Questions tagged [naturalism]

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What is the meaning of "natural"?

It's a term we all know, like "time". We all know what it means but when trying to explain it the difficulties start. For example, in trying to explain time circularity enters the ...
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Is G.E Moore's notion of goodness widely held and defended by contemporaneous philosophers?

I was wondering whether the idea that goodness cannot be defined and is just intuitively recognisable when observed, still holds significant weight? It seems somewhat similar to Plato's idea of ...
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Is there a naturalized intuitionist mathematics? Is it Kantian?

I have in mind an interpretation of mathematics as intuitionalism, where intuitions are subjective (built from personal experience), but subjective experience is ultimately explained “objectively” a ...
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Does a causal nexus imply the law of non contradiction or law of excluded middle?

Suggested to clarify: Do the major scientific, mathematical/analytic theories describing causal theories/"a causal nexus", physical theories, and some monist doctrines necessarily imply or ...
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Wouldn’t analysis still be useful with a naturalized notion of contradiction?

I wonder why analysis receives so much attention when it’s very narrow with how we experience the world. That is its focus on logical and mathematical proofs. One reason for this focus must be its ...
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What does 'nature' mean in Darwin's Origin of Species?

Recently, I have been reading the Origin of Species and quite a few times Darwin says that nature selects. But it seems like he is personifying nature. Could we say that nature=reality for him? And ...
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Philosophical/Natural Complementarianism

According to Wikipedia, 'Complementarianism' is a theological view that "men and women have different but complementary roles and responsibilities in marriage, family life, and religious ...
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Can people who deny naturalism consistently believe in science? [closed]

Naturalism is connected very much to Inductive reasoning. In science, if we see something happening again and again we generalize it into a law and we believe it as true. It will be only considered as ...
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3 answers
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Name for a form of naturalism that allows for abstract objects

Some of the more pressing arguments against materialism involve their inability to account for abstract objects such as meaning or reference. A few definitions before I continue: Abstract object: an ...
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1 answer
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Is there a name for a philosophy that seeks to increase human suffering?

The vast, vast majority of ethic systems seek the minimization of human suffering as a good, considering it ethical or righteous in some way. Even anti-natalists believe this after a fashion, ...
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1 vote
4 answers
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Is a supernatural entity or existence constricted by the necessity of evidence?

It's a fact that natural existences are constricted by the necessity of evidence. Meaning evidence is necessary to prove an natural existence or natural occurrence, and if there's is no evidence the ...
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how can one distinguish between disorder and the supernatural?

Many strange things happen to us when we are asleep. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sleep_paralysis https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Out-of-body_experience https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypnic_jerk ...
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Historically, were most philosophers moral realists before the rise of physicalism?

Moral facts seem weird because they don't seem to mesh too well with a purely physicalist ontology (although there is such a thing as ethical naturalism). It somehow seems odd that alongside the facts ...
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Quine and the Myth of the Given

To give you some background details about myself: I have a deep interest in Quine's work and Naturalism in Philosophy; I have been independently studying and reading Quine's work and his relation to ...
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1 answer
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Does Bayes' Theorem justify rejecting an argument for the supernatural from a well-supported miracle?

Suppose you have really good evidence for a miracle. Let's say that given the evidence, the probability of the miracle having occurred is about 80%. Now, you also know that miracles can only occur if ...
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Is Kant's Transcendent naturalistic?

Reading this article, I found the following: Kant is sympathetic to the dominant strain in modern philosophy that banishes final causes from nature and instead treats nature as nothing but matter ...
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Arguments for naturalistic moral realism

In current philosophy, what are the main strands of argumentation when it comes to substantiating naturlistic moral realism? My question may be rephrased into: How would you argue?
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A Statistical Argument Against Naturalism from Pro Golf [closed]

Imagine a golfer in a professional tournament. She is about to attempt a putt on the 18th hole. On naturalism, the golfer’s behavior is determined by neurophysiological events in the brain. Some of ...
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David Lewis and naturalism

I am studying Lewis and I am wondering what are the cornerstones of his philosophical perspective. In particular, I am wondering if Lewis is a naturalist like his supervisor Quine.
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Is there any correlation between Quine’s underdetermination and bayesian issues of old evidence and new theories?

Bayesianism has some faults some of which involve the problem of old evidence and the issue of new theories. Are these two problems linked to Quine’s underdetermination? Or are they contrasting it? ...
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Does natural science assume indirect realism?

The wiki on Direct and Indirect Realism seems to claim that indirect realism is part of natural science. The wiki defines indirect realism as follows: indirect or representative realism [is] the ...
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5 votes
7 answers
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A Ground or Foundation of Morality

I am currently reading the very fascinating paper Unspeakable Ethics, Unnatural Law by Arthur Allen Leff. It seems that the thrust of his paper is that there is no "naturalistic" way of grounding or ...
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Philosophical views on nudity

Some might argue that our attitudes towards nudity are simply cultural trappings. I believe they actually have a deeper biological origin. But I'm curious to know what philosophers have said on the ...
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1 answer
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Is "class culture" an artificial construct or does it have "natural" motivation?

Is "class culture" an artificial construct or does it have "natural" motivation? A lof of things, at least judging by internet, are associated or measured relative to socio-economic class. However, ...
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Is essentialism compatible with naturalism?

I am not an expert and I cannot understand why essentialism is incompatible with naturalism? Why scientific laws cannot describe essential properties of objects?
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3 answers
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What role does "DESIRE" play in materialistic determinism?

Let us assume the worldview of extreme materialistic determinism. This is the belief that everything is the result of its material make up. This view goes so far as to eliminate free will. Our ...
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Is Western atheism a kind of Protestant religion?

Alvin Plantinga, while setting up his evolutionary argument against naturalism in Where the Conflict Really Lies, writes (page 311): Now it is not clear that naturalism, as it stands, is a religion;...
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Who are the representatives of Michigan and Rutgers ethical naturalism?

I am writing an excursus on contemporary naturalism for my thesis. In fact, after a brief introduction to the subject of moral philosophy and to ethical naturalism, I will analyze the Duke manifesto "...
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1 vote
4 answers
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How one should live a peaceful life knowing this fact that there is no meaning of life? [closed]

So I am going through philosophical path and I think I am deep into it now days , That old question "What is the purpose of living when we are going to die one day" was eating my mind but Then I found ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Would the existence of an eternal, uncaused object conflict with the naturalistic framework?

What I'm asking is whether naturalism is the notion that everything has a natural cause, or whether it is the notion that only everything that begins has a natural cause, whereas everything that did ...
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1 vote
3 answers
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What is a scientific explanation?

My definition of when something is "scientifically explained" is when the laws of science (a set of axioms) can be used to deduce behavior of said phenomenon quantitatively/qualitatively. With this ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Evaluating One of the Premises of Evolutionary Argument Against Naturalism

I learned Plantinga's Evolutionary Argument Against Naturalism in the following form: The probability for the reliability of cognitive faculties conditional on naturalistic evolution, P(R|N&...
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Better Understanding Plantinga's Argument Against Naturalism

My advanced apologies if my question is not appropriate for this website. This is my first semester of Philosophy so I hope I'm not asking obvious, low-level questions. I have been reading Plantinga'...
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What is less than a bit? [closed]

I mean a bit of information (data). Some say (do not know exactly who) everything on its smallest level consists of information. What does the information consist of?
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Is there an online English translation of Cicero's Phaenomena Aratea?

I was wondering if there's an English/Italian translation of Cicero's Phaenomena Aratea (Prognosis?)? i.e. the translation that he did of Aratus' work. Thanks!
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How do we account under natural law for humans' ability to produce arbitrarily-improbable results?

I'm testing the assertion that human beings (leaving out other life forms for simplicity) can and do cause effects, that is, changes in the physical world, which a) have arbitrarily-low probability ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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Is science inherently naturalistic?

For an assignment, my philosophy of science professor had us read Phillip E. Johnson's "Evolution as Dogma: The Establishment of Naturalism" and then answer the following question: What is Johnson'...
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In what text and on what basis did G.E. Moore eventually reject the "open question argument"

Let's take the open question argument to basically be that if we tried to provide a reductive definition of (e.g.) goodness in non-non-naturalistic terms (so naturalistic terms), we can always ...
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What's a good translation for "De" in Dao De Jing?

The Dao De Jing is a classic about how Nature operates (or doesn't operate) to achieve its ever-evolving marvels. Jing here means a classic book. Dao is the Way, the "first cause": to me a fancy name ...
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2 answers
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Is there an innate drive to offer sacrifices for a higher being?

I have heard that philosophy recognizes or recognized a human inner drive to offer sacrifices to a higher being/authority and that this is the basis of early pagan practices and the foundation of ...
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7 votes
5 answers
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Are artificially synthesized chemical elements natural?

Humans have synthesized elements that do not exist in nature, at least not around here. This strikes me as a serious philosophical hairball: where does a philosophical naturalist put these critters? ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Does physicalism imply no truth?

It seems to me that the act of searching for truth, finding truth, and expressing truth is all just transformations of matter (and energy). For example, suppose I am proving some mathematical theorem....
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Nietzsche and What he got wrong about evolution?

It is known that Nietzsche rejected the clause of the "natural selection" and "survival of the fittest" in the theory of evolution as not as much was confirmed about the theory during his time and it ...
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6 votes
1 answer
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Where can one find the most fully developed version of EAAN with the four-part defense of premise 1?

Having just completed Alvin Plantinga's book Where the Conflict Really Lies, I was a bit surprised to learn that he now takes a different approach to defending premise 1 of the Evolutionary Argument ...
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Is it 'simply implausible' that minute regulations are rooted in God’s will or the nature of the universe?

Source: p 154, Thinking Like a Lawyer: An Introduction to Legal Reasoning (2010, 2 ed) by Kenneth J. Vandevelde   Third, much law in the modern world governs mundane, trivial matters that could ...
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8 votes
2 answers
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What is the difference between Naturalism and Physicalism?

I am trying to figure the difference between Naturalism and Physicalism. As far as I could tell, they were the same thing, except that physicalism (physicalist vs dualist) was the term used when ...
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4 votes
5 answers
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What are the problems with Plantinga's evolutionary argument against naturalism (EAAN)?

Alvin Plantinga's formulation of the argument is here. I'll try to summarize it as I understand it. Naturalistic evolution selects for traits that tend to lead to survival. Some true beliefs about ...
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1 answer
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Why does Naturalistic philosophy of science potentially encounter a circularity problem that foundationalist theories would not encounter? [closed]

Not exactly sure what the circularity problem is and how naturalism could encounter it?
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8 votes
9 answers
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Is it possible to define "the supernatural"?

From a naturalistic perspective, it is possible to argue that the supernatural not only doesn't exist, but cannot even be defined. The reasoning goes that anything which "appears" to be supernatural, ...
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Intrinsic and provisional methodological naturalism

Could anyone possibly show me simply what is the concept of the bold part? Or, if you can paraphrase the following so that I can get its idea more simply? I couldn't find any article or source as to ...
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