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Questions tagged [ontology]

Ontology is the study of the nature of being, existence or reality as such, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.

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deductive reasoning and first principle

In continuation of Are the concepts of reductionism and first principles the same? my next question is what is the relationship between first principle thinking and deductive reasoning ?
quanity's user avatar
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Are there logical facts absolutely necessary in modal logic across possible and impossible worlds?

If we consider weird universes or ones in which impossibilia exist alon others. Are there any logical things or laws of thought which have to exist across all types of wild conceptions? Roujd squares ...
Ehudjd Ejeijr's user avatar
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8 answers
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Does the universe include everything, or merely everything that exists?

Does the universe include literally everything? Or merely everything that exists? I am asking this because I think that, to give an example, unicorns are not part of the universe, because they don't ...
user107952's user avatar
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Relations without Relata?

Ladyman’s ontic structural realism posits to the world is comprised of relations without relata. Can somebody please explain what this means conceptually? What are the reasons someone would have for ...
GhostRocket's user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
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If someone doesn't believe in "the" theory of category mistakes

There are actually a bunch of these theories (per the SEP entry).1 But so suppose that one believed in no "ontological categories" at all. Or suppose someone were a skeptic about ontological ...
Kristian Berry's user avatar
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5 answers
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What are reasonable counter objections to the argument that materialism is incoherent because it conceptually separates Being and Mentality?

Appreciate the time. This is my first post. I have looked at various resources and I've found that there's an aspect inherent to materialism/physicalism that gets overlooked and that I find central. ...
Sismetic's user avatar
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How does viewing all human creations as 'corporations' align with or challenge existing philosophical frameworks?

I propose defining a 'corporation' as 'a framework around an idea that seeks to continue to exist given parameters.' This definition seems to encompass all human creations, from self to language to ...
Corporate Entity's user avatar
3 votes
4 answers
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Emergent Behavior: Observer-Constructed or Observer-Independent behavior of systems

I am seeking works that align with the following thesis: The emergent behaviors claimed to be observed in certain phenomena are not inherent to the phenomena themselves but are artifacts of the mental ...
Raphael Augusto's user avatar
5 votes
5 answers
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Is our consciousness evidence of the existence of a true ontology that underlies many "conventional" ontologies?

Note: to avoid confusion, this question presumes the correctness of some flavor of physicalism of the mind. The idea that conscious states supervene on the brain. I am making a point that since we ...
Annika's user avatar
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21 votes
10 answers
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Is there a category even more general than "thing"?

Is there a category even more general than "thing"? Or is "thing" the most general category there is? That is, does there exist an x such that x is not a thing? Personally, I ...
user107952's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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How to interpret sleep in metaphysical solipsism?

Sleep is a curious necessity for most beings and impacts health when neglected. How does metaphysical solipsism interpret this regular activity? Motivation From a solipsistic viewpoint, sleep could be ...
tejasvi's user avatar
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Do meanings of statements exist?

It was suggested to me in another thread that materialism is self defeating. But when I looked at the reason for that statement I found confusion in the argument. (4) MATERIALISM [Definition] The ...
lee pappas's user avatar
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7 votes
14 answers
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Physical reality of physics properties

Is there an argument for the physical reality of physics properties? What I mean is the following: take force as an example. Suppose a tractor is pulling a plow with the same force as a nearby shed ...
David Gudeman's user avatar
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0 answers
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Was Gödel actually convinced that his ontological proof was correct?

The proof is obviously logically valid, but it is as obvious that it isn't logically sound. For instance, the second axiom states that ¬P(φ) ⟺ P(¬φ), take φ(x) ⟺ x is a male human being. Then either ...
Elvis's user avatar
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upward downward topdown bottomup causation

can u tell me more about upward and downward causation . Is it same as bottom up and top down causation. What about one cause having lot of effects and one effect having lot of causes ? Any chart/...
quanity's user avatar
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3 votes
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are the usual quantified statements independent of domains of discourse?

let U be the property of being an unicorn and take the following proposition P = it's not the case that there is a x such that U(x).` P is a quantified proposition, and my question is: What is the ...
TRUTHS's user avatar
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7 answers
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Term of art for ontological evasion

I am looking for a term that I would call ontological evasion (or ontlogical elision if we wish to sound more neutral) but I dont find anything like it in the standard places — IEP/SEP/wikipedia. The ...
Rushi's user avatar
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What is the reason behind the fourth axiom in Gödel's ontological proof?

In Gödel's ontological proof, axiom 4 goes like this: And I'm not sure about what it means. If that P(φ) is true, then isn't it necessarily true as well? There's some basic concept about modal logic ...
Elvis's user avatar
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4 votes
7 answers
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Did God "design" logic? [closed]

Note, this question doesn't require belief in God, but it helps me formulate the question. Is the following statement a possible truth: He decided that 2 + 2 = 4*. He could have made it so that 2 + 2 ...
Rabbi Kaii's user avatar
2 votes
6 answers
191 views

Does having certainty about anything imply being omniscient?

The question might initially startle you, but let me clarify what I mean. In our daily lives, we operate on a probabilistic model, making decisions based on what we perceive to be certain. For ...
HAMDI ABDERRAHMENE's user avatar
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1 answer
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Do we have evidence that explanations that contain a minimal number of entities are true? [closed]

Does our universe require all our explanations to be the most minimal? For example, entropy indicates that everything in our universe tends to a minimum. So all explanations should be as minimal as ...
Arnold's user avatar
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What does modern physics hold to be the “base ontological system” of reality?

Modern physics defines fundamental forces and particles as particular “fields”. I have read some things like “gauge symmetry” play an important role in these theories. I have looked up a good ...
Julius Hamilton's user avatar
3 votes
5 answers
669 views

Model and implication of bidirectional time

I have thought about it and currently it is mostly considered to be an absolute fact that time is uni dimensional and only goes one way, or naturally only go one way, or forward, but if time weren't ...
Sayaman's user avatar
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3 answers
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Ontological equivalence in Hinduism?

So different interpretations of quantum mechanics lead to the same equations and consensus of quantum mechanics (like many worlds interpretation and Copenhagen). I dub this as ontologically equivalent....
More Anonymous's user avatar
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1 answer
66 views

Wittgenstein and the primary elements

What does it mean to say that we can attribute neither being nor non-being to the elements? One might say: if everything that we call “being” and “non-being” consists in the obtaining and non-...
Егор Галыкин's user avatar
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4 answers
2k views

Does the current “ruling ontology” deny any possibility of a social causation of mental illness?

Mark Fisher in his book Capitalist Realism writes: The current ruling ontology denies any possibility of a social causation of mental illness. Fisher then goes on to say that the construct of “...
Muhhamedbinghazi's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
85 views

René Descartes' and Wittgenstein Doubt: Self and the Existence of Others?

Can one doubt their own existence in the world while simultaneously doubting the existence of others? If one's being isn't present because they aren't present themselves, wouldn't that make it ...
Hadibinalshiab's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
59 views

What is the ontology behind true randomness and an indefinite reality?

I was curious as to whether there are any philosophical issues discussed with this concept. Note that by an indefinite reality (and I may be using the wrong term), I mean the notion of reality having ...
Baby_philosopher's user avatar
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5 answers
194 views

Do brute facts exist, and if so, how can we tell if a given fact is brute or requires further explanation?

In contemporary philosophy, a brute fact is a fact that cannot be explained in terms of a deeper, more "fundamental" fact. There are two main ways to explain something: say what "...
user avatar
2 votes
3 answers
111 views

Is there a difference between "there is" versus "there exists"?

I have heard the phrases "there is" and "there exists" used interchangeably, but I am now wondering, is there a difference between them, and if so, what is it? Also, have ...
user107952's user avatar
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6 votes
7 answers
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Is physicalism the simplest worldview in terms of the complexity of its ontology? [closed]

Does physicalism enjoy the simplest ontology among all worldviews? Are there alternative conceivable views of reality with a simpler ontology than physicalism's that can explain the same data? For ...
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2 answers
88 views

What is the difference between concepts and things?

I read that in Hegel’s ontology, concepts and things are the same thing. The universe itself is constructed from concepts, so in a way, reality is made of ideas. Is there a deep difference other than ...
Julius Hamilton's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
223 views

How might one fundamentally define the difference between indefinite and definite nouns?

I am exploring ologs, a way of diagramming conceptual relationships. I am trying to understand if it is necessary for the nodes or objects of an olog to should be restricted to represent only classes ...
Julius Hamilton's user avatar
1 vote
6 answers
1k views

Is there a work of fiction so "fictional", that is so different from our everyday reality, that there is absolutely nothing similar to it? [closed]

Can one produce/write a work of fiction that is so fictional that there is no connection to anything within the real world? If not, why? And what I mean by connection is that there is no relation in ...
How why e's user avatar
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22 votes
16 answers
3k views

Is knowledge non-physical?

What is the fundamental nature/ontology of knowledge? Is knowledge a physical state? Is knowledge a specific arrangement of physical particles in a brain, a book, a solid-state drive, a GPU, etc.? Or ...
user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
61 views

topdown bottomup approach in complex systems

In continuation to question Topdown bottom up reductionism emergentism my second question is ; in complex system, like the economy, which are highly complex systems where it is often impossible to ...
quanity's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
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Are there any really interesting contemporary philosophers analyzing what a Wikipedia article should be like as compared to what it is like?

I have often considered that there could be a better explicit formula for how a Wikipedia page should be written but I have not yet formulated any such principles. My main issue is that ideally a ...
Julius Hamilton's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
127 views

Arguments Against Quantifier Neutralism?

Are there any good arguments for rejecting quantifier neutrality advocated in Azzouni’s “Ontology Without Borders”?
GhostRocket's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
43 views

What does Kant mean by "objects" in BXVI-BXIX of his Critique of Pure Reason?

In the discussion leading up to BXVI Kant consideres the application of reason to empirical cognition as in physical experiments, or to theoretical cognition as in mathematics. In these cases the ...
Steven Thomas Hatton's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
95 views

(Where) In his Critique of Pure Reason did Kant say that things-in-themselves represented in thought are persumed to exist?

Reading Kant in the German language original is probably challenging enough. Being at the mercy of a translator certainly exacerbates the difficulty. So, this may have appeared in one, but not all ...
Steven Thomas Hatton's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
152 views

human life is based on suspicion and assumption, rather than certainty?

A murder occurred, so the police came to the house where the crime took place, and as soon as they entered, they found a person whose clothes were stained with blood and carrying a knife in his hand. ...
Muhhamedbinghazi's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
50 views

Emanation by the One according to Plotinus

How is Mind (Nous) formed from "the One” according to Plotinus? What is the mechanism of this phenomenon? Why is it Nous, and not the Soul or something else, that is the first emanation?
ggk hj's user avatar
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4 votes
9 answers
706 views

What is a system?

Informally, a system of the kind I'm asking about is an arrangement of physical components that interact causally with each other and with an external environment. For example: a pendulum, a car, a ...
causative's user avatar
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4 votes
7 answers
384 views

Mutually contradictory but simultaneously correct

In continuation of Two competing theories that are logically inconsistent my second question is there can be a theory/framework which can be interpreted in many mutually contradictory but ...
quanity's user avatar
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9 votes
4 answers
1k views

Is there anything more fundamental than quantification?

In the prevailing view of the concept of "Existence," it is well-known that it isn't a property of individual objects, but rather a property of properties. As Frege would put it: It is a ...
Johnathan Green's user avatar
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2 answers
95 views

Do descriptions of what exist map to causes recognized by Man? Can we describe coherent models for broad patterns of knowledge? [closed]

EDIT 0 - To clarify, in the table below, the term God would be missing from it's provisional box for humans who map ultimate causes exclusively to non-moral, aka natural, types of cause. Sigmund Freud,...
SystemTheory's user avatar
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0 votes
3 answers
139 views

Did god create logic? [duplicate]

If God made logic, the process itself requires pre-existing logic. Since logic must be eternal, it's doubtful God created it. Did God create logic, or is it always there?
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1 answer
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Are there or have there been notable philosophers who believe in Nullism?

Monism is the philosophical view that only one thing exists. However, I want to know, if there are or have been notable philosophers who believe in Nullism? I made up that term, to describe the belief ...
user107952's user avatar
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-2 votes
3 answers
111 views

Is reality a "societal construct"? [closed]

What does it mean to say reality actually exists? Is it a product of society? If time - the fourth dimension is a societal construct, then shouldn't reality also be one?
Anirudh Vijai Rao's user avatar
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0 answers
43 views

What would Alexius Meinong have thought about this Mark Twain witticism?

Consider the following Mark Twain witticism: I do not fear death. I had been dead for billions and billions of years before I was born [sic], and had not suffered the slightest inconvenience from it. ...
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