substance ...
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Perdurantism applied to non-physical objects

I have recently been reading up a lot on perdurantism aka four dimensionalism including papers by Rea, Sider, Bittner and Donnelly among others and I was interested in knowing whether there was any ...
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Does it hold that everything exists necessarily?

In Quantified modal logic, "constancy’s defenders can point to certain powerful arguments in its favor. Here’s a quick sketch of one such argument. First, the following seems to be a logical truth: ...
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Is Benatar's “asymmetry of pleasure and pain” wrong?

I’ve some doubts regarding the epistyle of David Benatar's thought, the “asymmetry of pleasure and pain”. In Better Never to Have Been: The Harm of Coming into Existence he writes that: Both good ...
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Prop. 2, Part I of Spinozas “Ethics”

Spinoza's proof for Proposition 2 of part I of the Ethics, "Two substances whose attributes are different have nothing in common", is confusing. This is the proof: 1, prop 2, demo - Also evident ...
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Can time exist without change?

Imagine an event of one second in length, like two hands clapping. Suppose that another interval of time elapses between the clap, a period in which nothing happens in the whole universe (or in all ...
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What is it about the existence of some things that makes us right or wrong in describing their existence, while other things can change?

For example, if people used to believe the Earth was the center of the universe, and we discover it is not, we now say, "people used to falsely believe that the Earth was the center of the universe", ...
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Can analogues of moral non-naturalism make some metaphysical hypotheses more defensible?

One common position in meta-ethics is that facts about morality exist, but are not natural properties of the universe but rather are something else. I can't measure the wrongness of slavery the same ...
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Does omnipotence entail omniscience?

Twice this week, in academic works, I came across the "idea" that omnipotence implies omniscience. I don't remember the first place I encountered it (I'm trying to remember, and if I do I'll add it to ...
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The non-spacetime existence of processes

I've been reading Process Philosophy and the Whiteheadian conception of processes describe them to be existing in "non-spacetime" dimensions. How can it be explicated in simpler terms? "Non-spacetime" ...
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Is usability a defining characteristic of knowledge?

A recent argument with my friend over "Presentation vs Substance" was about whether the presentation of a subject (e.g. in a talk) is more important than the actual content which is being delivered. ...
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In what way does the following solve the Substance/finite modes problem in Spinoza?

Critics of Spinoza's concept of the 'immanence' of substance maintain that if everything in the universe is a manifestation of 'deus/sive natura/ sive substantia' then Spinoza cannot account for the ...
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Is Gettier Problem a metaphysical/ontological problem or a epistemological problem?

Gettier Problem is a metaphysical/ontological problem about what is "knowledge" or a epistemological problem about how to judge whether others have knowledge or not? In fact, I think it's true that ...
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Mathematical models of dynamic algorithmic processes

This question primarily concerns dynamical or time-dependent phenomena in philosophy and to what extent such heuristic discourse features in more precise mathematical settings. In order to model ...
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Ontology and Abstract Concepts [closed]

Can ontology study abstract concepts as an object of study in themselves supporting that concepts and ideas are and exist since someone thought of them? Please provide references explaining how and ...
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Hume on infinity

I know Hume argued against dividing finite space into infinitely many regions, but I can't seem to find anything regarding his thoughts on infinity itself. From his Enquiry you sort of get that he ...
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Is this logical? Topic on death being a black box

People say death is a black box, that you can know nothing about it, but is the following logical? If you believe real time travel is possible maybe in the future and someone eventually may be able ...
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189 views

Comparisons between two notions of existence

I have the following, rather naive question: To what extent can the a priori existence of mathematical objects be reasonably compared with the seemingly a posteriori existence of objects established ...
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Are there Identity Conditions for Spinoza's modes?

A common interpretation of the relation of Substance to it's modes in Spinozas states that modes are properties of the Substance [1]. Let's assume this for now: Modes are properties of Substance. I ...
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Humean Supervenience and the Mosaic

I have read a lot of times the definition of Humean Supervenience and the usual quote by Lewis according to which Humean supervenience is “ It is the doctrine that all there is to the world is a vast ...
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Are there any points of convergence between analytical and traditional concept based philosophy?

In many questions, answers and in comments, there appear to be differences in the type of answers and comments which fall into two roughly delineated trains of thought and exemplify the fault line ...
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How should nominalist deal with our ordinary sense of language using?

According to the entry "Metaphysics" writen by Inwagen,War and Peace is a universal,It appers in every printedmatters of War and Peace. So in nominalists' opinion it comes out that our talking of War ...
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Does the act-potency distinction lead to Meinong's jungle?

The Aristotelian-Thomistic distinction of act-potency is, among other things, supposed to solve Parmenides' paradoxes of change. Since change requires something non-existent popping into existence ex ...
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What are the similarities and differences in the ways Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas define the “Analogy of Being”?

As is well known to us all, "Analogy of Being" is a very important term created by the Scholasticism of St. Thomas Aquinas. While this term cannot be found in Aristotle's original work, the similar ...
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Why is the problem of universals a problem?

Philosopher Gonzago Rodriguez-Pereyra defines the very old and well-known "Problem of Universals" thusly: But what then is the Problem of Universals? As I said, it is usually taken to be the ...
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On Universals and Particulars

I was thinking about the ontological problem of Universals versus Particulars and there is one thing that I can't understand well about the concept of Universal. If I have a cat (let's call it Steve) ...
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Does (and if so how) Quentin Meillassoux prove that everything is contingent?

When Quentin Meillassoux says that "contingency is a necessity", "contingency is absolute", etc. what is trying to imply is that everything is contingent. But (where) has he proven that? It is true ...
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What is the relationship between scientific explanation and interpretability?

I am trying to understand the relationship between Scientific Explanation and Intelligibility / Understanding. I believe the former is grounded in the Metaphysics of Causation while the latter is ...
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Easy way to think about Parmenides' argument against change?

I've had the hardest time grasping the bite of Parmenides' argument against change. His argument is summarized in ch. 5 "Article One: Potency Really Distinct From Act" of Reality: A Synthesis of ...
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How can souls and angels be pure forms if only matter undergoes change?

In Thomas Aquinas' philosophy, angels are conceived as pure forms without any matter, like God, but contrary to God they still possess potentiality. Although there is no composition of matter and ...

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