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Questions tagged [naturalism]

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20
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3answers
14k views

What is the difference between naturalism and materialism?

What is the difference between naturalism and materialism, if any? I see definitions of naturalism that say, in effect, it is the belief that there is no supernatural. But what is the supernatural ...
10
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2answers
316 views

Adequate Animal Housing and the Naturalistic Fallacy [closed]

Many animal rights activists claim that adequate animal housing should be geared towards the natural environment of animals. For example, they claim that monkeys should be not kept within human's ...
9
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7answers
1k views

Could there ever be evidence for an infinite being?

The God of Anselm is understood as "that than which nothing greater can be conceived." From this definition, God can be presumed to be omnipotent, omniscient, omnipresent, perfectly free, uncaused, ...
8
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7answers
643 views

Is it possible to define “the supernatural”?

From a naturalistic perspective, it is possible to argue that the supernatural not only doesn't exist, but cannot even be defined. The reasoning goes that anything which "appears" to be supernatural, ...
8
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5answers
426 views

Are artificially synthesized chemical elements natural?

Humans have synthesized elements that do not exist in nature, at least not around here. This strikes me as a serious philosophical hairball: where does a philosophical naturalist put these critters? ...
7
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5answers
1k views

Is philosophical naturalism circular reasoning?

I'm a steadfast proponent of science and logic, but it's been occurring to me lately that this belief in the veracity of science may be just that, a belief---no different than a theist's beliefs in ...
7
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2answers
1k views

What is the difference between Naturalism and Physicalism?

I am trying to figure the difference between Naturalism and Physicalism. As far as I could tell, they were the same thing, except that physicalism (physicalist vs dualist) was the term used when ...
6
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1answer
115 views

Is essentialism compatible with naturalism?

I am not an expert and I cannot understand why essentialism is incompatible with naturalism? Why scientific laws cannot describe essential properties of objects?
6
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1answer
236 views

In what text and on what basis did G.E. Moore eventually reject the “open question argument”

Let's take the open question argument to basically be that if we tried to provide a reductive definition of (e.g.) goodness in non-non-naturalistic terms (so naturalistic terms), we can always ...
6
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1answer
134 views

Where can one find the most fully developed version of EAAN with the four-part defense of premise 1?

Having just completed Alvin Plantinga's book Where the Conflict Really Lies, I was a bit surprised to learn that he now takes a different approach to defending premise 1 of the Evolutionary Argument ...
5
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2answers
332 views

Is Western atheism a kind of Protestant religion?

Alvin Plantinga, while setting up his evolutionary argument against naturalism in Where the Conflict Really Lies, writes (page 311): Now it is not clear that naturalism, as it stands, is a religion;...
4
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1answer
155 views

What does it mean for a naturalist to claim that forces/actions “exist”?

tl;dr: How can forces (e.g. gravity) be said to "exist" or be true ? I've had this question for so long, I assume it stems from a basic misunderstanding about naturalism or metaphysics, so please set ...
4
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1answer
120 views

Philosophical views on nudity

Some might argue that our attitudes towards nudity are simply cultural trappings. I believe they actually have a deeper biological origin. But I'm curious to know what philosophers have said on the ...
4
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1answer
122 views

Which mental features resist naturalization the most and why?

According to contemporary philosophy and cognitive science which mental features resist naturalization the most and why? By mental features I mean something like qualia, consciousness, mental ...
4
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6answers
221 views

A Ground or Foundation of Morality

I am currently reading the very fascinating paper Unspeakable Ethics, Unnatural Law by Arthur Allen Leff. It seems that the thrust of his paper is that there is no "naturalistic" way of grounding or ...
3
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2answers
300 views

Nietzsche and What he got wrong about evolution?

It is known that Nietzsche rejected the clause of the "natural selection" and "survival of the fittest" in the theory of evolution as not as much was confirmed about the theory during his time and it ...
3
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4answers
883 views

What are the problems with Plantinga's evolutionary argument against naturalism (EAAN)?

Alvin Plantinga's formulation of the argument is here. I'll try to summarize it as I understand it. Naturalistic evolution selects for traits that tend to lead to survival. Some true beliefs about ...
3
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2answers
59 views

Does natural science assume indirect realism?

The wiki on Direct and Indirect Realism seems to claim that indirect realism is part of natural science. The wiki defines indirect realism as follows: indirect or representative realism [is] the ...
3
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1answer
164 views

Is science inherently naturalistic?

For an assignment, my philosophy of science professor had us read Phillip E. Johnson's "Evolution as Dogma: The Establishment of Naturalism" and then answer the following question: What is Johnson'...
3
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2answers
478 views

How do metaphysical naturalists approach ethics?

I am wondering about traditions of ethics which might incorporate naturalism or skepticism. As far as I understand, the Academic Skeptics, in particular Carneades and Cicero, held that there was no ...
3
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1answer
46 views

Would the existence of an eternal, uncaused object conflict with the naturalistic framework?

What I'm asking is whether naturalism is the notion that everything has a natural cause, or whether it is the notion that only everything that begins has a natural cause, whereas everything that did ...
2
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3answers
59 views

What role does “DESIRE” play in materialistic determinism?

Let us assume the worldview of extreme materialistic determinism. This is the belief that everything is the result of its material make up. This view goes so far as to eliminate free will. Our ...
2
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2answers
155 views

Is there an innate drive to offer sacrifices for a higher being?

I have heard that philosophy recognizes or recognized a human inner drive to offer sacrifices to a higher being/authority and that this is the basis of early pagan practices and the foundation of ...
2
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5answers
254 views

Is Cleverness a part of Wisdom? [closed]

Well, i mean to ask, that is a clever person....a wise one naturally or not? Is it necessary for a very wise person to be very clever also?
2
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2answers
82 views

What is Brandom's notion of implicitness?

Robert Brandom seems to have a very distinct notion of implicitness when he says things like: For while that vocabulary is not itself descriptive vocabulary, its use is implicit in the use of ...
2
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1answer
50 views

Who are the representatives of Michigan and Rutgers ethical naturalism?

I am writing an excursus on contemporary naturalism for my thesis. In fact, after a brief introduction to the subject of moral philosophy and to ethical naturalism, I will analyze the Duke manifesto "...
2
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2answers
73 views

Does Priority (way of solving problem) come from Natural selection philosophy? [closed]

I know that Natural selection Philosophy was introduced by Charles Darwin, who came from the West. I am from the East. When I first came to Western countries to study finance, computer, business..., I ...
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1answer
215 views

What is less than a bit? [closed]

I mean a bit of information (data). Some say (do not know exactly who) everything on its smallest level consists of information. What does the information consist of?
1
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1answer
314 views

How can one derive naturalistic moral principles without referencing utility?

When considering the derivation of moral principles from a naturalistic point of view, it would seem to me that moral statements can only be conceived of in one way. That is, if we are trying to make ...
1
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3answers
84 views

What is a scientific explanation?

My definition of when something is "scientifically explained" is when the laws of science (a set of axioms) can be used to deduce behavior of said phenomenon quantitatively/qualitatively. With this ...
1
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2answers
91 views

Is there an online English translation of Cicero's Phaenomena Aratea?

I was wondering if there's an English/Italian translation of Cicero's Phaenomena Aratea (Prognosis?)? i.e. the translation that he did of Aratus' work. Thanks!
1
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4answers
155 views

How one should live a peaceful life knowing this fact that there is no meaning of life? [closed]

So I am going through philosophical path and I think I am deep into it now days , That old question "What is the purpose of living when we are going to die one day" was eating my mind but Then I found ...
1
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1answer
93 views

Evaluating One of the Premises of Evolutionary Argument Against Naturalism

I learned Plantinga's Evolutionary Argument Against Naturalism in the following form: The probability for the reliability of cognitive faculties conditional on naturalistic evolution, P(R|N&...
1
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1answer
268 views

Better Understanding Plantinga's Argument Against Naturalism

My advanced apologies if my question is not appropriate for this website. This is my first semester of Philosophy so I hope I'm not asking obvious, low-level questions. I have been reading Plantinga'...
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1answer
114 views

Does physicalism imply no truth?

It seems to me that the act of searching for truth, finding truth, and expressing truth is all just transformations of matter (and energy). For example, suppose I am proving some mathematical theorem....
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0answers
226 views

What's a good translation for “De” in Dao De Jing?

The Dao De Jing is a classic about how Nature operates (or doesn't operate) to achieve its ever-evolving marvels. Jing here means a classic book. Dao is the Way, the "first cause": to me a fancy name ...
0
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2answers
251 views

How do we account under natural law for humans' ability to produce arbitrarily-improbable results?

I'm testing the assertion that human beings (leaving out other life forms for simplicity) can and do cause effects, that is, changes in the physical world, which a) have arbitrarily-low probability ...
0
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1answer
87 views

Why does Naturalistic philosophy of science potentially encounter a circularity problem that foundationalist theories would not encounter? [closed]

Not exactly sure what the circularity problem is and how naturalism could encounter it?
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2answers
218 views

How do social sciences today tend to see the contributions of biology and other natural sciences? [closed]

The old debate "nature" vs. "nurture" has given space to a new debate between "natural sciences" vs. "postmodernism" (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Science_wars, http://www.quackwatch.com/...
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0answers
28 views

Is it 'simply implausible' that minute regulations are rooted in God’s will or the nature of the universe?

Source: p 154, Thinking Like a Lawyer: An Introduction to Legal Reasoning (2010, 2 ed) by Kenneth J. Vandevelde   Third, much law in the modern world governs mundane, trivial matters that could ...
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2answers
131 views

Intrinsic and provisional methodological naturalism

Could anyone possibly show me simply what is the concept of the bold part? Or, if you can paraphrase the following so that I can get its idea more simply? I couldn't find any article or source as to ...
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1answer
69 views

Is “class culture” an artificial construct or does it have “natural” motivation?

Is "class culture" an artificial construct or does it have "natural" motivation? A lof of things, at least judging by internet, are associated or measured relative to socio-economic class. However, ...
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3answers
205 views

Do I need to implicitly or explicitly have a value to rationally claim that I 'ought to do something'? [closed]

I use Humes idea about the 'is..ought to gap' (or my spin on it) mainly to make sure I have good reasons for what I do -and what I advise others to do- and to make sure actions are not based purely on ...