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Questions tagged [philosophy-of-science]

for applied philosophical questions about the study of science, the pursuit of scientific knowledge, and the scientific method

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Swinburne's solution to Grue

In the new riddle of induction, Swinburne proposes the idea that there is a genuine distinction to be made between the predicate 'green' and the predicate 'grue' in that 'green' is a qualitative ...
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1answer
174 views

How does a Bayesian respond to the Grue-hypothesis?

According to Bayesian inference/confirmation theory, your confidence in a hypothesis increases as you observe more and more evidence predicted by that hypothesis (according to bayes theorem and the ...
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7answers
343 views

what amount of complexity is enough to warrant intelligent design?

As our research into the cell progresses over the decades, we are seeing greater and greater levels of complexity. According to our current understanding, the cell resembles some sort of miniaturized ...
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2answers
144 views

Why do mathematical Axioms work so well in science? [closed]

Axiom, an established rule or principle or a self-evident truth. Better yet, An Axiom is a mathematical statement that is assumed to be true Why does math apply so well to science? Why is 1 atom+1 ...
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5answers
192 views

Why do physicists increasingly seek to understand more fundamental pieces of matter?

Why do physicists seek to study and explain more fundamental qualities of matter as opposed to stopping at a certain point and testing more predictions of macro-level models? What benefit does the "...
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2answers
117 views

Box's aphorism “all models are wrong, but some are useful” is closest to what line of thought in philosophy of science?

A hugely influential aphorism from the statistician George E. P. Box is, "all models are wrong, but some are useful." For example, it is often useful to model a random variable as normally distributed ...
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1answer
324 views

To what extent is embodied cognition falsifiable?

As a matter of philosophy of science, since Karl Popper (1934), falsifiability is a crucial distinctive property of scientific inquiry. So, I wonder to what extent are some hypotheses of cognitive ...
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7answers
189 views

Is the “Theory of Everything” a misnomer?

Is it wrong to call the theory that explains all four fundamental forces/interactions a Theory of Everything in philosophy? My views: I think this is not a misnomer, at least not if you are both a ...
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3answers
261 views

Is the negation of a non-falsifiable statement falsifiable?

In Popper's "Logic of Scientific Discovery", falsifiability is set up as a criterion for determining the purview of science. The canonical example is the statement "All swans are white", which is ...
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1answer
78 views

Against Historical (or Geographical) Determinism

It seems that determinism has gained tremendously in terms of being accepted as a general theory of everything by a large number of people. Books like The Selfish Gene and Guns, Germs, and Steel have ...
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7answers
363 views

What are the assumptions adopted by the scientific community?

What are the core assumptions of the modern scientific community with which they use to view the world and formulate theories etc? By assumptions I mean premises taken as fact (about the universe/...
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What branch of philosophy studies 'clouds' of concepts that spread as intellectual templates?

I am currently reading Andreas Wimmer's Waves of War, he makes an argument that I found interesting and I was wondering if anyone knew of what Philosophical Theory that style of reasoning would be ...
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1answer
69 views

The tags for the 21st century philosophy

What are the tags, if I'd like to read something about 21st century philosophy? Where do I find the list of the greatest philosophers of the 21st century? Is it true that the pure philosophy is in ...
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1answer
140 views

Why the truth is always on the opposite direction?

When I made a mistake, it was always the case that I was totally wrong, not a little bit wrong. Say any idea is a vector which has direction and pointing to a result; what I mean is that the truth ...
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3answers
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Was Bishop Berkeley part of the Enlightenment and if so - how did it fit his adherence to religion?

In his The Analyst Berkeley argued, among other things, that mathematicians must not "submit to Authority, take things upon Trust" and so expressed a view of the Enlightenment. This made me think: if ...
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1answer
89 views

In which publication does Bertrand Russell define “philosophy”?

I've personally read a book or an article by Bertrand Russell where he defines philosophy. The definition --- IIRC --- is that philosophy is the study of the unknown. If it becomes a matter of fact, ...
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7answers
222 views

Is there anything which is not impermanent?

From Stars to atoms to strings , everything seems to be impermanent in physical universe. My question is : Has it been philosophically accepted that everything physical is impermanent? Or is there ...
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2answers
316 views

How do non-theists explain the reliability of our cognitive faculties given Plantinga’s EAAN?

Plantinga argued in his Evolutionary Argument Against Naturalism (EAAN) that given naturalistic evolution we cannot expect our cognitive faculties to be reliable. This contradicts our experience that ...
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1answer
93 views

physical approach to freewill

Here is what I think: Every action that takes place in this universe (Including me, writing this) is a consequence of motion and interaction of particles and energy transformation. All our thoughts ...
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4answers
200 views

Does the existence of an infinite multi-verse constitute “grounding of scientific law”?

I'm taking a modern philosophy class and my teacher has talked about the a lot about the grounding of scientific law as well as whether it is necessary or contingent. For example, Descartes used his "...
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4answers
259 views

Is there any way disputes over a knowledge claim due to different interpretations of data can be resolved?

I'm quite stumped as to how to answer the question because it would be rather difficult to correct the interpretations of others...
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15answers
14k views

Fundamental idea on proving God's existence with science

I think that proving God's existence or any deity from any culture with the rigors of science is fundamentally absurd. The popular arguments usually involve space-time and the big bang theory. (I ...
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2answers
210 views

What is the philosophical status of interpretations of a scientific theory?

What constitutes an interpretation of a scientific theory? Are interpretations subject to scientific criteria like falsifiability, repeatability, etc, or are they philosophical comments? And finally, ...
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3answers
179 views

Scientific statements that are not falsifiable

Consider this statement: There exist black swans. It is (practically) not falsifiable, since we can't search the whole world to conclude there are no black swans. However, it is provable, and I ...
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1answer
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What is the difference between epistemic targets and epistemic motivations for simulations and experiments?

Now I am reading an article here about philosophy and epistemology of science. And here is a quote: Peschard's more sophisticated picture involving a distinction between epistemic targets and ...
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2answers
1k views

Why did Hegel hate Newton?

A quick skim through the "Inorganic Physics" section of Hegel's Encyclopedia shows 5 separate paragraphs with reference to Newton, and all of them are disparaging. If there's a real philosophical ...
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4answers
310 views

Is Information considered a genuine concept from physics?

Everybody agrees that the concepts of energy and momentum or the concept of spacetime are genuine concepts from physics. Not only that these concepts are used in physics. They are made precise in ...
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1answer
169 views

Do naturalists think that only microscopic physical things exist?

I was reading an article on time in physics, which is meant to emerge at the macroscopic level. This is interpreted as that it does not really exist. Is that because only microscopic physical things ...
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3answers
656 views

What factors could affect the resolvability of disputes over knowledge claims (within a discipline in an area of knowledge)?

I am considering the area of knowledge of History but it has so many disciplines that I don't really understand fully. As for answering the question, I already thought of one factor: the lack of data ...
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3answers
116 views

Are moral obligations real?

Are moral obligations real? For examples of moral obligations, I raise politics: to hold elections that allow voters to determine a change in government authority seems to be a moral obligation for ...
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7answers
408 views

Is philosophy a waste of time? [duplicate]

Philosophy has not advanced very far since Ancient Greece and Rome and every philosophical point of view, when extended, becomes absurd. Meanwhile, in little more than 3 centuries, and mostly in the ...
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5answers
336 views

To what extent was Galileo's trial a conflict between science and religion?

In an answer to another question (https://philosophy.stackexchange.com/a/50328/8160), I mentioned Galileo as an example of religion contradicting science. Several comments criticised that. I posted ...
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2answers
3k views

Why do the professional mathematicians believe blindly in so meaningless concepts as Infinity? [closed]

To refute such a concept as Infinity (or many infinities) in mathematics doesn't at all require all that big efforts mainly from its own definition in mathematics. To explain this very simple fiction ...
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216 views

Are humans becoming more hive-like? Does this have philosophical implications?

Have any philosophers taken up human hive-like behaviour and its implications? EO Wilson and others have outlined eusociality, a mode of group selection acting in addition to selection at the ...
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6answers
212 views

Studying the nature of the world: philosophy or physics

I must say this is a topic that's been bothering me for some time now, especially considering my confusion of current state of academic departments. Put simply, I understand while reading philosophy ...
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3answers
111 views

What does it mean that a belief is scientifically compatible?

In the following thread ... Does culture bias weaken the argument that modern science and a religious world view are compatible? ... the questioner presents the following discussion between an ...
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13answers
15k views

Why are believers criticized so much for being anti-science when so many scientists are … believers?

My first introduction to philosophical debate was through Sam Harris and Christopher Hitchens. The idea that they hammered into a younger me was that faith was stupid and irrational and any person ...
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2answers
132 views

What do we mean by philosophy of physics or math what does it tell us about them?

what do we mean by philosophy of physics or math what does it tell us about them ? Does it tell about how these disciplines of knowledge develop? For example to develop math we use axiomatic approach ...
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92 views

What makes a great scientific question for and/or against a stupid idea?

While I am taking a walk I have come up with quotes, questions and philosophy to motivate and route myself. I recently discovered/invented a new quote which really can have multiple meaning to it (...
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2answers
143 views

How does constructive empiricism differ from instrumentalism?

Constructive empiricism is the belief that science aims to give theories which are empirically adequate (i.e. agree with observables), and accepting a theory means believing that it is empirically ...
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3answers
89 views

Is it a problem for Frequentism that infinite sequences do not exist?

Hypothetical frequentists defined probability as limiting long run frequencies of hypothetical random infinite sequences, such as an infinite sequence of coin tosses. One argument against this ...
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3answers
79 views

What is a scientific explanation?

My definition of when something is "scientifically explained" is when the laws of science (a set of axioms) can be used to deduce behavior of said phenomenon quantitatively/qualitatively. With this ...
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1answer
60 views

How can we categorize schools to achieve AI?

If we want to show schools at AI, which criteria are used? For example I think something below, there are 2 school of AI. Human level AI Problem solution-level AI At human level we aim to make ...
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1answer
144 views

Does the propensity interpretation of probability rely on the principle of indifference?

According to the late Popper, among others, probability is the propensity of a set of conditions to produce certain long run relative frequencies. Therefore if we say that a certain set of conditions ...
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2answers
76 views

Book or article recommendation about causality and counterfactuals

I'd like to assign social science undergraduate students an article, short part of a book, or even a blog post about causality and counterfactual logic that is easy to understand. It seems that most ...
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2answers
58 views

What is the intended use of “the” in the definition of science (Oxford)?

The definition of science: "the intellectual and practical activity encompassing the systematic study of the structure and behaviour of the physical and natural world through observation and ...
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2answers
116 views

Have philosophers explored the ideas of accuracy and precision when considering the truth of a statement?

I'm a physicist interested in exploring philosophy. As a motivation, let me give a few contradictory statements about gravity: "Acceleration due to gravity is a constant 9.81m/s^2" "Gravity follows ...
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0answers
104 views

William James on mathematical conceptions not related to perceptions?

I'm studying William James. I'm mainly interested in his Radical Empiricism and Pluralism. I really like his views but I need some clarification on what is his position on conceptions that are not ...
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2answers
108 views

Machines vs Chaos of Human Language

Will it ever be possible for machines to understand language the way humans do? It is a famous XKCD comic strip pointing out how "Language isn't a formal system. It is a glorious chaos". It ...
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1answer
76 views

Are axioms assumptions and should they be minimized?

Are axioms nothing but assumptions and, if yes and in accordance to Occam's Razor, should they be minimized? When postulating scientific theorems which, unlike axioms, are subject to the scrutiny of ...