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Can numbers be considered to have alternatives in terms of contingent contingency argument?

in the Argument of Contingency, alternatives are mentioned they bring a argument like if a thing has alternatives, it can't be necessary existent because if it could be different then it doesn't have ...
Hido's user avatar
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1 answer
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Can a necessitarian still believe in this notion of possibility?

I am a necessitarian, meaning, I believe that the only thing that is possible is what actually happens. The reason for that is because I don't believe any possible world except this one exists. ...
user107952's user avatar
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8 votes
3 answers
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Can the law of non-contradiction exist without the law of identity?

Lately I've been reading about Quentin Meillassoux, and it seems that the only law of logic he doesn't see as contingent is the law of non-contradiction, because if the world is what it is not, then ...
edelex's user avatar
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15 votes
15 answers
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Is the surprising applicability of mathematics to the physical world a brute fact, or something crying out for a theistic explanation?

William Lane Craig proposed the following argument for God's existence: For those who are unfamiliar with the argument for God from the applicability of mathematics to the physical world, here is a ...
Mark's user avatar
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2 answers
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Reference request for books and papers that defend necessitarianism

I am someone who believes that only the actual is possible, that everything that is, is necessarily the case. I believe that position is a strong form of actualism, often called necessitarianism. I ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Does necessitarianism make the concept of law of nature vacuous?

I am someone who believes that everything is necessary, that only the actual is possible. However, I came across a somewhat disturbing implication of my view. I believe my view entails that every true ...
user107952's user avatar
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Does the block universe theory of time imply necessitarianism? What about conversely?

Is the block universe theory of time logically equivalent to necessitarianism? If not, does at least one imply the other? Or are they logically independent?
user107952's user avatar
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Does necessitarianism imply that every true statement about the physical world is a law of physics?

I am someone who believes that nothing is possible except the actual. In my view, all non-actual possible statements are false. So, for example, the statements "Unicorns could have evolved on ...
user107952's user avatar
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3 votes
6 answers
180 views

Do contingent propositions about the world rely on the consistency of mathematics?

Assume that a contradiction in mathematics is discovered, say '0=1'. Then, by the principle of explosion from classical logic (by the rules of which, arguably, the world adheres as well) we can derive ...
Alex's user avatar
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2 votes
3 answers
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Can everything in the universe be metaphysically necessary without determinism?

Can every single event in the universe, be metaphysically necessary? In other words, could it be that the whole notion of possibility is wrong and that there is only one possible world? One might ...
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3 answers
175 views

Is the universe necessary?

The Contingency Argument of Leibniz states that if the universe has an explanation of its existence, that explanation is God. This introduces metaphysics. But could the fundamental fabric of spacetime ...
Meanach's user avatar
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What is the difference between something happening for no reason and something being necessary?

Suppose I ask you why there is something rather than nothing. And by something, I mean causal reality in reference to tangible objects and not just abstract objects. I recently saw a discussion where ...
user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
166 views

Are there limits to what can be proposed as metaphysical necessity?

I have read in philosophical literature that in the old days, many philosophers used to equate necessity with always existing. Nowadays, it seems that something eternal can be seen as contingent (I.e. ...
user avatar
3 votes
3 answers
57 views

Does Necessity Mandate Uniqueness?

Suppose there is a nonzero number of contingent entities and a nonzero number of necessary entities. For example, the law of non-contradiction is probably a plausible candidate for something that ...
vicky_molokh's user avatar
3 votes
5 answers
514 views

Arguments against Necessitarianism

I would like to know what the most successful arguments have been against necessitarianism, as I struggle to imagine how necessitarianism could be false. I think about how any particular event ...
David's user avatar
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0 answers
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A question on quantified modal logic

I originally posted this on math.stackexchange.com, but I’m cross-posting it since I know there are good modal logicians on here too. Also, I already asked a similar question here: Identity in ...
PW_246's user avatar
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2 votes
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Can an event that has a beginning be metaphysically necessary?

Suppose an extremely complex event occurs that is meaningful but extremely improbable under current physical laws. Suppose then, that a theist says, “God explains this better for otherwise it is very ...
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Explaining the existence vs. explaining the nonexistence of necessary beings

I understand that I am waiving issues like the absolute/relative simplicity/complexity distinction, the difference between the logic of existence and the logic of nonexistence per se, etc., so I ...
Kristian Berry's user avatar
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1 answer
90 views

The set-or-class of things that don't exist

If it could be determinate, how many things don't exist, i.e. if there could be a set of nonexistent things, would the existence of other things follow "mechanically"? If it's not ...
Kristian Berry's user avatar
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0 answers
30 views

Is the existence of morality compatible with necessitarianism?

This is somewhat related to my previous question, here: Is the nature of morality counterfactual?. If morality is counterfactual, what would a necessitarian point of view imply about it? Since ...
user107952's user avatar
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0 answers
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Is determinism equivalent to necessitarianism? If not, does one imply the other?

I am having a hard time understanding the difference between determinism and necessitarianism. What is the difference between them? Are they equivalent, or is one strictly stronger than the other, or ...
user107952's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
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Arguments for and against necessetarianism

I would like to read some texts that argue for/against necessitarianism, meaning, the belief that the world can't be otherwise. I am one such person who believes that, and I would like to hear of the ...
user107952's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
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How to rescue modal scientific definitions from necessitarianism?

Many definitions in the sciences are modal, meaning, they deal with possibility. Let me give some examples. In physics, there is the definition of energy as the ability to do work. In chemistry, there ...
user107952's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
91 views

Metaphysical indeterminacy and necessity

This is similar to my last question, but now I am asking about a specific/different interpretation of vagueness. To fit metaphysical indeterminacy into this picture Barnes and Williams [claim]... the ...
user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
162 views

Why shouldn’t I be a skeptic about the Necessitation Rule for alethic modal logics?

Alethic modal logics for metaphysical possibility and necessity usually have the Necessitation Rule: From ⊢P, infer ⊢□P. Doesn’t this commit us to the meta-notion that logical necessity modulo some ...
PW_246's user avatar
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2 answers
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If a then it cannot fail to be the case that b

I am studying logic in my free time from the book Logic: A very short introduction by Grahan Priest and I am currently encountering difficulties in chapter 6 about Necessity and possibility. In this ...
eeqesri's user avatar
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0 answers
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Would my argument of knowledge being a social construct be a resolution to The Problem of the Criterion?

Questions from https://iep.utm.edu/problem-of-the-criterion/: What do we know? How are we to decide in any particular case whether we have knowledge? I’ve been reading into The Problem of the ...
Dennis Francis Blewett's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
53 views

"I vow that this sentence 𝘸𝘪𝘭𝘭 be true," vs., "I vow that this sentence 𝘴𝘩𝘢𝘭𝘭 be true"

To try to "explain" why the liar sentence is "logically dangerous" whereas the Gödel sentence is "logically helpful," I tried out contrasting the differing "effect&...
Kristian Berry's user avatar
5 votes
7 answers
5k views

Is every feature of the universe logically necessary?

Is every feature of the universe logically necessary? For example, it would be logically necessary that no material object can exceed the speed of light. In other words, there is only one way for the ...
user107952's user avatar
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3 votes
4 answers
226 views

Is an equal outcome necessary to differentiate between equity and equality?

Based on the answer provided here, it seems to me that when the word "equity" is used in relation to "equality," an equal outcome is necessary in order to differentiate between ...
OutwardThinking's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
83 views

Having trouble understanding "not possible without" vs. "necessary for"

At face value for me these don't mean the same thing but I'm struggling to find if they are separate concepts. Are there examples where they differ? Are they or aren't they separate ideas? I can't ...
J Kusin's user avatar
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1 answer
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Are the truths of arithmetic logically necessary? [duplicate]

Are true statements of arithmetic logically necessary? That is, is "2+3=5", the commutativity of addition of natural numbers, and the infinitude of primes, among other statements, logically ...
user107952's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
222 views

If something is necessarily true, is it probably true?

Suppose I were to say "2+2=4 is probably true". Would that be incorrect, since it is necessarily true? I believe "probably true" means "there is a greater than 50% chance it ...
user107952's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
266 views

Does the Principle of Sufficient Reason imply everything is necessary?

Leibniz's Principle of Sufficient Reason (PSR) states that: for every fact F, there must be a sufficient reason why F is the case (https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/sufficient-reason/#WhatSuffReas). ...
John Smith's user avatar
5 votes
5 answers
378 views

Can empiricists and materialists accept metaphysical modality?

There are some propositions such as 1+1=2 that seem to be true in all possible worlds. That is, there is no possible world in which 1+1=2 is not true. Propositions like this that seem to be true in ...
David Gudeman's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
255 views

The 'Strongest Argument for Veganism': Speciesism, ethics and necessity

The Effective Altruism Foundation provides the following as the 'Strongest Argument for Veganism'. (1) We shouldn’t be cruel to animals, i.e. we shouldn’t harm animals unnecessarily. (2) The ...
Futilitarian's user avatar
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An argument against Hume's idea of necessary connection

In section 7 of the Enquiry Hume talks about necessary connection being an ambiguous metaphysical concept since even though we see events happening one after another (ex. hitting a billiard ball ...
R Samuel's user avatar
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0 answers
28 views

How does the cited passage of Aristotle imply that what exists sempiternally cannot age?

This article from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy indicates Aristotle's position as "what exists sempiternally cannot age. (Physics 221b30)" The Hussey translation of the cited ...
bblohowiak's user avatar
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1 answer
214 views

What is metaphysical contingency?

I have always thought is something is metaphysically contingent is simply means that something, a state of affairs, MAY be the case. Tomorrow I may stub my foot on a nail and feel pain. This ...
rux23's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
90 views

Constructivism and the effects of constructing definitions on morality

My friend states that 'morality is subjective' since one can construct definitions based on arbitrary intensions and extensions of a well-defined set viz. 'My own morally not bad actions' from the ...
Messi Lio's user avatar
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2 votes
4 answers
1k views

What precisely are brute contingent facts?

In my philosophical discourses typically relating to cosmological arguments, I've been astounded by brute facts, and how they relate to contingency and necessity. My reflections can be adduced by a ...
Khasim Amedu's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
177 views

Why is 'necessity' important in causation?

Why is 'necessity' important in cause and effect? Shouldn't experience and high probability be enough? And, how does Hume define 'necessity'? Thank you! cctabla
cctabla's user avatar
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1 answer
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What do we mean by "if we have a proposition which is thought in conjunction with its own necessity"?

I am reading an English translation of Critique of Pure Reason by Kant and came across the statement "if we have a proposition which is thought in conjunction with its own necessity, we have an a ...
Prathik Rajendran M's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
408 views

Is existence itself necessary?

I define ‘existence’ here as the totality of being, and I take it as obvious that existence is actual. In this context, ‘necessary’ will be defined as ‘must exist because it cannot fail to exist’. The ...
PaulMichael's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
483 views

Metaphysical vs ontological necessity

There are many forms of consequence. It seems that there should be some method of distinguishing between them. Of primary concern to philosophers are two types of consequence: physical causality and ...
Benjamin Stenson's user avatar
1 vote
6 answers
281 views

Is steam necessarily ice?

This question arose from the discussion of my recent question, [When is the first appearance of Phosphorus after March 21, 2021?][1] One of the other arguments in Kripke's 'Naming and Necessity' is ...
A Raybould's user avatar
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When is the first appearance of Phosphorus after March 21, 2021?

Saul Kripke's argument, in his seminal 'Naming and Necessity', that Hesperus (the Evening Star) is necessarily Phosphorus (the Morning Star), has become one of the canonical examples of a posteriori ...
A Raybould's user avatar
0 votes
4 answers
197 views

Does the existence of a thing necessarily imply its logical necessity?

In formal logic, does the existence of a thing necessarily imply its logical necessity, i.e., is it possible for something to exist without being logically necessary? Can a logically unnecessary thing ...
bblohowiak's user avatar
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0 answers
103 views

Does modus tollens capture the essence of "necessary condition"?

Does modus tollens capture the essence of "necessary condition"? (1) P → Q, ¬Q, … so ¬P. (2) So Q is a necessary condition of P. Is (1) the inner structure of (2)? Are any of these true: The ...
Demogorgon93's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
63 views

What is the distinction between A-intension and C-intension?

I'm having a really hard time understanding a concept discussed in “Qualia and Analytic Conditionals” by Braddon-Mitchell and "Why We Need A-Intensions" by Jackson. Here's my extraction of these ...
Jeremy Hadfield's user avatar