Questions tagged [philosophy-of-religion]

Philosophy of religion is a branch of philosophy concerned with questions regarding religion, including the nature and existence of God, the examination of religious experience, analysis of religious vocabulary and texts, and the relationship of religion and science. Note that term is somewhat ambiguous as questions regarding atheism, secular humanism and agnosticism is included in the discipline.

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Hiddenness of God

I have some questions regarding the argument of the Canadian philosopher John Schellenberg (Hiddenness of God) or (nonresistant nonbelief). See it here: The argument from nonresistant nonbelief My ...
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Are Tillich and Dewey saying the same thing with regard to “ultimate concern”?

Both Dewey and Tillich refer to "God" in their respective interpretations of the object of faith. Also, each of them uses similar terms in speaking of faith. Tillich speaks of being "ultimately ...
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Is Hegel criticizing the Church in On the Prospects for a Folk Religon?

Good morning, I have just started studying Hegel with the oldest work I could find, On the Propspects for a Folk Religion, also called Tübinga Fragments I believe. In the second paragraph it already ...
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What is the relationship between Science and Religion?

I recently came across the explanation that Science explains things that can be explained, religion explains things that can not be explained. Is this true? I feel like this is true because ...
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Does Kant have a Fourth Critique?

Those familiar with the architectonic nature of Immanuel Kant's philosophy argue about the difference between the three critiques (Critique of Pure Reason; Critique of Practical Reason; and the ...
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How does John Hick's reform of Irenaean theodicy differ from the original?

I'm revising this for my RS exam and though I understand the underlying concepts of Irenaean theodicy but I don't understand how Hick's theodicy is different (other than rejecting Augustine, I believe)...
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The conflict of creationism and evolution. How can we know the truth?

the demands of evolution and creation cannot be reconciled with each other because they represent two fundamentally different, mutually hostile, and mutually exclusive systems. They do not ...
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Does Alvin Plantinga's book Knowledge and Christian Belief offer any substantial updates to Warranted Christian Belief?

The stated primary goal of Plantinga's Knowledge and Christian Belief (2015) was to condense the content of Warranted Christian Belief (2000) into a shorter and more accessible book. My question is ...
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A Ground or Foundation of Morality

I am currently reading the very fascinating paper Unspeakable Ethics, Unnatural Law by Arthur Allen Leff. It seems that the thrust of his paper is that there is no "naturalistic" way of grounding or ...
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Is it honest to accept only part of a story as being metaphorical?

I will take the example of Christianity, but my question applies to any other religious material The majority of christians seems to accept that parts of the Bible are metaphors that should not be ...
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What does this quotation suggest about Gurus in religion?

I was reading this article on the concept of "Gurus" in various religions, and the following quotation regarding Sikhism caught my attention: On the importance of guru, Nanak says: "Let no man in ...
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Is atheism or agnosticism more rational?

While there is still widespread disagreement regarding the existing definition of atheism, it is normally considered as the "Rejection of belief in the existence of deities". One accepted definition ...
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A supposedly new argument for the existence of God?

I have come across a supposedly new argument for the existence of God, I would be interested in whether this has been discussed in literature. Is there any resemblance to Plantinga's EAAN? The ...
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Would an all-powerful God still be all-powerful if they can never do evil?

God is perfectly good, and so never does any evil. God is also all-powerful, so God can do anything that is logically possible. But, it's logically possible for there to be a bad world (a world with ...
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What does wisdom mean for a secular person?

I'm a Christian now, but I can remember the days when I was a rather unreflective atheist. Back then, I considered the word "wisdom" to be meaningless, and would be suspicious of anybody who claimed ...
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How Does Modern Science 'Know' there is no God? [duplicate]

As pointed out in this question, there is no hard scientific evidence of the existence of an existentially all-powerful being. As there is no direct evidence that there is a God, there is also no ...
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What is the difference between The one, Buddha-nature, Brahman and Tao?

God in Christianity, Dharmakāya in Buddism, Brahman in Hinduism, Beneath Abstraction in Taoism and Flying Spaghetti Monster in Pastafarianism are all plays as a ultimate, eternal and absolute being. ...
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What is the utility of non-falsifiable beliefs about God?

Note: This question is derived from comments by the original poster of an earlier question (on my answer to that question, How can theists respond to the argument that God is "unfalsifiable"...
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Does Strong Agnosticism (as opposed to Weak Agnosticism) justify taking Pascal's wager?

Definitions: Weak Agnosticism: not knowing whether God exists or not, but remaining open to deciding later (presumably after thinking more on the subject or gaining more facts). Strong Agnosticism: ...
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Why is existence not a true predicate with respect to Anselm's argument?

Kant criticized Anselm's argument for the existence of God by counter arguing the expression 'God exists' adds nothing to our meaning of God and so it cannot be true a God that exists is greater than ...
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Does omniscience negate free will?

If a tri-omni being knows what you're exactly going to do, then you can't do anything other than what he already knows you'll do. Further, if a tri-omni being created this reality in which things ...
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If religious experiences are reducible to neurological events, can a pragmatist argue against their value?

This question is able to be stated fairly succinctly, and assumes that answerers will have a sufficient degree of familiarity with pragmatism and the notion of religious experience. My motivation in ...
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Cause and effect

A standard argument for the existence of God is the Kalam Cosmological Argument. The first premise of this argument is that if something begins to exist then it must have a cause. My question is this. ...
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Question about praying [closed]

This is a theoretical question about God (or about "a god"). If the best way to talk to God was not to talk to God at all, how would I know?
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Does the demand for evidence run contrary to faith?

As the title suggests, and in accordance with a recent theme here on philosophy stack exchange, I'm wondering if the demand for evidence runs contrary to faith. My intuitive notion of faith is that it ...
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Why does Thomas Aquinas say that “in every composite there must be potentiality and actuality”?

In the chapter in Summa Theologica on the simplicity of God, Aquinas says the following in arguing that God is not composite: ... in every composite there must be potentiality and actuality; but ...
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Does Plantinga's freewill defense approach to the problem of evil conflict with current standards of moral responsibility?

Alvin Plantinga provided a solution (or what he called a defense) to the problem of evil based on the value of freewill. Assuming one believes in God, the problem is how to reconcile the apparent ...
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Can Pascal's wager be made to work?

There are many objections to the Pascal's wager, as originally stated, see for instance here. Personally, I don't think that the wager can be defended. However, I am wondering if it is possible to ...
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What is the difference between the spiritual and the metaphysical

According to this (old) page, metaphysics is the study of things beyond anything humans can perceive. Because of this fact, metaphysics is relatively faith-based discipline and, compared to science, ...
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How widely accepted is the “presumption of atheism” among philosophers?

The presumption of atheism is the idea that in debates between theists and atheists, the burden of proof is on the theist to prove that God exists. This principle appears to be taken for granted in ...
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Is it necessary to read Neoplatonic works (e.g. Plotinus, Porphyry, etc…) to understand St. Augustine's books?

I heard that St. Augustine of Hippo did put Neoplatonic thoughts in his works like "Confessions" ( I have the book but didn't read it yet). Is it necessary to read neoplatonic books like the Enneads ...
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Is it possible that religion is a part of science?

I had literature class and we were studying the Bible, and I as a non-believing person was kind of sceptical about it, but my teacher pointed out that the Bible, and all religions before it, are part ...
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What is “religion”?

In his 2013 book entitled Why Tolerate Religion?, Brian Leiter defined "religion" as follows: Central beliefs that issue in categorical demands on action -- that is, demands that must be satisfied ...
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How does “Plotinian discussion of unity and multiplicity” contribute to Al-Kindi's cosmological argument?

I'm reading a discussion of Al-Kindi's cosmological argument. Al-Kindi is widely considered "father of Islamic philosophy" and this argument is a version of what is now known as the "kalam ...
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What's a name for the fallacy of concluding something must be based on truth because it is successful?

I have noticed a type of fallacious reasoning that conflates truth and success. For example, a company might assume their predictive models are correct because these models make the company more money....
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Is Western atheism a kind of Protestant religion?

Alvin Plantinga, while setting up his evolutionary argument against naturalism in Where the Conflict Really Lies, writes (page 311): Now it is not clear that naturalism, as it stands, is a religion;...
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Could Ethical subjectivism be classified as Moral realism if we include God?

For the sake of my question, God = "an omnipotent being". I am not referring to any specific gods that come from any past or present religions. Ethical subjectivism generally stands in opposition to ...
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Why did Hartshorne believe in God?

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Hartshorne https://www.iep.utm.edu/hart-t-a/ Donald Wayne Viney and George W. Shields wrote that Charles Hartshorne denied justifying his own faith upon Anselm’...
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Can societal morals develop with no concept of religion?

My question is summed up in the title. Is it possible for a group of people who are completely devoid of religion to develop a set of common morals that differentiate between right and wrong? How ...
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Who were the late renaissance/early enlightenment atheists?

Descartes (1596 – 1650) gave arguments against atheism, as did Blaise Pascal (1623 – 1662). Yet the first prominent atheist I can think of is David Hume (1711 - 1776), and even he wasn't explicit. ...
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What are atheism and agnosticism? [closed]

(Apologies for the crazy length question) Whenever the thorny issue of theism vs. atheism comes up -- especially on the internet -- a further issue always seems to arise concerning what these ...
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Under what conditions would we have to accept that the supernatural has influenced the reality?

One of the most common arguments raised by the rationalists against religious faiths is that many claims made by the religious tend to be unfalsifiable. Many times we hear or read arguments in the ...
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Does St. Thomas Aquinas' cosmological argument from contingency assume that an infinite regress of contingent things is impossible?

The Third Way: Argument from Possibility and Necessity (Reductio argument) We find in nature things that are possible to be and not to be, that come into being and go out of being i.e., ...
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In nondualistic religions (Shaivism/Hinduism/New Age) why does consciousness manifest the world at all?

Hi I do not understand why there is no religion stacks exchange but this question is more philosophy anyhow. Nondualistic eastern religions (Traditionally tantra movement, some Hinduism strands, ...
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How far can compatibilism go: God as active creator with perfect foreknowledge and free will

One of the main arguments of compatibilists trying to save free will from God's foreknowledge seems to be that free will is still possible in the face of perfect foreknowledge as long as God only ...
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What is the point of prayer for theological rationalists?

Of course, there are psychological aspects, you can unify a community or concentrate on your life goals. I feel like Christians try to do something like that when they say that prayer should be a ...
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Is induction as a means to reach a conclusion rational?

According to Humes's argument, induction by its nature assumes a uniformity that is not justified. This is a very deep and interesting observation, and a point often used by the religious to justify ...
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Plantinga's Free Will Defense and his stance on God's omnipotence

I'm having trouble understanding exactly what Plantinga is saying in regard to God's omnipotence. He states quite clearly that it is not logically impossible for a world in which free creatures who ...
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In the Bhagavadgītā, what are some objections to its proposed solutions to the paradox of action?

For those un-familiar with indian philosophy, the Bhagavadgītā is a text that proposes a solution to the problem of rebirth. This problem of rebirth is as follows: We are in an endless cycle of ...
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How could an eternal God know that He is eternal? [closed]

In most religions, God is described as "eternal." In particular, in Christianity, God promises eternal life, a promise that seems to require His own eternity. But how does He know that He is eternal ...

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