Skip to main content

Questions tagged [paradox]

This tag is for arguments that produce an inconsistency with common sense.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
1 vote
0 answers
31 views

Can a set be uncountable in one sense and countable in another sense?

Can a set be uncountable in one sense and countable in another sense? Or in other words are there senses in which the set of all real numbers satisfies the Peano Axioms? I ask because of the following,...
AUTIST INC's user avatar
1 vote
3 answers
99 views

What are the meanings of 'all' and 'only' in the paradox of the barber?

Barber's Paradox In a certain town there is a barber who shaves all those who don't shave themselves, and only those who don't shave themselves. Who shaves the barber? Let b denote the barber. Let x-...
lee pappas's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
63 views

Has any philosopher written about how our reasoning relies on subtly incompatible assumptions depending on the kind of question we are asking?

I would like to know whether the following idea has already been formalized by some philosopher: When we reason about questions for which we assume there is an objective or true answer, we rely ...
Not Djijkjkkstra's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
81 views

Why can't the dialetheist say that the Curry sentence is both true and false?

In the SEP article for dialetheism, it is said that A dialetheist, though, cannot simply accept that the Curry sentence is both true and false, because if it is true then ⊥ follows. Dialetheists need ...
confusedcius's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
128 views

Approaching the knowledge of knowing using premises

The only thing(knowledge) that I know is that I don't know anything/I know nothing. (Universal Quant.). Does this mean that I don't even know that I know to begin with? The only thing(knowledge) that ...
How why e's user avatar
  • 1,236
-1 votes
3 answers
83 views

If this is the answer, what is the question? [closed]

This is a philosophical riddle in the spirit of other self-referential sentences which may be “paradoxes” (or not), like the liar’s paradox. If this is the answer, what is the question?
Julius Hamilton's user avatar
6 votes
3 answers
142 views

Can you help me understand the masked man paradox?

The masked man fallacy (or paradox) is roughly: Premise 1: I don't know who the man wearing the mask is. Premise 2: The man wearing the mask is my father. Premise 3: I know who my father is. ...
Benjamin Grange's user avatar
2 votes
3 answers
222 views

Which paradoxes are regarded as logical paradoxes?

Here are four of what I would call logical paradoxes: The Liar Curry's sentence Biscuit conditionals Bertrand Russell's set which contains all sets which do not contain themselves We can perhaps ...
Speakpigeon's user avatar
  • 7,968
3 votes
6 answers
445 views

If the past is infinite, then I couldn't have reached the present, since the countdown to my arrival would never end

If there's an infite past, it would take an infinite time to reach this point. The countdown to my arrival would never stop, and so I would never arrive. I did arrive. Conclusion: past events are ...
Ryo's user avatar
  • 83
3 votes
1 answer
110 views

Can one look at philosophy under the light of fictionalism? What ideas follow from this thought process? [closed]

I understand that fictionalism can be attributed to a majority of disciplines, the ones I am familiar with are modal fictionalism, mathematical fictionalism and moral fictionalism, so I was thinking ...
How why e's user avatar
  • 1,236
2 votes
0 answers
62 views

"Paradoxes consume themselves" in light of the "Liar paradox"

I have a question about following excerpt from wikipedia explaining how Bhartṛhari reasoned about Liar Paradox: Bhartrhari's solution fits into his general approach to language, thought and reality, ...
user267839's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
68 views

Looped Knower Paradox?

Before I ask my question, let me elaborate on why I have the question. Consider two versions of the Looped Liar paradox. 3-Member Liar paradox: L1: L2 is false L2: L3 is false L3: L1 is false Jourdain'...
confusedcius's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
58 views

How to make Achilles and the Tortoise argument map?

I need to make an argument map for Achilles and the Tortoise with the conclusion at the top and premises and undisclosed premises coming out of it 5-10nodes. Im stuck and dont know how to go about it ...
Azal Abdul's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
123 views

Does the anticlass principle solve the Burali-Forti problem?

Justification of the foundations-of-mathematics tag: I was reading through a long text on category theory, Abstract and Concrete Categories: The Joy of Cats, and they make much of the class/set ...
Kristian Berry's user avatar
2 votes
3 answers
140 views

Is Schrödinger's cat a problem of how we define identity?

If we consider that a cat is composed of numerous atomic particles, defining particles in superposition presents no issue. A cat is a human construct to represent a grouping of atoms, and notions of ...
Marco Fabbri's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
66 views

What is the nature of the difference between a contradiction and a paradox (as apparent contradiction)?

Given the recent PhilSE question What framework or tool solves the Barber Paradox? it emerged from a number of answers including Bumble's and Mauro's that there is a technical distinction between ...
J D's user avatar
  • 27.5k
10 votes
9 answers
2k views

What framework or tool solves the Barber Paradox?

The Barber Paradox is usually phrased as follows: I know a barber whose policy is to shave everyone who doesn't shave himself. If a person shaves himself, the barber does not shave that person. If ...
pygosceles's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
20 views

Are there different flavors of the knower paradox based on different epistemic types?

The knower paradox theme has at least two known(!) instances: This sentence is known to be not true. This sentence is not known to be true. The linked SEP article reports (2) as stronger than (1) ...
Kristian Berry's user avatar
2 votes
7 answers
149 views

Paradox of the Loving "I": Is there any theory to answer my Paradox?

I came up with this when I was reading about the Paradox of Fiction in one of my Aesthetic philosophy texts. Here it is: The Paradox of the Loving Individual: (1) One experiences themselves as a ...
The Nova Scotian Humanist's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
139 views

Understanding F Jackson's article on "The Easy Examination Paradox"

The link for the paper is available here. This is the case of the headmistress who says that next week, there will be a surprise exam one of the afternoons. The girl students argue that it is ...
One_Cable5781's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
590 views

Does the paradox of tolerance mean that intolerance cannot be allowed in a tolerant society?

Rainer Forst describes tolerance as a social norm. So intolerant people and groups violate the social contract by denying the social norm of tolerance. See Hobbes, Locke, Kant et al on social contract....
Meanach's user avatar
  • 2,385
2 votes
3 answers
76 views

Is the spiral of silence an original game model?

What are the differences between the spiral of silence and the prisoner's dilemma? Can the spiral of silence be skipped, or should it jump only to score points, as in the prisoner's dilemma?
fkybrd's user avatar
  • 131
2 votes
4 answers
158 views

how these two statements can be true at same time?

If you consider any two numbers that are not equal in value (2 is not 3), and it is a true statement that they are not. However, it is also true to state that they are the same: both are numbers. You ...
Nopal vol's user avatar
1 vote
4 answers
99 views

Is not knowing whether X is true inconsistent with assigning a probability to it?

I have read that it is wise to assign a non zero probability to beliefs, and not 0 or 1. This is because probability represents certainty and you cannot be certain of anything. xxxxxx However, if you ...
user avatar
-2 votes
2 answers
132 views

Must all sentences be true or false?

Suppose there is a entity with which you can write down a self-contradictory sentence.Does the entity still exist?For example you know Russell's paradox?There is someone who says:"I always lie&...
Cerise's user avatar
  • 99
-1 votes
1 answer
114 views

AI paradox in DKIW hierarchy [closed]

You can check this link for basic info. (Note: 'data', 'information', 'knowledge' and 'widsom' words will be mention as shortened with first letters in this question.) In summary: D is the basis of W....
fkybrd's user avatar
  • 131
2 votes
0 answers
71 views

Is there a couniversal solution to the predicate-theoretic version of Russell's paradox?

In set theory, let us call a solution to the problem of universal-sets-or-proper-classes a couniversal solution when it involves proposing the following: ∃U∀x((x ≠ U) ⟺ (x ∈ U)) This means that U is ...
Kristian Berry's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
193 views

If this sentence is false, then it is true

Is the sentence "If this sentence is false, then it is true." false or true (even tautologically true), or is it a paradoxon? The sentence p claims (= is equivalent to?) that ~p → p which is ...
Hans-Peter Stricker's user avatar
4 votes
11 answers
4k views

Is there a distance so small it can't be further divided?

If I shoot an arrow at a target, at some point it will reach one half of the distance to the target. Then it will reach one half of that distance. It will continue to reach the half of the previous ...
Brian's user avatar
  • 147
0 votes
0 answers
29 views

How can we commute the alethic negation in the liar sentence?

Normally, "It is not true that F," equals, "It is true not that F," or even, "It is true that not F." I can't figure out how to carry this out with the way the truth ...
Kristian Berry's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
139 views

Is there a paradox of third-order arithmetic?

Calculus, sometimes analysis or second-order arithmetic, seems more intuitive when formulated in infinitesimal terms than in terms of real-valued limits. However, the meta-theory of analysis, i.e. its ...
Kristian Berry's user avatar
0 votes
3 answers
88 views

Why doesn't acknowledging the barber's dual identity resolve the Barber Paradox?

The Barber Paradox is given as: "In a village, there is a male barber who shaves only those who do not shave themselves. The question is: Does the barber shave himself?". But, here is the ...
HerrAlvé's user avatar
  • 101
2 votes
6 answers
397 views

A resolution to liar's paradox

Let's consider the famous liar paradox's statement: This statement is false Now, in classical logic, principle of bivalence could be stated as "All statements can either be assigned a value of ...
Siddharth Chakravarty's user avatar
-2 votes
3 answers
137 views

Can a trier-of-fact in a U.S.-based criminal trial overcome the observer's paradox in order to represent itself as an impartial trier-of-fact? [closed]

This post is to ask the entitled question, "Can a trier-of-fact in a U.S.-based criminal trial overcome the observer's paradox in order to represent itself as an impartial trier-of-fact?" I ...
Dennis Francis Blewett's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
212 views

"This statement is false" is neither true or false... Am I correct?

I have no background in philosophy. So I apologize if this question seems silly. The reason "This statement is false" is sometimes considered to be a statement that can be evaluated as ...
Joe's user avatar
  • 121
0 votes
0 answers
53 views

Does the preface paradox undermine long mathematical proofs?

Descartes, IIRC, somewhere says something about the vagaries of memory influencing our justification for believing in our memory, and thence for believing in proofs involving many steps that we have ...
Kristian Berry's user avatar
5 votes
10 answers
1k views

What if all sets contain themselves? [closed]

If we define (i.e., by definition) a set as an abstract collection of at least one element, and If we say that by nature (i.e., as an axiom) all sets contain one element that is the set itself at the ...
Otakar Molnár López's user avatar
14 votes
9 answers
4k views

What's the solution to Sorites paradox?

Suppose you have a heap of sand. You remove one grain. Is there still a heap? You remove another, until you get down to a heap with three grains, a heap with two grains, a heap with one grain, and ...
ActualCry's user avatar
  • 1,989
4 votes
4 answers
201 views

Would it be ethical to help both predator and prey?

A month back, I found a street cat which I started giving food and water too day by day, and yesterday, on a walk to the gym, I found a bird on the middle of the road. The bird had dust all over it's ...
Babu's user avatar
  • 2,188
0 votes
0 answers
38 views

"This sentence encodes being false," vs., "This sentence exemplifies being false"

Does the liar paradox depend on the admissibility (as meaningful) of, "This sentence exemplifies being false"? It seems, for Zalta's comprehension principle, that encoding relations are ...
Kristian Berry's user avatar
-3 votes
1 answer
236 views

Is this a way to solve to Russell's/"liar paradox"? [closed]

So only liar paradox Liar said: Im liar or little easy lie is existing ... as Gödel sad you can't fix paradox in it's own space, so you need a protospace.obviously. Okey, lets talk about what is a lie....
άνθρωπος's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
26 views

Is there a difference between "is an intensional element of" and "is an extensional element of"?

There is a version of set theory according to which there are two flavors (types? categories?) of elementhood relation, and if it's ultimately coherent, it does offer a solution to Russell's paradox (...
Kristian Berry's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
47 views

Do the derivation of the liar paradox, and the ontological argument, involve the same mistake?

Suppose you introduced the sentence, "This sentence implies a contradiction." Now, on its face, that sentence doesn't seem to imply anything (maybe not even itself) as such. Reworked: "...
Kristian Berry's user avatar
3 votes
4 answers
213 views

How would I translate the following statement into higher order logic? Or what book would you recommend to teach myself higher order logic?

"For every liar Sentence, there exists some person for whom the sentence is either self-referential or (purely) negative." I am a behavior analyst with an undergraduate degree in philosophy ...
Preston Campbell's user avatar
4 votes
7 answers
5k views

What is the meat paradox?

On the psychology of eating meat and the meat paradox: One question examined in the psychology of eating meat has been termed the meat paradox: how can individuals care about animals, but also eat ...
Hudjefa's user avatar
  • 3,732
4 votes
3 answers
583 views

Why is Diogenes the Cynic's solution to Zeno's Dichotomy Paradox insufficient?

According to Wikipedia's discussion of Zeno's Dichotomy paradox (emphasis mine), According to Simplicius, Diogenes the Cynic said nothing upon hearing Zeno's arguments, but stood up and walked, in ...
Robert Columbia's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
108 views

How is this an example of a catch-22? [closed]

This was given as an example of a catch-22: How is the graphic on the right an example of a catch-22? “If you don’t love yourself, how can you love anyone else?” “If no one loves you, how can you ...
Anthony Fallone's user avatar
8 votes
4 answers
3k views

What is the meaning of “to fight a Catch-22 is to accept it”?

From Wikipedia, it says “Catch-22s often result from rules, regulations, or procedures that an individual is subject to, but has no control over, because to fight the rule is to accept it.” What ...
Anthony Fallone's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
132 views

Can realism exist? Could somebody make “real-” into an ideology?

[Please bear in mind that I may use different definitions of terms here, than you might know, since I’m a layman/hobbyist. Suggesting other terms for those definitions, that are established in the ...
user avatar
2 votes
4 answers
159 views

If all things come to an end, then wouldn't all things coming to an end itself end?

I saw this question here https://latin.stackexchange.com/questions/18991/translating-all-things-come-to-an-end-to-latin and immediately I thought "if all things come to an end, then the action of ...
askquestions4's user avatar

1
2 3 4 5 6