Questions tagged [ontology]

Ontology is the study of the nature of being, existence or reality as such, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.

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Does existence consist of two categories?

The two categories I wish to describe is: Eternal existence being uncaused and having always been Short term existences such as human consciousness or other types which are destructible from their ...
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Did Spinoza say "to name it is to limit it"?

I have seen this quote attributed second-hand and I wonder if anyone can document its source. Greatly appreciated.
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Classical logic with a modified law of identity and its implications

Let's take the Law of Identity and change it to the Law of Identity with Overlapping Categories: Would classical logic with the modified Law of Identity be completely different than classical logic. ...
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If nothing is preventing something from existing, must it exist?

The question in the title; if there is no existent precluding factor (whatsoever) for the existence of some x, must such a x exist?
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Under what conditions can we say that two things are ontological distinct?

I am curious as to under what conditions we say that two things are ontologically distinct. My hunch is that we say two things are ontologically distinct if they differ in their essential properties. ...
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Where is it that I go when I dream? Part 2

The body is often referred to by some as a "Temple". If it is a Temple, then to be awake is like standing outside of same during the day and to have a dream is like entering the foyer of it ...
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Are all things the forms they have?

Trying to answer the question: "What are the things?" I noticed that different things have different forms and that equal things have equal forms. But what if it was a wrong reasoning ? I ...
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Does super-essentiality preclude compatibility with Anaxagoras?

On the one hand, God as superessential implies: Part of God's divine nature is to be found in humans, and indeed all things This seems to be consonant with the view of the cosmos held by Anaxagoras: ...
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How would Heidegger criticize Descartes' melting candle analogy?

I've recently finished reading Being and Time and have attempted to supplement my understanding with different takes on the piece. One interesting angle that I've mused upon myself but haven't seen in ...
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Thomism: Has any Thomist created an ontology of nouns?

English philosopher John Wilkins wrote a book outlining a universal language, and included in it was an outline of a noun classification system for classifying all objects (both physical and abstract) ...
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Categorizing with metaphor, analogy, and symmetry

Continuing the discussion Categorizing with metaphor, analogy, generalization, and abstraction my next question is how two concepts metaphor/analogy equivalent to symmetry(change without change) .If ...
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Categorizing with metaphor, analogy, generalization, and abstraction

Are two concepts metaphor/analogy equivalent to generalization/abstraction. If yes how? Give me some examples
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Does anyone know which source Anthony Kenny used for Parmenides in A History of Western Philosophy?

Reading his textbook, his extracts of Parmenides are much more readable than the other translations I've come across, but he only seems to source them by Diels-Kratz number! In case anyone recognises ...
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Positivism in search for truth

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Positivism The notion that scientific theories must be tested experimentally is fundamental to the doctrine of positivism, which also requires that theories must always ...
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If a statement and its negation are in-principle-indistinguishable empirically, can it mean anything at all?

There exists a category of syntactically valid declarative statements which appear intuitively like they are descriptions of reality - but which no possible measurement could distinguish from their ...
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Are simulation based tests / experiments also just types of augmented hyper-reality?

Questions: Are simulation based-tests / experiments just types of augmented hyper-reality? Background: What I mean here is that the types of tests / experiments here are simulation based so this is ...
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Is there any speculative attempt at proposing something as fundamental as time, space and matter that may not exist in our current universe?

There is a category that groups time, space, and matter together. This category is called "substance" or "substantivalism." I am wondering if there are speculative ideas of ...
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Reconciling Parmenides with the Kabbalist notion of Ein Sof

While contrasting the ontological systems of Parmenides and Kabbalists may seem arbitrary, I hope it will not be fruitless. For now, I'm aiming to examine one specific concept: Ein Sof. As wiki puts ...
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Question about equivalence and equality [closed]

What is it that equality and equivalence have in common, and how are they distinct. Please give detailed answer
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Does the Universe tend towards complexity/elegance?

So many of our scientific theories suggest that, from singularity or homogeneity, everything grows more and more complex. I say 'so many' here because I'm not speaking only about cosmology (and ...
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Plato's forms - sparse realism and scope of forms

Was Plato a sparse realist about universals? (because "Carve nature at its joints") And did he think everyday human made objects and social kinds had forms? eg tables Thanks
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Would a distinction between existenceₜᵣᵢᵥᵢₐₗ and existenceₙₒₙₜᵣᵢᵥᵢₐₗ diffuse Meinongianism and ontological arguments?

Or, really, any line of reasoning that seems to ideologically commit us to some sort of ontology that we have no clear-and-substantive relation with? This book from the Cambridge University Press ...
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Are the body parts of living beings, considered living beings?

Consider a living being, for example, us humans. The body of this living being is composed of various components such as heart, brain, kidney, etc. Now the question is whether these components ...
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Neither Presentism nor Eternalism by Carlo Rovelli

The paper in question Rovelli argues against both presentism and eternalism. Later he proposes third option in which the concept of "local present" is central. The problem is I cannot ...
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Under metaphysical naturalism, does everything boil down to Physics?

If metaphysical naturalism is true, would that mean that Physics is the ultimate discipline that can sufficiently explain everything, and that all other disciplines, including Chemistry, Biology, ...
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What is character, and what role does it play in the decision making of an agent, according to proponents of libertarian free will?

I understand libertarian free will as an agent's ability to choose otherwise, or having more than one course of action available to them, when making a choice at time t, given a fixed past up to t. ...
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Is it better to exist than not to exist?

Once we already exist we want to continue existing, but before we existed we did not care if we existed or not. So what is better? Is it better to bring new life into existence? And the more we bring, ...
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How is asymmetry of metaphor an important part of object-oriented ontology?

I am reading Graham Harman's Object-Oriented Ontology: A New Theory of Everything. I'm finding it interesting and a lot of the ideas resonate, although I'm quite sure I don't completely understand it. ...
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Is there a philosophical concept that describes the notion that all permutations of human experience must exist simultaneously?

It's the idea that, basically, if we each have our own paths to walk, so to speak, and if they are all unique to each individual person, then that must mean every possible permutation of a "life&...
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How can we test whether other possible worlds exist?

Philosophers talk a lot about possible worlds. I am one person who does not believe any other worlds except ours exist. But how can I know if I am right? How would one know if other possible worlds ...
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Where is the line between semantics and ontology?

To be more specific, for a long time, it's seemed to me that a lot of open questions in philosophy, such as "What is consciousness?" or "What is truth?" come down, in large part, ...
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What functions exist to represent the idea of an object being “self-contiguous”?

I have had an intuitive idea for a while that I am now trying to link to the actual mathematical theory treating this. The idea comes from debating if a thing is “intrinsically real” or just “socially ...
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Is there any philosophical theory behind the concept of object in computer science?

From - Object (computer science) - Wikipedia: A language is usually considered object-based if it includes the basic capabilities for an object: identity, properties, and attributes. A language is ...
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Speaking what is not = speaking about non-being?

In Plato's The Sophist, a stranger from Elea argues with Theaetetus, a young friend of Socrates, about the definition of "sophist". They come to the conclusion that the sophist imitates the ...
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What do materialists mean by 'material' ? Is it matter ? Is it energy ? What is our evidence for its existence? [closed]

Overview of relevant material views. Evidence for existence of this material. Role of the observer.
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Regarding objects being concrete and properties being abstract

For those who believe that objects are concrete things and properties are abstract things, what do you make of sensory properties? Our brains perceive sensory qualities first and build (concepts of) &...
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What does existence correspond to outside of human consciousness? [closed]

The existence of something is a purely human concept. What does it correspond to outside of human consciousness?
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How many isolated concept clusters are there?

Let me start by explaining what I mean by an isolated concept cluster. It is often remarked that you can't define any moral term without using other moral terms. For example, you can define obligation ...
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How can universal truths lead to particular truths?

Disclaimer: I have not read philosophy outside of limited Greek works So, Plato theorized that there was a world of "universals" and "particulars", the world of general principles (...
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Can we critique Ontological Arguments by attacking their usage of the mind/language only?

Couldn’t we critique Ontological Arguments’ compatibility with the concept of God by suggesting that an omnipotent being should be able to be proved by something outside of the mind, or something ...
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Quine-Putnam indispensability argument

If Quine-Putnam's argument is (following the SEP): (P1) We ought to have ontological commitment to all and only the entities that are indispensable to our best scientific theories. (P2) Mathematical ...
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Location of the sky (universe) according to Aristotle

Aristotle wrote in his Physics: The earth is in the water, the water is in the air, the air is in the ether, the ether is in the sky, and the sky is no longer in anything else. Do you agree with ...
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Identification of light with existence and darkness with non-existence [closed]

Is it true that in ancient times many thinkers identified light with existence (essence), and darkness with non-existence? Examples include Pythagoreanism, Neoplatonism, the ontology of light as-...
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Introductory texts to formal ontology and mereology?

I’m a grad student of Mathematics, doing research in Formal Semantics (a topic in Computational Linguistics) and some of my more tangential reading has made me privy to the existence of formal ...
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Where does this concept of existence fall?

In exploring the questions of existence, I came to this concept. I am curious if anyone has any feedback or can point me to any other materials or ideas that relate to this? I am sure I am not the ...
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How does Hegel's Ontology overcome issues in Spinoza's?

I'm trying to write a paper and I've tried to reconstruct an argument about this on my own with no luck so far. It's about Hegel's criticism of Spinoza. As far as I understand, Hegel's main critique ...
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Do models of Cartesian closed logic physically exist?

Cartesian closed logics, also known as simple type theories or simply-typed lambda calculi, are ubiquitous; we use sentential logic (WP, nLab) all the time in philosophy and law, and doxastic logic to ...
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Ontology over time

Looking for any recommended references for this topic, I was recommended a good book on logic previously on here, and found it extremely enlightening, mainly how we deal with issues like the ship of ...
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Ontic structural realism: what's the difference between 'structures are all there is' and 'all there is are structures'?

I'm a physics student reading a philosophy essay about ontic structural realism and quantum field theory. In that paper, the author presented ontic structural realism(OSR) and radical ontic structural ...
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Traditionally in philosophy, anything that can be said to be is a being

True or false? Does this mean that tables and chairs, rivers and rocks, by virtue of the fact that they exist, can be called 'beings'?
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