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Questions tagged [philosophy-of-religion]

Philosophy of religion is a branch of philosophy concerned with questions regarding religion, including the nature and existence of God, the examination of religious experience, analysis of religious vocabulary and texts, and the relationship of religion and science. Note that term is somewhat ambiguous as questions regarding atheism, secular humanism and agnosticism is included in the discipline.

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If persona, anthropomorphism and anthropocentrism are removed as features of God, does anything remain? [on hold]

Most organized, monotheistic religions posit the existence of some type of personal interaction between God and humans. Whether it is as inspiration, etc. during life or judgement and either ...
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How did Heidegger argue for the certainty of death?

How did Heidegger argue for the certainty of death? I gather that's a component of one characteristic of death, that it's "not to be outstripped". The other component being its indefiniteness, that I ...
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A Ground or Foundation of Morality

I am currently reading the very fascinating paper Unspeakable Ethics, Unnatural Law by Arthur Allen Leff. It seems that the thrust of his paper is that there is no "naturalistic" way of grounding or ...
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Principle of proportionate causality - what are virtual and eminent causes?

I'm reading Edward Feser's book Five Proofs of the Existence of God. On pages 32-33 he introduces the principle of proportionate causality (PPC). I'm having trouble understanding what precisely ...
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Are Tillich and Dewey saying the same thing with regard to “ultimate concern”?

Both Dewey and Tillich refer to "God" in their respective interpretations of the object of faith. Also, each of them uses similar terms in speaking of faith. Tillich speaks of being "ultimately ...
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Epistemology of “Creationism Debate”

Epistemologically, is there any difference between a belief in non-interventionist evolution and a belief in young-earth creationism? If so, what is it? I'm not interested in the question of whether ...
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Is there an advantage of a theistic account in terms of being able to define goodness?

I have been watching some debates about the existence of god, such as Peter Singer vs. Dinesh D'Souza, or Christopher Hitchens vs. John Lennox. On the religious side, one argument comes up ...
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Gödel's incompleteness theorems - what are the religious implications?

Apparently Kurt Gödel believed that his incompleteness theorems have some kind of religious implications. Despite Gödel's belief in a personal God, this was still somewhat surprising to me. ...
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Can nationalism be labeled a non-theistic religion?

I define religion as (taken from a dictionary definition) a particular system of faith and worship. One can have faith in government and worship nationalistic symbols (flag,anthem etc) ...
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Does the demand for evidence run contrary to faith?

As the title suggests, and in accordance with a recent theme here on philosophy stack exchange, I'm wondering if the demand for evidence runs contrary to faith. My intuitive notion of faith is that it ...
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What are some philosophical defenses of the existence of God?

What are some philosophical defenses of the existence of God? Specifically, I'd be interested in any philosophers who have provided a thorough and rigorous defense of the existence of a Judeo-...
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Is God's disembodiment problematic?

I understand that most (though not all) Christians believe that God is disembodied. God cannot be corporeal because that would preclude his being eternal, immutable, and simple, for example. ...
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What arguments are there for the existence of a personal God?

Classical arguments for God's existence, like ontological, cosmological, teleological, etc., only derive the existence of something very abstract, greatest entity, first cause, etc., which is then "...
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Is there a difference between ideology and religion, and if not, what does secularism achieve?

Both espouse world views that are seen as complete by their followers. Both consider opposing views as incorrect. Both tend to impact human psychology in similar ways through creating an 'us and them' ...
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Is religion necessary for the good life?

According to Aristotle, you will be deemed as living well if you experience worldly pleasures while still being morally upright and virtuous. How can you identify what is morally right without the ...
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How can we argue for the uniqueness of a God-like entity?

(I have in mind here, something similar to "uniqueness" proofs in math. I think if we want to name something, we should show both that it exists and is unique.) (By "divine attributes", I mean ...
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How far can faith reasonably go? [closed]

[EDIT] Faith is not usually invoked in justifying detailed accounts! To see what I mean, take the following statements: "I have faith in the determination of our players that I think they'll win the ...
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Isn't the existence of Hell inherently evil, and isn't God therefore evil in allowing Hell to exist?

In many religions, for example, the Abrahamic ones, there exists a place of eternal punishment for those who live in violation of God's commandments. Assuming an infinitely-long afterlife, in which "...
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Can simulation theory be considered a form of religion?

The simulation theory has gained track in recent years; even Elon Musk has spoken on it. As it follows the associated, can belief in the simulation theory be considered a form of religion? The ...
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Did Nietzsche violate Christian morality in his life? Was he urging anyone to do so? [closed]

Did Nietzsche violate Christian morality in his life, in his behaviour? Was he urging anyone to do so? He seems to have had a long standing grudge against it.
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Is a miracle a sufficient evidence of the truth of a religion?

Does a miracle constitute a sufficient evidence for the truth of a claim? I see lots of religions really presenting a history of their pivotal figures being able to perform miracles. However, the ...
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Is it immoral to pay taxes if your government conducts immoral activities?

Assume your government participates in immoral wars that are unjust according to your personal beliefs and religious doctrine (for example Christian just war theory), is giving support to the ...
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What philosophers have considered humans as gods?

Have any reputable philosophers considered this concept? If so, which ones? And how did they account for responsibility and accountability in this framework?
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What's a name for the fallacy of concluding something must be based on truth because it is successful?

I have noticed a type of fallacious reasoning that conflates truth and success. For example, a company might assume their predictive models are correct because these models make the company more money....
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Does anyone say that dying for a cause is always irrational?

Does anyone say that dying for a cause is always irrational? I wouldn't gloss Heidegger's freedom-toward-death, like that, but it might be broadly similar. On the one hand, I would prefer to die ...
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What is the difference between philosophy and religion?

How do you make the distinction between philosophy and religion? Are there some philosophies/religions that are hard to categorize as being one or the other?
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How could an eternal God know that He is eternal? [closed]

In most religions, God is described as "eternal." In particular, in Christianity, God promises eternal life, a promise that seems to require His own eternity. But how does He know that He is eternal ...
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Is the Kalam cosmological argument scientifically provable?

Kalam Cosmological Argument: (1) Everything that has a beginning of its existence has a cause of its existence. (2) The universe has a beginning of its existence. Therefore: (3) The universe has a ...
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How does Ravi Zacharias' defence of the problem of evil jump from the need of a moral law giver to there being a God?

On first finding this defense by Zacharias, I was rather convinced, but upon reading it again, I have some doubts. Firstly, here is the transcript from what he said about the problem of evil. ......
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To what extent was Galileo's trial a conflict between science and religion?

In an answer to another question (https://philosophy.stackexchange.com/a/50328/8160), I mentioned Galileo as an example of religion contradicting science. Several comments criticised that. I posted ...
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Does this modal ontological argument prove the existence of God?

What are some objections to this form of the argument? It seems like the only premise that can be disputed is premise 1, but nobody has successfully disproven the possibility of a maximally great ...
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Arguments/premises to disprove God's omniscience

I was thinking about validity of God's omniscience and stumbled upon three statements, which can be summarized as - To be omniscient, a being would require to capture and store all the data in the ...
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How is the theory of divine revelation coherent?

There is a long history of Christian philosophy† drawing a distinction between knowledge gained from rational/empirical sources and knowledge from divine revelation. It seems Tertullian was one of the ...
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Authors who link religions to Plato's Noble lie

Noble Lie as taught by Plato is a lie created to keep the social order and harmony. Are there any remarkable authors who understood religions as such?
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Are there any counter arguments to the claim God does not exist because there is evil in the world?

It's been argued that God doesn't exist because there is so much evil in the world. For example, suppose a person is violently murdered - an innocent child say. They argue, God could have prevented ...
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Could Ethical subjectivism be classified as Moral realism if we include God?

For the sake of my question, God = "an omnipotent being". I am not referring to any specific gods that come from any past or present religions. Ethical subjectivism generally stands in opposition to ...
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Is the idea of the word of God a means to understand human nature, and prayer?

The idea may sound stupidly ridiculous, but I wonder, can the word of God (Christ?) be read as an allegory on how it is that prayer works. If you see John 1:1-3 it says: In the beginning was the ...
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Doesn't population increase logically preclude reincarnation?

If reincarnation is about humans dying and their souls taking on new bodies, doesn't a net increase in human population size contradict it? I know I'm assuming that non-human organisms do not possess ...
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How widely accepted is the “presumption of atheism” among philosophers?

The presumption of atheism is the idea that in debates between theists and atheists, the burden of proof is on the theist to prove that God exists. This principle appears to be taken for granted in ...
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How can something exist, but never be created?

This question applies to both religion and science. According to my religion at least, God is subject to natural laws, he did not create all matter in the universe, but instead created the universe ...
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Isn't Nietzsche's overman a replacement for God?

Nietzsche claimed that "we killed God". Thus, as Nietzsche thought, it would result in nihilism. He also "introduced" an idea of the overman. This question is not about what the overman is. But I'm ...
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Is it hypocritical to support democracy [as an idea] while being religious?

Define religiousness to be the believe in a supreme God such as the one from the Abrahamic religions. Inherently, this is an anti-democratic state of affairs. God is the leader, God is the voice of ...
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Moral skepticism and “walking the talk”

It would seem that a substantial minority of philosophers agree with the moral anti-realist position that we have a problem going from "is" to "ought"--that there is no objective correlate of the ...
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The viability of holding a neo-Aristotelian metaphysics?

I want to ask a few questions and sort of vent my frustration as well as analyze an acknowledged ignorance of the subject matter on this post. I possess a minuscule but possibly still workable idea of ...
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How ancient is 'Philosophy'?

Firstly the word 'philosophy' traces back to the Ancient Greeks, but surely 'Wisdom' must have preceded the sophistication to record and preserve it. I believe that religion may have served as a ...
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Given the supplied definitions, which has broader scope: pantheism or panentheism?

Consider the two definitional statements below: Pantheism is the claim that everything in the universe is part of an all-encompassing, immanent God. Panentheism is the claim that the God who ...
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Why did Hartshorne believe in God?

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Hartshorne https://www.iep.utm.edu/hart-t-a/ Donald Wayne Viney and George W. Shields wrote that Charles Hartshorne denied justifying his own faith upon Anselm’...
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Universe as a container; Critique of the Kalam Cosmological Argument?

I was introduced to the Kalam Cosmological Argumant the other day (I know, late to the party), and it struck me that there seems to be a rather simple critique that I couldn't find an accounting of. ...
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What did Nietzsche mean by accusing Christianity of slave-morality?

In a piece of journalism I read today But I've come to believe that there's also something deeper at work: that most of the world's people live with the legacy of slavery. Even in a nominal ...
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On Atheists who are sympathetic to religion?

Most Atheists I have encountered fall into 2 categories: New Atheists: People who don't believe in God and see religion as an evil to be eradicated given the harm it has caused humanity (i.e. ...