Questions tagged [philosophy-of-science]

for applied philosophical questions about the study of science, the pursuit of scientific knowledge, and the scientific method

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Is the theory of relativity scientifically proven? [closed]

I am writing an essay and talked about a point of of the development in the force of gravity, I talked about Issac Newton’s findings and how they were later corrected by Albert Einstein. Was the ...
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1answer
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What distinguishes “individuals” in science? [closed]

For example, we do talk about "this sheep" or "that sheep" in biology. And if distinguishing "individuals" is just about habits or how we perceive the world, I. e. ...
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Why is ancient Asian philosophy so implicit and allegorical compared to the ancient Greek philosophy which seems more explicit and abstract?

Why is ancient Asian philosophy so implicit and allegorical, compared to the ancient Greek philosophy, which seems more explicit and abstract? If I had to guess, I would say that it's due to language ...
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Question from a high school student about role of natural sciences?

I am doing my essay on natural sciences methodology therefore, I wanted to give the example how according to the scientific method, new valid evidence could add to or correct previous knowledge. ...
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40 views

Principle of Parsimony and Epistemological Economy [closed]

Why aren't definitions in other sciences (especially humanities) parsimonious in that they word themselves so as to provide the least necessary&sufficient logical conditions? The Principle of ...
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Is it standard to distinguish two versions of the hypothetico-deductivist conception of science : confirmation approach and falsificationism?

In his course on Philosophy Of Science, Pr Folse ( Loyola University New Orleans) distinguishes two trends in the " empricist consensus " ( that emerged in the 19th century) : inductivism ...
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1answer
163 views

Do light particles exist [closed]

This question is kind of a mash between physics and philosophy. If I should delete this post and put it on the physics stackexchange, let me know. If light travels at 299,792,458 m/s, then does it ...
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215 views

Specific example of Sam Harris' opinion on morality

I listened to some audios also read some blogs about position of sam harris that science can guide moral behavior. I get the idea roughly. However, I would appreciate if someone can give a specific ...
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100 views

Does the practice of firing dissenters from universities undermine the meaningulness of scientific consensus? [closed]

I am constantly bombarded with links to articles and videos by professors, doctors, PhDs and the likes who claim that vaccines are harmful, dangerous and ineffective at preventing infectious diseases. ...
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50 views

Who was the first to posit something akin to the falsifiability principle?

Peirce in CP 5.199 writes something very similar to falsifiability principle namely the following: ...But these logicians refuse to admit that we can ever have a right to conclude definitely that a ...
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Is paraconsistent logic used in other areas of mathematics other than discrete mathematics and in other areas such as physics and philosophy?

Is paraconsistent logic used in other areas of mathematics other than discrete mathematics and in other areas such as physics and philosophy? I heard that paraconsistent logic is an area of discrete ...
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Are there truths that the scientific method cannot explore, but maybe alternative methods can? [duplicate]

Are there truths that the scientific method cannot explore, but maybe alternative methods can? Does the scientific method subsume all possible valid ways to obtain true knowledge? Or are there ...
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Who are some 19th century philosophers to posit something akin to meaning holism and how did they argue in favor of it?

According to this Whewell debated with Stuart Mill on "Holism vs. Particularism". What were their arguments in support of the 'meaning holism' if they had any?
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Is it possible to create a machine that converts one matter type to another? [closed]

In general, there is no such thing as iron protons or aluminum electrons. There are different types of atoms, but the only thing that is different is how many of each thing there is. Would it be ...
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44 views

“Inference to the Best Explanation if the Best is Sufficiently Good”

The reliability of Inference to the Best Explanation (IBE) is sometimes contested because it may end up recommending the best of a bad lot, which might require a modification of IBE (e.g. contra ...
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1answer
56 views

Who was the first to state that scientific theories are sets of statements or propositions?

During the late 19th century or early 20th C.S Peirce defined scientific theories as sets of propositions and made some interesting assertions about them. Who was the first to define scientific ...
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1answer
53 views

What is “lack” in Aristotle's “three starting-points” of form, lack and matter?

The following quote from Aristotle's Metaphysics is utterly baffling to me: The causes and starting-points of distinct things are distinct in a way, but in a way--if we are speaking universally and ...
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25 views

Did C.S Peirce ever express anything close to the paradigm shift concept?

Since the study of Peirce seems to have a large number of papers in the philosophical corpus where researchers ascribe to him several concepts that were (re?)discovered several decades after his death ...
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56 views

Did C.S Peirce ever express anything in the same vein to meaning holism?

C.S Peirce's philosophy is considered a predecessor to the logical positivism. In some respects Peirce is also thought as having prefigured several major philosophical ideas that came after logical ...
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37 views

Is it possible to have a scientific review of a method if the author doesn't have direct experience of it?

It seems like it is possible to conduct scientific research without actually getting close to the sample/specimen. However, what if the "sample" of the research is a method? For example, ...
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How much of C.S Peirce's categories is new to him?

One of the very early papers of Peirce deal with his categories. How much of his categories are original to him? I am particularly interested in the "firstness" which he characterizes as the ...
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74 views

Are there any philosophers who contemplated the nature of questions?

Are there any philosophers who contemplated the nature of questions as an object of conception themselves and studied their possible aims?
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55 views

Epistemology vs Philosophy of Science

If epistemology is the philosophical study of knowledge and ways of knowing, and if science is the ultimate system for the acquisition of knowledge, my question is simple: What is the difference ...
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True Thinkables - with regards to the Identity Theory of Truth

What exactly is a 'true thinkable'? According to John McDowell, 'true thinkables' are identical with facts(1996:27-8,179-80). This seems, if i may, a bit truistic and am left with no concrete ...
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59 views

Clarification of definitions of physical quantities

What "a measure" means in definitions? I was trying to find a proper definition of temperature and then I got into some troubles. I always thought of temperature as: Temperature = a measure ...
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Material theory of induction: why not abandon induction altogether?

John Norton defends a material theory of induction, based on the idea that universal inference schemes cannot account for the strength of inductive inferences. Whether a specific induction is good or ...
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What is it called when two theories ultimately become one theory in science?

I am trying to think of an example of scientific explanation whose scope was in fact broader than we initially thought. The idea would be the following: Initially, we used H (the explanation) to ...
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67 views

Are unfalsifiable statements valid? Two Medical Doctors met with Jesus and wrote a statement about it

I'm interested in your take on unfalsifiable statements. Please consider the following scenario: Let’s say two medical doctors living together, Bill & Janet, claims that they met “Jesus” in their ...
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1answer
146 views

Does falsifiability imply meaningfulness and what are some of the drawback of falsifiability? [duplicate]

This is a combination of basically two different questions, but they are interrelated. My first question is pretty simple. Can we equate falsifiability and meaningfulness? I think at least in the ...
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How do rationalists justify the scientific method?

From what I understand rationalism allows some knowledge to be acquired innately, and that rationalism was created as the opposite of empiricism. Since the scientific method assumes that knowledge is ...
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111 views

Does Hume's Fork have a third prong?

If so, does it have a name? I'm especially interested in search terms that I can use for further reading. In physics, we're familiar with the distinction between "relations of ideas" and &...
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3answers
111 views

Are there examples of the narrowing scope of scientific explanations?

I am trying to think of an example of scientific explanation whose scope was in fact more limited than we initially thought. The idea would be the following: Initially, we used H (the explanation) to ...
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45 views

How can we differentiate between change and progress in the area of arts and natural sciences? [duplicate]

I'm studying a branch of philosophy, which is theory of knowledge and I need to investigate this question. I think that in art, it is difficult to say there is progress... whereas natural sciences ...
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292 views

According to Chalmers, can neuroscience resolve the “hard problem of consciousness”?

This is a question that aims to clarify Chalmers's "hard problem of consciousness". Suppose one day neuroscientists figured out how exactly to reproduce all (or virtually all) human ...
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Quine and the Myth of the Given

To give you some background details about myself: I have a deep interest in Quine's work and Naturalism in Philosophy; I have been independently studying and reading Quine's work and his relation to ...
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Was Peirce the first to distinguish objective and subjective possibilities?

I was reading IEP article about C.S Peirce where some of his logical notations for modal logic are presented, and one them seem to make a distinction between a subjective formula and an objective one....
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1answer
55 views

Is having “skin in the game” always beneficial in “thought and action” as Taleb seems to think?

I was skimming through the tweets about Taleb when I saw one from one of his former [friends][1] which was about Taleb's "skin of the game" that was about it say that is neither necessary ...
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Goals and benefits of the process abstraction for minds

What is the philosophical importance of abstraction in regard to philosophy of mind? People seem to use abstraction all of the time, however, can someone please bring a concrete example that ...
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116 views

Did Peirce's semiotics influence Saussure's own semiotic theory?

I am assuming that Saussure's semiotic theory came after Peirce's. Is there any indication that Saussure was aware of Peirce's theory? If not then was there any philosophical/scientific development(...
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50 views

Does Gödel believe in the existence of his rotating universe?

I am wondering whether Gödel believe ain the existence of his rotating universe since he is a mathematical Platonist. I am also wondering in what entities believe mathematical platonists. For example: ...
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What are David Lewis' perfectly natural properties?

I have read a few things on David Lewis either his papers and SEP entry etc. unfortunately I still struggle to understand lots of concepts from this philosopher. First, what are the perfectly natural ...
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If multiple hypotheses can explain the same set of facts, is it possible to tell which one is ultimately true? [duplicate]

Given a set of observable facts, let's suppose that there are multiple hypotheses compatible with those facts that can explain them. Is there any way to tell which one of these hypotheses is ...
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References on philosophical aspects of experimental design

I am an engineer working in molecular neuroscience field, hence getting exposure in both solving practical problems (how to image fish brain) and molecular bio questions (do neurons X connect to ...
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209 views

Is faith required to believe any axiomatic assumption the scientific method is built upon?

It's my understanding that the scientific method builds upon certain axiomatic assumptions, such as uniformitarianism and the principle of induction. Is faith required to believe these axiomatic ...
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81 views

What is the difference between 'sense-data' and 'facts'?

There appear to be times when philosophers use these terms 'sense-data' and 'facts' synonymously, and at other times as distinct entities. Is there philosophy that speaks to characterize the ...
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47 views

Philosophy of science: Determinism and indeterminism in statistical methods of science

A variable is modeled as a random variable in a statistical model, often without reference to the question of whether it is random in reality. For example, when the outcome of a coin flip is modeled ...
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1answer
207 views

Are holist underdetermination and contrastive underdetermination mutually exclusive in any ways?

My understanding of Quine's view of holist underdetermination and how it connects to his holist view of science is summarized well by this quote: The totality of our so-called knowledge or beliefs, ...
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53 views

Philosophy and science [duplicate]

Is philosophy still considered as 'mother of science' nowadays? Because i don't know relevance philosophy with the term mother of science in this days. (21st Century)
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Causality, Universal and Particulars, Evolution, and Theology

In a Socratic dialogue I wrote published in issue 122 of "Philosophy Now", I have Socrates conversing with a scientist (Moe), on a park bench. Socrates has come down from the clouds to take ...
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134 views

To what extent does a hypothesis have to be testable to be regarded as scientific?

In the vein of verificationism and related to problems of falsifiability as per Karl Popper, I ask the following: Let's say hypothesis X is proposed in order to account for a certain set of observable ...

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