Questions tagged [ontology]

Ontology is the study of the nature of being, existence or reality as such, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.

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Is Egoism of Max Stirner idealization of Free consciousness?

In more simple language when Stirner talks about having no fix ideas or not treating ideas as sacred somehow makes it (Egoism of Stirner) having a fix idea itself ? Is creative nothing an idea or ...
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Spinoza: what would be a concrete example of a thing that "is in" another thing

Spinoza talks about substance and its modifications. Since God is the only substance, it follows that everything else that exists is modifications of modifications of modifications ... etc. As I ...
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Can the laws of physics rule out disembodied minds?

In this article, philosopher Evan Fales argues that the laws of physics establish that disembodied minds (such as an immaterial God, for example) could not influence the physical world. Is it true? (...
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How to correctly understand the positions of ontological nihilism?

Lately I have been investigating ontological nihilism. However, different sources give completely different definitions of this philosophical position, which I have divided into two main groups. The ...
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Is the quality more fundamental than the quantity? [closed]

When we talk about quantitative and qualitative data, which kind is more fundamental? For example, when someone measures the volume of a given body, this results in a quantitative measure. However, ...
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On physical existence. Do virtual particles of QFT exist?

Existence is a polysemic and difficult word to define. Almost certainly numbers (and other well-defined mathematical objects) exist in a different way than a real physical object (the chair I sit in, ...
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Is there a quantitative model of change?

I am trying to build a particular theory, and I am wondering if there is a quantitative formulation for how much an object has changed. For example, if an oak seed grows into an oak, how much has it ...
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What is metaphysical contingency?

I have always thought is something is metaphysically contingent is simply means that something, a state of affairs, MAY be the case. Tomorrow I may stub my foot on a nail and feel pain. This ...
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Are there things that don't exist?

This question is tripping me up. My working definition of exists is "affecting something/someone" Consider the following frame of reference: My bedroom I now have two categories. Things that ...
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Why can't numbers be 'used up'?

I was speaking with a young student who has been learning about addition and subtraction (essentially functions, but he doesn't know that yet) with the idea of a 'number machine' and he could not ...
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Does Kant implicitly commit the paralogism of pure reason when saying that to have a representation it is necessary to accom­pany it with 'I think'?

In Caygill's Kant Dictionary entry of 'I Think' there is this part: Kant further claims that 'I think' is the necessary vehicle/form/accom­paniment of experience: to have a representation it is ...
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Can a 'type' be a single entity?

Can something be a 'type' and be a single entity, for example take a certain discipline, which can be split into multiple sub-disciplines, we often describe them as 'types' or 'kinds' of the ...
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What's the justification for holding concrete more than abstractions?

What are the justications that make concrete more real or more important than abstractions like ideas and thoughts?
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Russell v. Meinong

Was the crux/essence of Russell's quarrel with Meinong a matter of epistemology or ontology? As I recall, it had primarily to do with fictive objects/non-denoting expressions, and Russell's theory of ...
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Are mathematical objects a type according to type-theory?

I've been thinking about mathematical objects as a metaphysical trope, and the idea of them existing as a type has a few issues for me. Mainly the response to this question is similar to what I've ...
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How do we answer the question of "what is it"?

What is an electron? How do we answer such questions? If we try to explain it in more fundamental terms, we have to ask what is that and keeps going. So, my question is should we take things like ...
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For those that believe in it: Why is Leibniz' Law of Indiscernables true to you?

There has been a criticism of it wich goes like this: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Identity_of_indiscernibles#Critique Max Black has argued against the identity of indiscernibles by counterexample. ...
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How does one determine the boundary of an object?

Say we have what we would call an 'object' made of many components, can these 'components' be named objects themselves? In the case do we have an object or many 'objects'? Do we define an object to be ...
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Understanding the nature of units of measurement

In the world we deal with concrete 'unit' quantities, the 'units' are very concrete, ten pencils, for example we can tell the difference between one pencil and another and we can also trace and ...
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Does a phenomenal experience require conscious awareness, or simply unconscious sensation?

If a tree is experienced lying on the forest floor, did it come into existence when experienced, or did something cause it to lie there? This question is all about the division between phenomenal, ...
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Ontology of quantities and Zero quantities

How does the ontological status of quantities allow us to discuss the empty value (0) of a given quantity? For example, we may say that there is 'no distance' between two points but may also say that '...
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"Can be interpreted as" vs "Is"

Consider the following pairs of statements: "I see what I interpret as a chair" vs. "I see a chair." "This chair can be interpreted as a set of atoms" vs. "This ...
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Does knowledge require consciousness?

Does knowledge require consciousness for the entity that knows? In other words, is it the case that only conscious entities can know things? I was led to ask this question by considering whether or ...
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Does Wittgenstein rule-following mean everything is defined as what a human is supposed do with it? What does it say about ontology?

To me rule-following is a very “homespun” way to explain logic, math, and language. Meaning the social-communicative aspect of “rule-following” provides an explanation for informal and formal language ...
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Are numbers, given just as mathematical objects, quantities in themselves?

If we are talking just about '5', without it being with respect to any 'amount', does the idea of the number itself as a point on a line imply that it is itself some kind of abstract 'quantity'. It ...
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When and how should a philosophy student start to give his/her own ideas?

I am not a philosphy student, but I am a philosophy enthusiast who loves and studies philosophy on his own. I completely understand what philosophy books are trying to say, but I dont know how and ...
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Can a backwards infinite regress account for its own existence?

Suppose we have a domain of discourse D with an infinite collection of elements, and suppose that it is the case that the existence of each element x is dependent upon another element y (or collection ...
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Subatomic particles and Freud’s subconscious entities

I am thinking about Freud’s id and super-ego and wondered about their scientific aspects. You might then say that although these entities cannot be observed and therefore don't exist in some sense, ...
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Help with intentional instantiation in "The nature and plausibility of Cognitivism"

When the computer-based chess player is explained [1], the bottom level components of the chess playing heirarchy are intentionally instantiated by list processors. My question is this, doesn't ...
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What are the concepts or family of concepts fundamental to being and existence?

What are the concepts or family of concepts fundamental to being and existence? I understand that this can be subjective, but I am interested in the opinion of famous philosophers on this question. ...
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Understanding the law of identity in logic

In logic, the 'law of identity' classically says: 'Every thing that exists' has a specific nature. More abstractly, For all x, x=x. In a mathematical perspective, "For all x" is sensible to ...
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Could everything exist? What would this even mean?

I saw something that said the reason the universe exists is that everything exists, in an infinite multiverse. This then answers why the laws of physics of our universe are the way they are, which is ...
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Brute facts and the burden of proof

I'm trying my best to understand Della Rocca's article "PSR", which I believe convincingly shows that that one cannot reasonably hold that some facts are brute while others are not without a ...
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Is there any philosophical theory that postulates that time can only arise out of a three or plus dimensional space?

Is there any philosophical theory that postulates that time can only arise out of a three or plus dimensional space? I think I heard someone say that time is the fourth dimension implying that time ...
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If something is Possible is it therefore Necessary?

Does anybody agree on this: “Given an infinite time Y, every possible event X needs to happen, right?” From a mathematical point of view it seems OK to me, although depending on the idea we have of ...
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What is "matter"?

How do philosophers define matter? Maybe we could say that matter is that made out of fundamental particles, however that ignores dark matter and energy. But even if we ignore this, what are ...
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Essays concerning Heidegger’s discussion of signs and references in the worldhood of the world?

Does anyone have any good essays concerning Heidegger’s discussion of signs and references in the worldhood of the world? That whole section has left me scratching my head. Or some good secondary ...
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What is a "world" according to Sir. Roger Penrose?

In Symposium: the Road to Reality (22.01.2019), part II - Sir Roger Penrose a few diagrams are presented that include a "Physical World", a "Mental World", and a "Platonic/...
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Fundamental properties

Here is a train of thought I’ve put together inquiring into the nature of properties, with some questions at the end. Comments and recommendations for further reading are welcome. We usually only ...
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What is the difference between thing, entity, and object? [closed]

What exactly is the difference between the words "thing", "entity", and "object"? Do they all have the same meaning? I think they are the same, but I want to know what ...
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Is there a resource cataloguing unique and fundamental concepts cross-culturally?

I am working on a "conlang", which is basically a fantasy language. I have collected 4,000-ish words in their "base" form (some we still need to find the base for, but they can be ...
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Is there a logical reason to default to a certain type of first cause?

While there are some exceptions, physics generally holds that the universe has a beginning. Assuming that there is a first cause of the universe, what are the logical based reasons for preferring ...
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Correct wording for analysis? What is the nature of this relation?

I'm trying to analyse the statement "The computer has the capacity to perform long division", but I can't decide whether to use the connector because or therefore. Which one is more fitting ...
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Argument against unrestricted quantification

I have problems understanding the argument against unrestricted quantification based on Russell’s paradox, which does not work with sets, but instead with semantic interpretations (as objects). The ...
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Leibniz's theory of subtance and causal interaction - with God

It follows from Leibniz' complete concept theory of truth that substances have no causal interaction with another. But Leibniz also says that created substances depend on God and that God conserves ...
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A proposal for the meaning of life [closed]

I propose that the meaning of something is "all of the information related to it", and thus that the meaning of life is "all of the information related to life" - all of the causes ...
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The shape and extension of the fundamental particles

You could say that particles are just 0-dimensional points. But point particles are just an idealization. If particles are taken to exist physically, and anything which has physical existence has ...
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Can truth exist even though nothing happens?

There’s magnet. If the magnet didn’t attract the other magnet and then disappeared, in this case can “the magnet attracts the other magnet” never be true?
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Is there a philosophical framework within which the question of existence does not arise?

Is there a philosophical framework within which the question of existence in general, and of matter in particular, does not arise? Being aware of the seemingly hopeless nature of the subject, I'm ...
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If Non-existence is nonexistent, then does that mean a Supernatural Exists?

Ok, what I am asking is bascially, if non-existence (which I use synonymously with the word 'nothing' - this is my defintion of 'nothing' in this piece - non-existence, so please no dcitionary ...
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