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Questions tagged [metaphysics]

Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the essence of things, of the fundamental nature of being and the world and the principles that organize the universe. Metaphysics is supposed to answer the question "What is the nature of reality?"

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1answer
515 views

What is different between 'accidental' and 'contingent'?

What is different between 'accidental' and 'contingent'? I thought that accidental contains intentional notation while Contingent does not. But there could be an intentional action that turns out to ...
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19 views

How does Meta-Physics influences in terms of properties, natures, causes and classes of beings [on hold]

How does Meta-Physics influences in terms of properties, natures, causes and classes of beings. I need your support on this topic.
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4answers
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Is the concept of Aporia the same as the Zen concept of A Beginners Mind?

Is the concept of Aporia the same as the zen concept of A Beginners Mind, or related to it, or a completely different concept?
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What does Derek Parfit mean by “I ought to regard having a Replica as being about as good as ordinary survival”

Having trouble with this one. What does it mean and what might be some reasons leading to this conclusion. The relevant text is "What We Believe Ourselves To Be"
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1answer
93 views

What does Nietzsche refer to with the “backworldsmen”?

I'm a rookie to philosophical thinking but trying my best to understand the concepts. I'd be appreciated if you could enlighten me about this: In Chapter 3 of Thus Spake Zarathustra, he is addressing ...
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How many dimensions are there [closed]

Supposing we lived in a 2 dimensional universe the addition of a 3rd dimension may appear as time does in a 3 dimensional universe. Assuming time to be a 4th dimension similar to the original 3 might ...
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2answers
127 views

Which philosophers have argued well that existence is illusory?

After many years of contemplation I have a simple, logical proof that all physical phenomena are illusions. Assuming we can agree that things in the past no longer exhibit the properties associated ...
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1answer
41 views

Does a rock experience its existence?

By experience, I do not imply a subjective experience like that of an animal (with memory, decision making etc). Could a rock, for instance, have individuated experience of its existence like a ...
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4answers
152 views

Can an idea be a being?

According to a friend, anything that exists is a being. A rock, a rainbow, a dream, an idea. I am ready to buy into the first three, but the last is difficult for me. Is he correct?
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Ontological Foundations of Epistemology

A review of the SEP article of epistemology indicates that there are 5 sources of knowledge: perception, memory, introspection, reason, and testimony. Robert Audi in his Epistemology: A Contemporary ...
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1answer
51 views

How influential was “galvanism” on philosophy, and was it rightfully so?

I'm currently reading F. W. Schelling's "First Outline of a System of the Philosophy of Nature". Schelling, a late 18th-early 19th century philosopher, was very well-informed about contemporary ...
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2answers
67 views

Objective idealism and realism can be similar?

So, Hegel's objective idealism believes in manifestations of reason which is nothing but ideas. And which exists in this world is nothing but the ideas, everything is idea and idea is everything. ...
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133 views

Difference between objective and absolute idealism

While reading western philosophy, I found these three words. Subjective idealism of Berkeley, Absolute idealism and objective idealism of Hegel. So confusion arises between last two objective and ...
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1answer
70 views

What is the definition of 'object' in philosophy?

I have two examples in my mind that I'm unsure if they can be considered Objects: The second usage of things, as in, each thing has usually a defined usage, but sometimes people use things in a ...
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76 views

How do liberals escape hyperreality [closed]

Do they accept. Or do they become annihlated. Or annihlate each other. Or go even further than that.
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1answer
68 views

What's the difference between a second-order relation and a relation between objects?

I was reading an article in philosophy and found this: Some philosophers have denied that there is such a relation as identity. Thus Ludwig Wittgenstein writes (Tractatus 5.5301): "That ...
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5answers
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Did a single question in ontology find an answer?

Wikipedia lists some basic issues of ontology, which are roughly the same question: "What can be said to exist?" "What is a thing?" "Into what categories, if any, can we sort existing things?" ...
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4answers
177 views

Is metaphysics justified in its conclusions?

I'm curious of the modern meta-philosophical viewpoints on metaphysical knowledge. That is, is it possible for arm-chair theorizing or rational pure thought alone to gain true knowledge about any ...
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2answers
57 views

Semantics of Properties - Are categories of extensions members or subsets?

For example: "Cars have wheels." If we take "have wheels" as a property of a set A, would cars as a category be an element of set A, or only a subset of A?
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Bythos and Sophia, Yuanshi Tianzun and Lingbao Tianzun

The Gnostic Bythos is that of a Monad, though I know it does not have benevolent connotations. Disregarding any sense of goodness/morality/仁, in what ways is it not synonymous with that of the ...
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2answers
252 views

Is philosophy a science and can it prove facts like science?

I would like to know whether philosophy can be treated as science since both science and philosophy search for truth, but philosophical theories, I think, are not provable. So my question is: ...
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What paradoxes arise from quantifying over EVERYTHING?

This question is in context of the umbrella view of objects, that there exists a general category that everything falls under. Here are the quote and link that peaked my curiosity. Finally, note ...
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2answers
272 views

Is there a generally agreed upon solution to Bradley's Infinite Regress without appeal to Paraconsistent Logic?

I'm interested in Priest's solution using paraconsistent logic, but before I embark on that, I wanted to know if there was a generally agreed upon solution in more "classical" schools of thought. ...
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1answer
84 views

Are accurate statements about fictional entities false?

"Homer Simpson is Marge Simpson's husband." Is this a true statement since it accurately describes the fictional character, Homer Simpson, or is it false since there is no Homer Simpson in reality to ...
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164 views

How to denote the idea of nothingness in formal terms?

I was thinking about the question "Why is there something rather than nothing?" , and have read about some theories that existence is the case because non-existence is logically impossible So, I ...
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1answer
55 views

Is it possible for a person with unlimited intelligence and no sensory experience to understand any concept like humans do?

Is it possible for a person with unlimited intelligence and no sensory experience to understand any concept like humans do? I am wondering if abstract information, information that has no reference ...
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1answer
172 views

Are there any non-scientific non-religious cosmology theories proposed in recent times?

Are there any non-scientific non-religious cosmological theories proposed in recent times? I looked at various cosmological theories proposed and I only see scientific ones (ex: Machian universe), and ...
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3answers
66 views

Have philosophers explored the ineffable, and what in our language makes it impossible to describe something beyond our realm of existence?

Have philosophers explored the ineffable, and what in our language makes it impossible to describe something beyond our realm of existence? There might be things outside of the universe we can't ...
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0answers
65 views

What are numbers? [closed]

What are numbers? Does the number two exist? If so, how?
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1answer
72 views

What are some critiques of Spinoza that are generally regarded as holding weight?

I'm nearing the end of my reading Spinoza's ethics, and the philosophy that he lays out seems perfectly consistent and logical. What are some critiques of Spinoza that are regarded as potentially ...
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Has there been any positive influence in current philosophical thinking which comes from Hans Vaihinger's 'As If'' Philosophy?

Hans Vaihinger- Born: Sep 25, 1852 · Nehren, Germany Died: Dec 18, 1933 · Halle, Germany Written works: The Philosophy of 'As if' · Die Philosophie Des ALS OB: System Der Theoretischen, Praktischen ...
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Is true beauty long lasting (through long periods of time)? Is beauty therefore objective?

When people think of objects that are considered "beautiful," people think of gold, diamonds, and crystals. These objects are resistant to change over time and tend to last in their original forms. ...
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19 views

“First Outline” - does Schelling contradict himself in the Sun-Earth relation?

In "First Outline of a System of the Philosophy of Nature", Second Division, Schelling tries to prove that the phenomenon that the Sun creates via the chemical action on Earth is light. During that ...
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1answer
129 views

Is this logical? Topic on death being a black box

People say death is a black box, that you can know nothing about it, but is the following logical? If you believe real time travel is possible maybe in the future and someone eventually may be able ...
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1answer
160 views

Did physicist Eugene Wigner think that every mathematical structure existed as an isolated universe?

I have read that Eugene Paul Wigner thought that all mathematical structures had physical existence. Does that mean that he believed in a multiverse containing all mathematical structures as separate ...
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2answers
153 views

Do Most Philosophers Ignore the Rules of Dialectical Logic?

In metaphysics it is well known that all selective conclusions about the world as a whole are undecidable. Most philosophers infer from this that metaphysics is incomprehensible. I believe this is a ...
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2answers
120 views

Max Tegmark's Mathematical Universe

Max Tegmark believes the universe to be a mathematical structure, and he further claims any mathematical structure with self-aware substructure will perceive itself in a physical world. What exactly ...
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8answers
158 views

Trichotomy in philosophy

In many philosophical works and ideas*, it seems like the number 3 gets a major, unexplained emphasis (mostly as a trichotomy). One of the major ideas that uses trichotomy is the Thesis-Antithesis-...
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0answers
85 views

Does Barrow and Tipler's “anthropic principle-multiverse” entail the existence of all logically possible universes?

I've read several texts that indicate that the anthropic principle (applied to cosmology, and more specifically, to the multiverse) yields the existence of all logically possible universes (most like ...
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3answers
161 views

Poincare says we are born geometric or arithmetic thinkers. Which was Grothendieck and why?

Poincare proclaims that the mathematical continuum originates from the sensible intuition and that intuition by pure number or logic alone could not have given us this notion. Source for the claim: ...
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154 views

Did physicist Max Born think that mathematical structures are platonic entities?

It seems that prominent physicist Max Born (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Max_Born) believed in some kind of Platonism. We can infer this, for example, from the book "The Innermost Kernel" (https://...
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103 views

What are some popular theories/opinions in philosophy against the certainty placed on the laws of logic and its results?

What are some popular theories/opinions in philosophy against the certainty placed on the laws of logic and its results? You would think philosophers wouldn't ever criticize or try to debunk logic ...
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Is this an argument about the world or about human cognition?

This is a question about a thesis I have encountered regarding the relation of abstract mathematics ( Category Theory in particular ) with reality and the nature of human cognition. The argument goes ...
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4answers
181 views

How is Last Thursdayism explained from a physics perspective?

Last Thursdayism is the idea that the universe was created last Thursday. This would imply that the laws of physics were created last Thursday too. Doesn't that mean anything could have happened ...
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2answers
105 views

What is the status of the impossibility of metaphysics?

SEP describes the thesis that metaphysics is impossible as follows: Let us call the thesis that all metaphysical statements are meaningless “the strong form” of the thesis that metaphysics is ...
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126 views

Things can exist even if it is impossible to provide concrete examples of it?

In mathematics, there are many things that can be rigorously proven to exist, but at the same time rigorously proven that no concrete examples of it can be given. This is a crazy idea for non-...
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1answer
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What are an object's decomposition criteria?

What reasoning, or probably concrete criteria, is behind a definition of what parts an object consists of? Does it depend on desired object behavior? Is there a kind of "carving Object at its joints" ...
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3answers
213 views

Why does the sense of self change between going to sleep and waking up? [closed]

During the day one can become more and more awake because of activities that connect to the higher sense of self, especially hen one is a practitioner of self-realization: meditation, all types of ...
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2answers
125 views

Divine temporality and spacetime

According to the IEP, The majority position today, at least among philosophers, is that God is everlasting but temporal. How is the idea of divine temporality reconciled with special relativity? ...
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385 views

A small reformulation of the Cosmological Argument

I am sure the cosmological argument has been raised here by people like me who know nothing about philosophy numerous times before on this board. But I'm wondering if a slightly different approach can ...