Questions tagged [philosophy-of-science]

for applied philosophical questions about the study of science, the pursuit of scientific knowledge, and the scientific method

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What Logic fallacy is Person 1 using in this?

Person 1: Vaccines can cause Autism Person 2: If it can cause Autism, why does all the Studies not support that in any way? Person 1: Actually I'm not saying it does but "Maybe" it can cause ...
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57 views

Which Philosophers talk about the Future. the technologies beyond AI and John Searle?

I like philosophy since long time ago I know a little about Socrates, Plato, Descartes, Hegel, Marx, Kant, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche and Leibniz. I like his work but there is a topic that I am really ...
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42 views

Do abilities have position? [closed]

Do abilities have position? For example, there is an object with elasticity, and the object is on the desk, then elasticity is on the desk?
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1answer
53 views

What are theories which are not scientific called (such as theories in history)?

Related to this question/answer, if something is not considered a "scientific theory", but it is still a theory of how events and evolution might have unfolded, what kind of theory is it? ...
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94 views

Are zero meters equal to zero seconds? [closed]

Is ? This would seem somewhat logical given the mathematical properties of physical units, but also not necessary.
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447 views

Unobserved quantum state of the universe

I am not completely sure that this is the right place to ask this question, but it is clearly not a normal question about quantum mechanics. I am considering the quantum state of the universe. I have ...
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2answers
80 views

What threat to the external validity of a study is not also a threat to its internal validity?

I understand the gist of all the definitions of internal and external validity I encountered to be the following: Internal validity is the extent to which confounding factors can be ruled out to ...
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3answers
225 views

Feynman's name of the bird

Consider this quote by Richard Feynman (from "What Do You Care What Other People Think?": Further Adventures of a Curious Character, edited by Ralph Leighton, 1988, available at archive.org):...
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45 views

What does Carnap mean by the extensionality requirement in an observational language?

In his article Methodological Character of Theoretical Concepts (Section II), he lists the requirements proposed for any language L to be meaningful. However, I don't understand what he means exactly ...
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102 views

Will this break the laws of physics? [closed]

Suppose, we somehow made a time machine and go back to the past or go in the future and we come back bringing a 10kg object from past or future. Now, in present the mass of universe is increased by ...
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61 views

Is there a philosophical definition for this theory?

I may be clutching at straws in my search for clarity on this topic, and being not a graduate philosopher but a layman, please forgive me if the following seems obtuse or inane. But it seems to me, ...
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90 views

Did 3 laws of dialectics affirm themselves true from the current prospective of physics and social science?

There are 3 universal laws derived from Hegel's dialectics which are claimed to reveal the essential features of any developing phenomenon, no matter to what field of activity it may belong: 1.The law ...
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69 views

The usefulness of the useless (pure math and pure science)

In Italian philosopher Nuccio Ordine's The utility of the useless, he returns to a traditional and inexhaustible theme: the value of education and its relationship with culture. Ordine identifies that ...
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1answer
218 views

Does a decrease in entropy require intent?

Physics tells us that universally entropy is always increasing. However, it is possible for entropy to decrease locally at the expense of a bigger increase elsewhere. Can this happen spontaneously or ...
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3answers
382 views

What is left of physics if the mathematics is removed?

My question is in the title. It seems to me that (theoretical) physics studies mathematical models of the physical world, and constantly revises them. But isn't studying mathematical models ...
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34 views

Are there any philosophers after Kant but before Peirce that developed the Kantian concept of schema further?

I was reading Peirce's writings on schemata and I was wondering if there was any other known philosopher before him who tried to use or extend schemata in his work. Are there any philosophers after ...
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168 views

Is there a proof that we can't prove a physical theory?

I am thinking of physical theories (e.g. Newtonian Mechanics) as axiomatic systems. We have a list of axioms and from there we can derive theorems, make predictions etc. If the prediction don't agree ...
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1answer
42 views

Are Thomas Breuer's subjective decoherence and Scott Aaronson's freebits with Knightian freedom the same things in essence?

In his remarkable works (1,2 and their later development 3) Thomas Breuer proves by diagonalization the phenomenon that the observer cannot distinguish all phase space states of a system where he is ...
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59 views

What did John of Salisbury write about the concepts of "logical depth and breadth"?

In the Digital companion to Peirce site there is the following text about the logical depth and breadth: …it was between six and seven centuries ago that John of Salisbury spoke of it as “fere in ...
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1answer
28 views

Questions about Reichenbach's Principle and causes

Is "statistical dependences need to be explained causally" an accurate depiction of Reichenbach's Principle? (Rob Spekkens https://youtu.be/n8NRSPCekmI?t=1575) Does one need to accept this ...
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2answers
91 views

Since spacetime can bend and form waves, does this mean it must be made of sub-units of matter? How can something bend if it does not have sub-units?

I posted this question in Physics StackExchange, but it was closed because it was considered "non-mainstream physics", not sure why. Here's the description I wrote for it: My question is ...
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2answers
252 views

Quine's naturalism and the interpretations of Quantum Mechanics

I am wondering what does Quine's naturalism amount to. Specifically, Quine believes that our best scientific theories tell us what exist. This means that science determines our ontology. In the case ...
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1answer
292 views

Explanatory model that accounts for universality

Hempel's DN (Deductive-Nomological) model is a kind of explanatory model, that accounts for explanation of certain type of questions. Basically If I look for explanation for the laws of motion of a ...
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1answer
165 views

Nature of mathematics within philosophy

Short version: Considering that science is inevitably dependent on mathematics and metaphysics (Kant tried to raise metaphysics to the status of a science, which I find mandatory to improve the ...
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1answer
69 views

Can Popper's methodology be applied to his own theory?

A meta question. About applying a theory to itself. Can Popper's theory (methodology) of falsification be applied to his own work? Suppose we found evidence that science advances by adopting non-...
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3answers
147 views

Can philosophies of science be refuted by scientific practice?

There are various philosophers of science who all offer a different theory about how the sciences proceed. The most naive one is the theory that we make observations, build a theory and then again ...
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30 views

What does Feyerabend mean by saying that state and science should be separated?

I wrote in a comment that I don't agree that scientists should be paid for doing things that are of no benefit whatsoever for the ones from whose pocket their salary is paid. As an example I gave ...
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3answers
67 views

Can we see the sciences as an art?

I always feel some kind of fulfillment when I succed in giving Natural processes an explanation in the light of physics. It's kind of comforting to make invisible causes visible and understandable. ...
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40 views

what part of philosophy studies the ideas of (individual, attribute, proposition, argument, theory, and science)?

There is the idea of individual and attribute, after there is the idea of proposition, with that we can do arguments. After the idea of proposition is the idea of theory and after the idea of science, ...
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75 views

Is there a theory of evolution that spans naturalism and humanmade systems?

Darwin's big insight was that there are two phases that drive the evolution of species: variation and natural selection. The term 'evolution' applies to humanmade systems, as well. E.g., the evolution ...
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244 views

Are there a finite number of ideas? [closed]

I never want to run out of new ideas to contemplate. Some people say that technological progress will eventually reach a natural stopping point but my logic is that new inventions will always exist ...
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1answer
128 views

The meaning of the word theory

The normal, day-to-day meaning of the word 'theory' denotes the uncertainty regarding factuality. For instance, when we say that "it is just another theory" what we imply is that there can ...
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1answer
52 views

Did any philosopher address the question of why it is easier to write about grammar than to write about how to write well?

Did any philosopher address the question of why it is easier to write about grammar than to write about how to write well? I am not sure if I am very dumb to ask this question, but I am wondering why, ...
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140 views

References for books/papers about emergentism and reductionism

I am trying to look for resources to deepen some topics presented in this workshop Moving Naturalism Forward. Especially the point on emergence (and secondarily on evolution and determinism, but here ...
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Is peripheral attention an example of the intentionality of consciousness?

Suppose I fix my gaze on an object, say a flower. Without moving my eyes, keeping them fixed on the flower, so with the same exact visual experience, I can "direct my attention" towards ...
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98 views

Why not accepting a theory that has obvious advantages, like the rishon model?

Already in 1981, Haim Harari invented the Rishon model of elementary particles. It provides a natural way to accommodate the known elementary particles and reduces the number of elementary ones to the ...
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98 views

What are possible naturalistic explanations to the question of existence?

Non-philosopher here, though I enjoy reading about it. Without getting into complex deductive arguments, suppose I say the following: Define the entities of the material world however one likes (maybe ...
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7answers
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Is Occam's Razor a Prior?

In Bayesian statistics, the posterior probability of a hypothesis is composed of two parts: the prior, reflecting our initial belief in a certain hypothesis, and the likelihood, which represents how ...
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2answers
108 views

What makes a fallacy... a fallacy?

According to Wikipedia, a fallacy is "the use of invalid or otherwise faulty reasoning, or 'wrong moves' in the construction of an argument". I'm curious, however, about how are some things ...
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3answers
184 views

What is the core problem of intentionality?

In the philosophy of mind, I have read that "intentionality" is a difficult thing to explain in a naturalistic fashion. But I don't necessarily see the heart of the problem in the same way ...
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14answers
3k views

What is information?

I am fascinated with information theory, as put together by Claude Shannon in the 1940s. It is amazing to me that this concept arose from analysing letters in the alphabet and then was later ...
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74 views

How does confirmation relate to induction?

My question deals with induction in the context of scientific enquiry and with the confirmation of scientfic hypothesis. Discussions regarding induction rapidly turn into debates regarding ...
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1answer
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What did Bernard Stiegler say about technology always progressing?

My uncle was reading Stiegler right before he died and he was saying something that Stiegler said technological advancement never ends. As a budding futurist; I find this very intriguing and would ...
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30 views

Are there models that seeks to explain and predict ethical phenomenons?

Are there models that seeks to explain and predict ethical phenomenons? By models, I mean something like a scientific model. Is there anything like that or did we choose to not use any mathematical ...
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3answers
93 views

Is a supernatural entity or existence constricted by the necessity of evidence?

It's a fact that natural existences are constricted by the necessity of evidence. Meaning evidence is necessary to prove an natural existence or natural occurrence, and if there's is no evidence the ...
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5answers
192 views

How does science treat supernatural claims?

The following claim X, Something had a round trip from the Earth to the Mars within 1 second might be treated by science as a supernatural claim because it violates the natural law (i.e. speed limit ...
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117 views

Does reality change? when you many theories [closed]

for example things appear and disappear.
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149 views

Generating the simplest sort of Cosmological Argument

First, I am not a philosopher, but rather an applied mathematician. However, the Cosmological Argument has always intrigued me. At times I feel that all attempts are necessarily hopeless, at other ...
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62 views

Could a new method of understanding the universe be created?

Throughout history, we have used many methods of understanding the universe. Religion, Philosophy and Science (I know that the lines between these three are blurred but are significant enough to ...
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Did alchemy originate from the ancient Greeks?

Did alchemy originate from the ancient Greeks? I heard alchemy is based on ancient Greek philosophy. Is this true?

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