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Questions tagged [philosophy-of-religion]

Philosophy of religion is a branch of philosophy concerned with questions regarding religion, including the nature and existence of God, the examination of religious experience, analysis of religious vocabulary and texts, and the relationship of religion and science. Note that term is somewhat ambiguous as questions regarding atheism, secular humanism and agnosticism is included in the discipline.

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Why is faith seen as a sign of weakness, instead of an unexplored land/opportunity?

Hope this is the right place to put this question! I am a person of faith (more specific, a Christian) and most of the time people consider me somehow inferior for my belief. I am not antisocial, not ...
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What fallacy in Pascal's Wager allows replacing God with the devil?

I wanted to know the name of the fallacy or fallacies the Pascal's Wager in the sense that it can be applied to motivate one's belief in many things. A similar argument to the original Wager can be ...
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Should I respect other people's religions?

My point of view is that there is no reason to believe any god exists without evidence. So I find religions a very irrational idea and I mostly heard people saying We have to respect other ...
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Is it a fallacy, and if so which, to believe we are special because our existence on Earth seems improbable?

People often use the argument that there must be a God, for example, because Earth and the laws of physics are perfectly situated for humans to exist the way we do. However, if Earth or even the ...
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How can one rebut the argument that atheism is inherently immoral?

It not uncommon to see religious people arguing that without the moral center of a religious text, true ethics are impossible. The reasoning goes that, without a fixed moral center, atheists are ...
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Fundamental idea on proving God's existence with science

I think that proving God's existence or any deity from any culture with the rigors of science is fundamentally absurd. The popular arguments usually involve space-time and the big bang theory. (I ...
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In what sense is atheism scientific?

I have been reading a bit of Dawkins and the like and they all seem to hold a very strong viewpoint on atheism and its associated ideology. I have not found a direct citation for this but he ...
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Why are believers criticized so much for being anti-science when so many scientists are … believers?

My first introduction to philosophical debate was through Sam Harris and Christopher Hitchens. The idea that they hammered into a younger me was that faith was stupid and irrational and any person ...
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Why does Dawkins think it is wrong to posit that a paragon of 100% morals could theoretically exist?

Let’s move on down Aquinas’s list. 4. The Argument from Degree We notice that things in the world differ. There are degrees of, say, goodness or perfection. But we judge these degrees ...
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In what way(s) does popular New Atheism fail to be philosophical?

I've seen some derision against the popular New Atheism movement, in particular against Richard Dawkins, Christopher Hitchens, and Sam Harris (particularly interesting since he makes a big deal that ...
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Isn't the existence of Hell inherently evil, and isn't God therefore evil in allowing Hell to exist?

In many religions, for example, the Abrahamic ones, there exists a place of eternal punishment for those who live in violation of God's commandments. Assuming an infinitely-long afterlife, in which "...
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Theories of Everything as a hold over from monotheism?

In his book "A Tear at the Edge of Creation", physicist Mario Gleiser argues that results from cosmology and particle physics make it unlikely that we will ever find an elegant unified theory of ...
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Is religion necessary for the good life?

According to Aristotle, you will be deemed as living well if you experience worldly pleasures while still being morally upright and virtuous. How can you identify what is morally right without the ...
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Is there an advantage of a theistic account in terms of being able to define goodness?

I have been watching some debates about the existence of god, such as Peter Singer vs. Dinesh D'Souza, or Christopher Hitchens vs. John Lennox. On the religious side, one argument comes up ...
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On Atheists who are sympathetic to religion?

Most Atheists I have encountered fall into 2 categories: New Atheists: People who don't believe in God and see religion as an evil to be eradicated given the harm it has caused humanity (i.e. ...
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What is the difference between philosophy and religion?

How do you make the distinction between philosophy and religion? Are there some philosophies/religions that are hard to categorize as being one or the other?
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Is God subject to logic?

If someone claims that God is beyond logic then how do we know he is beyond logic ? (as we lose all the methods to know whether the claim is true or not?) Logic is the use and study of valid reasoning,...
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Is “time” an abstract mental construct or does it exist independent of human consciousness?

When I consider my own existence with respect to time I can imagine three possibilities: (1) Time extends infinitely into the past. In this case, how can the present, with me in it, exist, since ...
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Could Anselm's argument also “prove” that a perfectly evil god must exist?

As far as I know, Anselm's argument for the existence of god goes like this: Let's imagine the most perfect being possible. If we imagine it being most perfect but not existing, it would be even more ...
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Is it inconsistent to praise God for apparent action while claiming that apparent inaction is a mystery?

Finally the site is open! I've been waiting to ask this for a week or so. I have been pondering typical responses concerning intercession and resultant positive/negative outcomes and am hoping someone ...
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Is there a demarcation problem for religions?

So far, all of the philosophy of religion I have read focuses on the questions of God's existence and on the problem of evil. It seems to me that just as important would be the question of what a ...
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Are omniscience and omnipotence mutually inconsistent?

I see this in The God Delusion by Richard Dawkins: If God is omniscient, he must already know how he is going to intervene to change the course of history using his omnipotence. But that means ...
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Was Bishop Berkeley part of the Enlightenment and if so - how did it fit his adherence to religion?

In his The Analyst Berkeley argued, among other things, that mathematicians must not "submit to Authority, take things upon Trust" and so expressed a view of the Enlightenment. This made me think: if ...
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Are there any counter arguments to the claim God does not exist because there is evil in the world?

It's been argued that God doesn't exist because there is so much evil in the world. For example, suppose a person is violently murdered - an innocent child say. They argue, God could have prevented ...
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Does refuting the fine-tuning argument for the existence of God necessarily require belief in a Multiverse?

The fine-tuning argument for the existence of God is based on the fact that certain physical constants can only have very specific values for life to exist in the universe. If there was even the ...
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Have there been any modern philosophical defenses of polytheism?

Modern philosophy of religion seems to be "Abrahamic-centric" with all of the discussion centered around problems specific to Christianity, Islam and Judaism. In particular most arguments for the ...
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To what extent was Galileo's trial a conflict between science and religion?

In an answer to another question (https://philosophy.stackexchange.com/a/50328/8160), I mentioned Galileo as an example of religion contradicting science. Several comments criticised that. I posted ...
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How does Kant's moral philosophy define “goodness” and evaluate the moral worth?

Philosophy.SE, this is my first time being here, hence please pardon my inexperience of phrasing the question. I was discussing the moral philosophy of Kant vs the moral philosophy of the Christian ...
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“God doesn't play with dice”: does QM's randomness really contradict religion?

Everyone knows Einstein's popular phrase on Quantum Mechanics - "God doesn't play with dice", implying that the randomness theory that the universe "popped" into existence randomly doesn't align with ...
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Does the notion of an all-powerful God conflict with the idea of free will?

In Abrahamic religions, God is often believed to be wholly omnipotent. People also seem to believe that humans have "free will", esp. insofar that they feel they are in control of their own actions. ...
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Can belief in science be considered a form of theism?

Based on the problem of induction, nobody can assert with absolute certainty that the laws of science (i.e. physics, chemistry, etc,...) will hold all the time, in every part of the universe. ...
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Why did Aldous Huxley not include the Zohar/Kabbalah in “The Perennial Philosophy”?

The Perennial Philosophy presents a universalist interpretation of the world's religions through a comparative study of a collection of mystical writings, from both Eastern and Western philosophies. ...
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Did Descartes really doubt the existence of God?

I've learned about Descartes' universal doubt and as I understood it, he says mind that is supposed to interact with God isn't part of res extensa and therefore isn't part of the senses we can doubt. ...
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What are the fundamental differences between the belief system of science and religious belief systems?

While most religious belief systems affirm the existence of certain things, the belief system of (natural) science tends to deny the existence of certain "not-reproducible" things. Let's look at two ...
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Do messenger-based religions contradict the idea of an all wise God?

Many religions believe that their holy book is the literal word of God (and not the word of the messenger). For instance, the announcement of "new rules" for humanity, such as Quranic injunctions like ...
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Could there ever be evidence for an infinite being?

The God of Anselm is understood as "that than which nothing greater can be conceived." From this definition, God can be presumed to be omnipotent, omniscient, omnipresent, perfectly free, uncaused, ...
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What is the difference between philosophy, religion, and science?

If philosophy is the rational investigation of truth, how is it different from science or mathematics? Is philosophy based at some level on a subjective feeling? If so, how is it different from ...
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Is the logical problem of evil still argued?

Mackie (in "The Miracle of Theism" for instance) has argued that the supposed incompatibility between an all-powerful, all-knowing, and morally perfect God and the existence of evil actually ...
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Is it reasonable to arrive at a conclusion based on lack of evidence to the contrary?

I was having a discussion last night about my atheism, and it was suggested to me that agnostism is the only reasonable conclusion, as it leaves the door open for new information. This made me think, ...
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Why should atheists bother debating theists?

I am currently digging into atheism/agnosticism (I will use atheism for terms of simplicity). Before, I was not religious, I really did not give the subject much thought. I am reading Richard Dawkins ...
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How to argue for science against religion (ft. IASIP)?

(I previously asked posted this in Skeptics SE but was told that this might be a better SE for my specific question.) I was watching this scene from "It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia" where Mac (a ...
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Does culture bias weaken the argument that modern science and a religious world view are compatible?

A typical argument between an atheist and a theist goes along the following lines: ATH: "Modern science and reason are incompatible with a religious world view." TH: "That's not true, many scientists,...
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Is reductio ad absurdum a valid logical proof?

It strikes me that atheists often in the religion debate will try to characterize religion in a funny or silly way, often comparing religion to belief in fairies or unicorns or flying spaghetti ...
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Has anyone used analytic methods to attempt to dissolve the question of God's existence (as opposed to solving it)?

One of the main ideas of the analytic schools of philosophy (logical atomism, ordinary language philosophy,...) is that many philosophical problems can be dissolved - as opposed to resolved - upon ...
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What did Nietzsche mean by accusing Christianity of slave-morality?

In a piece of journalism I read today But I've come to believe that there's also something deeper at work: that most of the world's people live with the legacy of slavery. Even in a nominal ...
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What makes a basic belief a properly basic belief?

I'm currently looking into Plantinga's reformed epistemology and I'm trying to wrap my head around what makes a basic belief a properly basic belief. I understand what a basic belief is, in that it ...
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Are there more modern schools that follow Epicurean philosophy?

As Wikipedia says in its article, Epicureanism in short means: pleasure is the highest good, thus gain it through living virtuous life and expecting less. Based on this definition, is there a ...
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How might science (particularly theoretical physics) be able to approach god?

I've searched over the internet but I've found no satisfactory answer so far , How might science (Particularly theoretical physics) be able to approach god? If we make the assumption that a super-...
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Why are homologies evidence for evolution instead of common design?

I have seen some creationists arguing that when evolutionary biologists use homologies (anatomical or genetic) as evidence for evolution, they are committing the fallacy of affirming the consequent. ...
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How can theists respond to the argument that God is “unfalsifiable”?

In this short essay, "Theology and Falsification", Anthony Flew argues that the idea of God is unfalsifiable. Flew gives the following example: A person of faith asserts that God loves his children. ...