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Questions tagged [metaphysics]

Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the essence of things, of the fundamental nature of being and the world and the principles that organize the universe. Metaphysics is supposed to answer the question "What is the nature of reality?"

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What's the least amount of things that can possibly exist?

Suppose there only ever existed one indecomposable, irreducible object. What could distinguish it from nothingness? From not existing, as there is nothing besides it that could deduce its information? ...
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Are Kant's arguments in the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science meant to be synthetic a prori arguments?

The work is entitled Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science, and elsewhere, as in the Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, Kant describe his metaphysics as the non-empirical element in the ...
Gerry's user avatar
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Why do realists insist that universals EXIST?

Consider a universe of size 10×10×10. Let there be 10 identical looking apples and 10 identical looking rods in it. Why do realists insist that not just 20 things exists but there also EXISTS ...
Razor's user avatar
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5 answers
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If existence is not a property, do contradictions exist?

If existence is not a property, it seems that "existence" doesn't mean existing in our reality. If it meant existing in our reality, then surely speaking of "existence" as a ...
th2o's user avatar
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2 answers
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How is it possible that state change exists? [closed]

We observe the passage of time, change in location of particles, reality is changing its state. Initially the thought arises that if state change ability were derived, created or began to exist, that ...
Wowser's user avatar
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Are causal anti-realism and metaphysical realism compatible?

Could the existence of a mind-independent reality be compatible with believing that causal relations aren't real? If so, how could the latter be justified? Could one make an instrumentalist case like ...
edelex's user avatar
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4 answers
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How strong is the argument for quantum mind theory?

I know little about philosophy and I've been reading into consciousness. From an uneducated view, David Pearce's argument seems strong. https://www.biointelligence-explosion.com/parable.html What ...
Terra's user avatar
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3 answers
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Is there an objective in science that only has one method to accomplish it? [closed]

I sometimes look at various scientific processes and there always seems that most of the objectives we humans look for; have more than one means to achieve it. Heating something, cooling something off,...
Max's user avatar
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Learning metaphysical truths by introspection

There might be many psychological benefits of meditation and other introspective habits. I'm looking for something different. What metaphysical facts can we discover by this process? How many of these ...
Razor's user avatar
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1 answer
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Leibniz, beginning of Principles of Nature and Grace

What did Leibniz mean at the beginning of "Principles of Nature and Grace," when he said, "Substance is a being capable of action." Afterall, a rock is made of substances, but it ...
Gerry's user avatar
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3 answers
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Is there a way to prove we live in a universe of infinite or finite “things”?

Sometimes I wonder if science has limits. On one hand; logically no; there will always be something that we don’t understand and when we create new things it leads to other new things. On the other ...
Max's user avatar
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0 answers
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Do relational metaphysics and analytic philosophy conflict via relational vs external properties?

You might first think, relations do indeed involve external properties of the relata. But I want to be careful. Are relational properties, a la relational quantum mechanics say, and external ...
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What is reason, and where does it come from?

It seems odd to me, to reflect that things in the world are the way they are, but not some other way. Maybe ‘reason’ tells us why things are a certain way. By structuring thinking, ‘reason’ lets us ...
Lawrence Lee's user avatar
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What are some examples of inmanent causes and effects in everyday nature?

Reading Spinoza's Ethics I find myself fascinated by the distinction bewteen inmanent cause and transitive cause. In the Ethics comes like so: E1 PROP. 18. God is the indwelling and not the transient ...
GONZALO ROCHA DE LA CRUZ's user avatar
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2 answers
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What is this passage from Proposition 4 of Kant's Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science saying?

In the following passage, Kant discusses the infinite divisibility of matter: Matter is impenetrable, through its original expansive force…But this is only a consequence of the repulsive forces of ...
Gerry's user avatar
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Is Hegel's system really without presuppositions?

It is stated that Hegel was looking to start his system of logic and philosophy in general with what has absolutely no assumptions, frameworks, or presupposed things whatsoever. Is this really ...
Gerald Robertson's user avatar
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1 answer
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What are the arguments for innatism, essentialism, and rationalism?

How do people justify some existents being absolutely necessary. Why cant it just be against a backdrop of a relative nothingness? How can someone justify certain ideas being absolutely essential and ...
Gerald Robertson's user avatar
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Is Speculative Realism pluralist

While there are many speculative realists, the fundamental foundations of metaphysics related to anti-correlationist stance and post-continental philosophy remains pretty similar. While some might ...
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In analytic philosophy, what's the difference between something existing and being real?

In analytic philosophy, the dominant view has it that things are real iff they exist mind independently (i.e. they exist apart from our beliefs, concepts, cultural practices etc.). So there are two ...
Hal's user avatar
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How void and time originates matter?

- I'm a layman so i may seem confused and not even know what I’m talking about, but that’s why I’m here asking. Please explain this to me, it captivates me so much. If something exists it's affected ...
LAPOdes's user avatar
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What kinds of physical things exist mind independently?

Generally, it's said that a thing exists mind independently if it exists apart from our beliefs, concepts, cultural practices, etc. Do door knobs exist mind independently? They're collections of ...
Hal's user avatar
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Are debates in metaphysics usually substantive?

In the SEP article on truth, the author remarks The contrast [of the coherence theory of truth] with the correspondence theory of truth is clear. Far from being a matter of whether the world provides ...
Hal's user avatar
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Can we define everything including even what I'm writing now or are some things undefined?

I noticed that every logical theory seems to have a meta logic or language. For instance, we say "x is so and so, it is different from so and so, therefore, x is y, etc." We have not defined ...
Gerald Robertson's user avatar
7 votes
5 answers
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What is language? Why can I “just understand” it?

my mental health is deteriorating a bit. I just want to know why I can understand language and use it so easily to communicate to other human creatures without even trying. Is it just an “instrument ...
Fraser Pye's user avatar
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1 answer
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Can several logic systems coexist physically in the same world?

In mathematics, each logic system is associated with an abstract model. In physics, similarly, each logic system is associated with a physical model that models a part of the universe, but I don't ...
Sayaman's user avatar
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4 votes
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What can a person not categorize in the process of his knowledge acquisition?

When a subject learns about the world and gets experience as a result, he builds his own mental representations - thereby essentially differentiating the world (that is, dividing it into abstract ...
Asd Fgh's user avatar
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3 answers
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Metaphysical theories for why physics has the structure it has

The laws of physics have an extremely rich structure. The more fundamental you go, the more complex it becomes (e.g. Quantum Mechanics is more complex (no pun) than Newtonian mechanics). This ...
Ryder Rude's user avatar
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How does Achille Varzi’s metaphysics avoid collapsing into Mark Heller’s Eliminativism

Achille Varzi is apparently a conventionalist about all kinds, natural and artifactual while being a mereological universalist who has a pretty permissive ontology. What keeps his position from ...
Craigory 's user avatar
11 votes
6 answers
2k views

What is the definition of real?

What is the definition of the word "real"? For example, we can all agree that Harry Potter and unicorns are not real, while Mount Everest and Mars are real. Some people even say ...
user107952's user avatar
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Are laws separate “objects” or are they inextricably part of the universe?

This question came forth from a discussion I was having. Suppose that the universe is deterministic because of some laws. But those laws themselves exist for no reason. Does this mean that the laws, ...
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1 answer
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Is physics in a way already inherently nonlocal?

Physical laws are mathematical constructs that define reality. However, given that they do define reality, we have a case where an abstract formalism defines reality in every corner of the world. Each ...
user avatar
3 votes
5 answers
300 views

Circularity in definition of Real

I'm having a hard time understanding the adjective 'real'. In some sense, we get that x is real iff x is in reality. So to say that y is a real boy, is to say that y is a boy, and y is in the ...
Mani's user avatar
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6 answers
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Does Multi-World Interpretation really eliminate randomness in quantum mechanics?

As I understood it, the Multi World Interpretation (MWI) was meant to avoid the problem of resorting to randomness, by replacing the random wavefunction collapse in Copenhagen Interpretation with ...
Lukewarm_cocoa's user avatar
2 votes
5 answers
365 views

Quid sit ego, what is the self?

From my little, torn, pouch of experiences, I present the following sentences, heard/read, it matters not. My body My brain My mind My soul Suggests, ex mea sententia, that, the ego (self) is not an ...
Hudjefa's user avatar
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-2 votes
1 answer
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In what shape do opposites exist?

A common notion is that the opposite of “cold” is “warm” and that the opposite of “slow” is “fast”. Would it be equally correct to say that the opposite of “cold” is “fast”? How come that most people ...
Ethan Brown's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
83 views

What is the relation between idealism and science?

My understanding of idealism is that it rests on the primacy of the mind and conscience over matter. The Encyclopædia Britannica provides the following "basic" forms of idealism: The two ...
frankhey's user avatar
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1 answer
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What do philosophers think about the beauty?

When we see someone beautiful we understand what is beauty. The definition may not be absolute but it can be roughly defined. For example - symmetrical form may be considered beautiful. Fair color can ...
Dheeraj Verma's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
71 views

Does Hume propose that causes might actually just be explained by coincidence?

Does Hume propose that what people interpret as casual connections could instead be explained by coincidence? I want to know if this is an accurate understanding. Hume says something to the effect of: ...
BigMistake's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
56 views

Hume says we can't determine a causal connections between objects. Why separate the system into objects at all?

A summary of Hume's perspective is as follows: When we reason about matters of fact to reach new conclusions, we use cause and effect: when a dropped ball hits the ground (observation), it bounces (...
BigMistake's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
81 views

Omniscience leads to necessitarianism

You have probably seen these types of arguments before on incompatibility of omniscience and free will. The question is are these arguments valid and what can be a good refutation? Let G= x is known ...
Vihan 's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
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Does the unobserved past exist in a super position

Does the unobserved past exist in a super position in the sense of quantum mechanics? Has anyone seen this question asked before? If the question is meaningful, what answer seems most likely. If the ...
John Diller's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
126 views

How does the rise of AI challenge old notions about the ultimate nature of reality?

For centuries debate has gone on regarding the nature of “ultimate reality”. With "conscious" and "material" being two extremes in this debate, and with other views as some ...
user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
75 views

Does absolute eternality entail timelessness?

Assuming one is committed to the idea that an actual infinite amount of time can never pass, does eternality entail timelessness?
Max Maxman's user avatar
3 votes
3 answers
118 views

Is necessary existence a property?

If existence is not a property then doesn't it follow that necessary existence is also not a property? If it is then why?
Vihan 's user avatar
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1 vote
4 answers
94 views

Quality vs. Quantity

Suppose 2 hypothetical fruits A and B. A's mass is 10 g and B's mass is 15 g. In addition, A only contains vitamin A and B only contains vitamin B. Each vitamin A molecule weighs 200 picogram and each ...
Hudjefa's user avatar
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1 vote
7 answers
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Are we lost in the details?

A hypothesis. https://theworld.org/stories/2021-05-20/imagining-gaia-earth-one-great-living-organism Simply put, the Gaia hypothesis says that Earth is a living system and uses similar mechanisms that ...
Ioannis Paizis's user avatar
2 votes
6 answers
174 views

Can we consider the multiverse as the capstone of the Copernican Revolution?

The Copernican Revolution was a major shift in our mindset as a species. No longer were we the special center of the universe. If we generalize this notion, we see it surface in many areas beyond ...
Annika's user avatar
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2 votes
5 answers
111 views

What's the difference between noneism and abstractionism?

I know what noneists and abstractionists say the difference is, I just don't grasp the difference. Noneism and abstractionism are two approaches to objects like numbers, fictional character, ...
David Gudeman's user avatar
8 votes
5 answers
691 views

Falsifiability of Assumptions

Karl Popper maintained that empirical sciences should be based on the principle of falsifiability rather than verifiability for no amount of observations can guarantee veracity but a single ...
George Ntoulos's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
73 views

The Real Problem of Being [closed]

Suppose you come into existence as a human named Tom. The Creator tells you the one and only rule of the universe: be who you choose to be. This is fun. You design yourself, and you choose you hair ...
Fomalhaut's user avatar
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