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Questions tagged [philosophy-of-religion]

Philosophy of religion is a branch of philosophy concerned with questions regarding religion, including the nature and existence of God, the examination of religious experience, analysis of religious vocabulary and texts, and the relationship of religion and science. Note that term is somewhat ambiguous as questions regarding atheism, secular humanism and agnosticism is included in the discipline.

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Could Anselm's argument also “prove” that a perfectly evil god must exist?

As far as I know, Anselm's argument for the existence of god goes like this: Let's imagine the most perfect being possible. If we imagine it being most perfect but not existing, it would be even more ...
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Is 'immortality' outside the scope of philosophy?

Obviously religion offers hope or order through the promise or threat of an after life, etc.. As far as I can tell there's no scientific evidence for immortality, if only because it would be difficult ...
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What is the oldest known ethical list?

Preface This is not an attempt to appeal to tradition. Rather, the purpose of this question can be attached with these words: general + curiosity. [If you feel that this question should be moved to a ...
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What is “religion”?

In his 2013 book entitled Why Tolerate Religion?, Brian Leiter defined "religion" as follows: Central beliefs that issue in categorical demands on action -- that is, demands that must be satisfied ...
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Does Alvin Plantinga's book Knowledge and Christian Belief offer any substantial updates to Warranted Christian Belief?

The stated primary goal of Plantinga's Knowledge and Christian Belief (2015) was to condense the content of Warranted Christian Belief (2000) into a shorter and more accessible book. My question is ...
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What is the point of prayer for theological rationalists?

Of course, there are psychological aspects, you can unify a community or concentrate on your life goals. I feel like Christians try to do something like that when they say that prayer should be a ...
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What are some philosophical defenses of the existence of God?

What are some philosophical defenses of the existence of God? Specifically, I'd be interested in any philosophers who have provided a thorough and rigorous defense of the existence of a Judeo-...
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Should any philosophy tell one how to live if its adherents aren't completely able to “toe the line?”

If I myself am not perfectly able to do what a philosophy suggests/ demands of me, who am I to say "go and do (or avoid) such and so?" Or is this a philosophy of "Do as I say, not as I do?"
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Are some prominent atheists “religiously atheist” [closed]

There's a class of scientist (and non-scientist) that pursues the atheism argument religiously. It seems that their ears are closed to reasoned argument. They are typically, in all other spheres of ...
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What does Einstein mean, about 'practical results' and 'completely false notion'?

Source: p 112, Introducing Philosophy for Canadians: A Text with Integrated Readings (2011 1 ed) by Solomon, McDermid. Primary Source: [I know not the page number because I found this online], The ...
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Definitions and choice

My specific question that I want answered is: Among definitions, how do we choose which one is the best? When it comes to definitions of abstract concepts, it seems like we can define things willy-...
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Does the notion of absoluteness exist?

Google defines absolute as: "a value or principle which is regarded as universally valid or which may be viewed without relation to other things." My work interests lie in the fields of computer ...
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How do we know we believe things?

This is my first philosophy question, so please bear with me. Wikipedia says belief is Belief is the state of mind in which a person thinks something to be the case, with or without there being ...
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A critique of the epistemoloical models of religion

I'm interested to find any existing critique of the epistemological models by which religions (especially the various branches of Christianity) determine their theological conclusions. What I ...
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Is it honest to accept only part of a story as being metaphorical?

I will take the example of Christianity, but my question applies to any other religious material The majority of christians seems to accept that parts of the Bible are metaphors that should not be ...
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Could we take the fully rational and fully informed idealized agent that Peter Railton talks about as God, to give a theistic metaethics?

Recently, I finished Alexander Miller's book "An Introduction to Contemporary Metaethics." After reading about Peter Railton's reductionism, I wondered if it would be possible to take the agent which ...
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What does Kant mean by “Existence is not a predicate”?

What does Kant mean by "Existence is not a predicate"? How does that invalidate the ontological arguments? and how can he show that it's not a predicate? By predicate, I think he means a "property"...
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Where can one find the most fully developed version of EAAN with the four-part defense of premise 1?

Having just completed Alvin Plantinga's book Where the Conflict Really Lies, I was a bit surprised to learn that he now takes a different approach to defending premise 1 of the Evolutionary Argument ...
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Existence and afterlife [closed]

There is a finite possibility of you existing in this moment, compared to an infinitely long afterlife. Therefore the probability that an eternal afterlife, such as the stereotypical ideas of "heaven" ...
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Are neopagan religious views taken seriously by academic philosophers?

It seems 'normal' that philosophers of religion and divinities scholars in the West would focus mostly on the Abrahamic religions. Along with that, many philosophers have engaged with Eastern ...
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Unitedness of environment and self philosophical movement

This, I believe is a well known concept within Nichren Buddhism (and perhaps other parts of Buddhism; I don't know), but I am wondering if there is a name for the idea that the environment and self ...
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Are Tillich and Dewey saying the same thing with regard to “ultimate concern”?

Both Dewey and Tillich refer to "God" in their respective interpretations of the object of faith. Also, each of them uses similar terms in speaking of faith. Tillich speaks of being "ultimately ...
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How does “Plotinian discussion of unity and multiplicity” contribute to Al-Kindi's cosmological argument?

I'm reading a discussion of Al-Kindi's cosmological argument. Al-Kindi is widely considered "father of Islamic philosophy" and this argument is a version of what is now known as the "kalam ...
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Are religions at the end more humble comparing with the more Asian streams?

The three monotheistic religions all have a God who provides commandments and rules which are to be obeyed. In Asian religions like Buddhism, Hinduism, and Taoism there isn't such a God who gives ...
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Almighty entities cannot be brave nor trust in the power of love

Given that a all powerful/almighty thing exists (example gods from different religions). Something almighty has nothing to fear, because they are almighty. Since it has nothing too fear it cannot be ...
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Why did Aquinas distinguish his first three “cosmological argument” for God?

The first three of Aquinas' Five Ways seem to be very similar to each other. They can be generalized into one argument and they all rely on the impossibility on infinite regress and argued that God is ...
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Has anyone used the challenges facing the demarcation of science problem to justify religious and mystical worldviews?

Quine gave a serious challenge to the positivist program of establishing a purely observation and logic based epistemology. This essentially lead to the failure of the logical positivist's attempt to ...
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Has anyone made a good defence of Nietzsche's nihilism being available to Christians?

I've read, in the mainstream press, suggestions that Christians have a lot to learn from Nietzsche. Is there any reason to think that his corpus is dedicated to improving, rather than destroying, ...
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What is the Hindu Advait philosophy?

I have read that, this world is formed with the single fabric known as Bramhan which is the Goal of Advait philosophy of Hinduism, Is it true ? What is the exact Advait Philosophy?
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Are there any counter arguments to the claim God does not exist because there is evil in the world?

It's been argued that God doesn't exist because there is so much evil in the world. For example, suppose a person is violently murdered - an innocent child say. They argue, God could have prevented ...
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How can one rebut the argument that atheism is inherently immoral?

It not uncommon to see religious people arguing that without the moral center of a religious text, true ethics are impossible. The reasoning goes that, without a fixed moral center, atheists are ...
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Why did only science and religion became widespread instead of magic? [closed]

and why is only science reproducible enough to be demonstrated to others at will? ========================== The books Harry Potter and the TV series The Librarian opened my curiosity to the 3rd ...
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If it weren't for the theory of evolution, would the argument from design for God's existence be justified?

Let's assume that someone is an educated and intelligent person from the 17th or 18th century. They've been though the enlightenment, they know of the scientific method and have a scientific world ...
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What is substance dualism, it is required for either belief in a life after death or arguments for life after death?

Many traditional(philosophical and empirical ) arguments for life after death are based on substance dualism. What is substance dualism? is it necessarily required for either in a life after death or ...
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What if early religion was created for closure [closed]

What if religion was created based solely on the fact that humans have an inherent fear of death, and have the need to be something more than human, because they're not satisfied with the mortal state ...
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Why be human species? [closed]

Has the earth benefited from the presence of the human species? What is the method to determine a blessing or a curse that relates to human existence?
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What is the relationship between Science and Religion?

I recently came across the explanation that Science explains things that can be explained, religion explains things that can not be explained. Is this true? I feel like this is true because ...
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How do debates about meaning affect the status of personal religious beliefs?

Debates about the meaning of meaning cut across the analytic/continental divide. According to externalist accounts (e.g. Kripke-Putnam's) people believe, or even know, that beeches are different from ...
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Are there any proofs that miracles are impossible? [duplicate]

Are there any logical proofs that miracles are impossible? In this case I define a miracle as an interference with nature by a supernatural power. [Edit: Possibly due to confusion about the ...
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Does Plantinga's freewill defense approach to the problem of evil conflict with current standards of moral responsibility?

Alvin Plantinga provided a solution (or what he called a defense) to the problem of evil based on the value of freewill. Assuming one believes in God, the problem is how to reconcile the apparent ...
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Is the problem of evil due to a fallacy or a paradox?

Informally speaking the problem of evil is pretty straight forward. On one hand: God is omnipotent, omniscient, and omnibenevolent. On the other hand: Evil exists in the world. This is a ...
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Question about praying [closed]

This is a theoretical question about God (or about "a god"). If the best way to talk to God was not to talk to God at all, how would I know?
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Has anyone ever argued that religious beliefs are unjustified true beliefs?

Consider the following: It can be argued that some ethical rules are good for humanity, even from a utilitarian or evolutionary point of view. Some of these ethical rules are common to most religions....
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In Fides et Ratio, how did John Paul II describe the role of reason and philosophy in the search for the meaning of life?

What is John Paul II saying in the introduction of Fides et Ratio, §§1-6 "Know Yourself"? What exactly is this question asking? I think the Pope is saying that excessive pessimism about the power of ...
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Can Pascal's wager be made to work?

There are many objections to the Pascal's wager, as originally stated, see for instance here. Personally, I don't think that the wager can be defended. However, I am wondering if it is possible to ...
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Does refuting the fine-tuning argument for the existence of God necessarily require belief in a Multiverse?

The fine-tuning argument for the existence of God is based on the fact that certain physical constants can only have very specific values for life to exist in the universe. If there was even the ...
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Nazism & ISIS and the misinterpretation of ideologies?

Some claim that ISIS is a political ideology stemming directly from religion. Others claim that it has little to do with religion per se and more to do with the interpretation of religion. A similar ...
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What makes an experience religious?

Throughout the history of mankind, religious leaders - Moses, Muhammad, Jesus, Buddha, and many others, have recorded experiences which they considered ‘religious experiences’. But what is a ...
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Are there specific names for and objections to “no miracles - no deity” argument?

"[Holy book] claims that [deity] performed many miracles in the past, and thus made their existence obvious. Therefore, [deity] would have no problems performing miracles these days. Miracles aren't ...
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What makes a religion genuine or acceptable? [closed]

Often people take it for granted that we should allow people to believe whatever they believe and not critisise that they choose to be religious. What I am wondering is what makes a belief acceptable ...