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Questions tagged [possible-worlds]

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How does this anthropic principle argument from Schopenhauer make any sense?

According to a blog post This is what another universe looks like, "in Arthur Schopenhauer's 1844 work "Von der Nichtigkeit und dem Leiden des Lebens", he argues that our world must be the worst of ...
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Can Schmidhuber's hypothesis reproduce all types of universes? And Wheeler's it from bit? Or Weizsäcker's ur-theory?

I found a paper that talked about paraconsistent logic systems (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paraconsistent_logic) and trivialist systems (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trivialism) and the ...
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Does Tegmark himself include paraconsistent mathematical structures in his mathematical multiverse hypothesis?

Tegmark postulates in his hypothesis that all possible mathematical structures would exist. But does he include also possible mathematical structures described by other types of logic like ...
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2answers
107 views

Did David Deutsch really disprove the Simulation Hypothesis?

In The Fabric of Reality (1997) by David Deutsch, he says: Imagine a computer built to render every possible Virtual Reality. Suppose all possible environments produced by this generator can be ...
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2answers
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Does Tegmark's Mathematical Universe hypothesis allow existence of alternative mathematics?

Tegmark's mathematical multiverse hypothesis assumes that all mathematical structures exist as universes But do you know whether his hypothesis also allows/accept universes described by other types ...
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0answers
332 views

Can possible-but-non-actual objects have accidental properties?

The modal logic I am considering is the "Simplest Quantified Modal Logic" which combines first-order predicate logic with identity, with S5 in the most straightforward way, described here and slightly ...
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10answers
209 views

How could we get a world where only impossible things happen? [closed]

Imagine a universe where 1+1=3. This contradiction would trigger the effects of the principle of explosion, and thus, literally everything (possible and impossible things) could happen. If we lived in ...
6
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1answer
107 views

Is essentialism compatible with naturalism?

I am not an expert and I cannot understand why essentialism is incompatible with naturalism? Why scientific laws cannot describe essential properties of objects?
2
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2answers
71 views

What's the difference between logical modalities and physical modalities?

I am just wondering what's the difference between the two. I would say that there is something different, but honestly I can't define what it is exactly. What do you think?
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0answers
24 views

What is the Lange's viewpoint on laws of nature?

I am just wondering what is the Lange's philosophical perspective on laws of nature and what line of thought he follows in the contemporary debate.
4
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1answer
104 views

Do Alexius Meinong's impossible worlds describe all impossible worlds/things? [duplicate]

Does his impossible worlds category include (and can describe) literally all impossible things/worlds? Inconsistencies, paradoxes, impossible solutions to problems (and impossible problems); really ...
5
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1answer
151 views

Why can we not reduce necessity to analyticity?

Why can’t we eliminate talk of necessity and possible worlds, for talk of analyticity and (non-modal) logical consistency? Has there been any attempt in recent times to do this? I'm not 100% sure, but ...
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5answers
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If we imagine a world that functions without causality, how absurd could it be?

If we assume that there's a universe that is devoid of causality, and if we assume that it isn't eternally static, would that mean that everything can happen because there are no reasons inhibiting ...
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7answers
166 views

Is there an idea of non-spatial reality in philosophy?

Our world is spatial. In particular there are 3 dimensions and we can measure lengths of objects in either of them. However, when thinking about metaphysics I came to the conclusion that there might ...
5
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2answers
132 views

How does the concept of the 'virtual' (Deleuze) relate to 'counterfactuals' (Lewis)?

We read: "[...] Deleuze will reject the notion of the possible in favor of that of the virtual. Rather than awaiting realization, the virtual is fully real; what happens in genesis is that the ...
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3answers
232 views

Ontological status of Axiom of Choice

Mathematical facts are necessary truths, either in a Platonic sense or by way of axioms. In the latter sense I mean that the Peano Axioms prove that 2+3=5, for example. In other words, "PA ⊨ 2+3=5"...
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2answers
115 views

circularity of possibility defined over possible worlds

I have just checked similar questions that have been asked(and answered) before but I am still confused. How is it that the notion of possibility defined over as being True in some possible world not ...
4
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1answer
128 views

How to valuate (assign truth values to) a formula in modal logic (Kripke model)

A total novice here, and exasperated at that. I can translate natural language statements into formulae of modal logic, but their valuation in Kripke model seems elusive, as I'm simply unsure how to ...
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1answer
81 views

Truth that requires two possible worlds not causally linked

There is a clear example I have in mind of a modal transformer. The primary winding is in possible world, W1. The secondary winding is in possible world, W2. W1 and W2 are not causally linked in any ...
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3answers
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What is the theory that existence, life, and/or consciousness arise simply because all possibilities must be exhausted, and this is one of them?

I distinctly recall reading a Wikipedia page listing multiple theories on the origin of existence itself. One in particular, described in the title, was fascinating and came to mind recently, but I ...
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4answers
184 views

Why does it matter if we live in “the best of all possible worlds”?

We can formalize the argument in this way: There is good and evil. The good tries with all its power to prevent the evil from doing more evil (otherwise the good wouldn't be the good). A possible ...
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1answer
72 views

What is the explanatory power of Possible World Semantics?

What kind of problems is PWS particularly suited that e.g. FOL couldn't address? I'm just wondering when is a good time to use PWS and for what kinds of questions. Thanks!
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2answers
183 views

In what sense are mathematical relations necessary?

I just stumbled upon the following statement: (1) The number of discovered chemical elements is 118. Take the sentence "The number of chemical elements is necessarily greater than 100". Again, ...
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0answers
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Real impossible worlds

What is the name of a/the metaphysic that affirms the reality of all worlds including impossible worlds? Actualism denies the reality of all non-actual worlds, possibilism affirms the reality of all ...
5
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1answer
76 views

Are analytic propositions always vacuously true?

In a possible world where there are no bachelors is the proposition "bachelors are unmarried" vacuously true? Or is it tautologically true and you would then need to quantify bachelors as "all ...
6
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1answer
246 views

Does semantic externalism imply modal realism?

Semantic externalism, or more broadly externalism about mental content, is the idea that propositions, intentions, attitudes, etc. derive their meaning from the external world as opposed to internally ...
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1answer
204 views

Consistency in Modal Metaphysics

I read this article Modal Metaphysics weeks ago, but one thing that struck and perplexed me was the definition of consistency offered in this article. According to this article, it seems that one ...
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1answer
63 views

Is there any way to represented nested modalities in alethic modal logic?

It is possible to represent simple statements involving possibility and necessity in alethic modal logic and possible world semantics. But consider a statement like "It is possible that it is ...
4
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1answer
365 views

Is there anyone who believes that all modal statements are meaningless or trivial?

It is often useful to interpret statements in various modal logics using possible-world semantics. For instance "it is necessary that P" means "P is true in all possible worlds", "it is possible that ...
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0answers
50 views

How does one express a proposition in possible world semantics?

For example, is it possible to express a sentence like the one below in PWS? "The dog should bring me my slippers" In FOL it'd be easy enough to say "The dog brings me my slippers" (without the ...
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2answers
140 views

Defining logical possibility without circularity

In explaining logical possibility (broad), I tend to say that a thing is logically possible if it exists in some possible world, some possible description of reality, but in what sense is such a world/...
3
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1answer
120 views

Can one be a Modal Realist without also having to incorporate the existence of impossible worlds?

I know Modal Realism well enough itself, and have read many of the objections (and subsequent responses) that David Lewis himself took up in relation to the philosophical position. My question is, do ...
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1answer
125 views

The definition of a possible world

I have a two-part question about the definition of a possible world. I will make the assumption that time is tensed. First of all, is a possible world a complete list of all propositions that are ...
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1answer
56 views

Can different varieties of modality be used with existential quantification?

I'm wondering if it makes sense to talk about worlds which aren't this one being real. It seems like you can claim that something possibly exists. Now I'm wondering, because it seems to amount to ...
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Is there a symbolic formulation of modal realism?

Is there a symbolic formulation of modal realism, i.e. the doctrines of modal realism captured in some formal system?
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1answer
41 views

Help understanding possible world formalism

I am a total novice to philosophy trying to make sense of a computer science article which makes reference to possible world theory. I don't really understand the formalization in the last sentence ...
2
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1answer
81 views

Modal Realism: Possible Worlds spatio-temporally isolated?

In Lewis' 5th doctrine of possible worlds in modal realism it says: Possible worlds are unified by the spatiotemporal interrelations of their parts; possible worlds are spatiotemporally isolated from ...
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2answers
118 views

Indiscernibility of possible worlds

According to Lewis, possible words are indiscernible from each other, that is, an individual in a possible world cannot say in which world it resides. It's somewhat similar to the indiscernibility of ...
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3answers
236 views

How to interpret “it is possible that x is impossible”?

The question is about the logical form of the sentence, x can be any object or process, actual infinity, tachyon, philosophical zombie, telepathy, etc. To conclude that x is impossible we are supposed ...
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2answers
213 views

Does Flatland exist according to modal realism?

Does Flatland exist according to modal realism, since it is a possible world?
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0answers
35 views

Time of Occurrence of Events

I'm wrestling with the notion of events in indeterministic worlds. Suppose that given an event type and a world we can in principle tell if the event occurs in that world. (Indeed we could represent ...
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3answers
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What do necessity and possibility mean in Aquinas' Third Way argument for the existence of God?

In his famous Summa Theologica, the Scholastic theologian Thomas Aquinas presents Five Ways to demonstrate the existence of God. Here is Aquinas' Third Way, the argument from contigency: The third ...
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1answer
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Abstractionism about Possible Worlds and the Contingently Non-Concrete

Concretists about possible worlds say that possible worlds are concrete entities (usually some kind of mereological sum of concrete individuals). Abstractionists say that worlds are abstract things: ...
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1answer
443 views

Is the Ideal World a possible world? [closed]

Is there any sense in postulating that there is a way to reach a so called "Ideal World"? By Ideal World I mean, in a sense, the best of all possible worlds.
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2answers
2k views

If there are infinite realities, do realities exist in which there are no infinite realities?

I don't have any experience with physics. I am just very interested to know whether or not this might be possible.
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1answer
814 views

The possibility of impossible

While thinking about the possible and impossible I came into the following conclusion. Some people say that nothing is impossible. But by saying that "nothing is impossible" they automatically ...
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3answers
143 views

Does the theory of multiple dimensions disprove itself?

This video suggests that a universe exists for each different possibility in the world. However, doesn't that mean that there must be a universe in which this theory has been disproved? Wouldn't that ...
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1answer
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What comes first: Necessity or Possible Worlds?

The context of my question is van Inwagens 'Material Beings' and Siders essay 'Van Inwagen and the possibility of Gunk'. There Sider presents a counterexample, a gunk world, to the claim that ...
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3answers
130 views

Is there a possible world in which the secondary attributes of our world become primary?

After Aristotle wrote on substance, a theory developed about the attributes that could inhere in a substance. They were distinguished between primary and secondary. For example, colour is a secondary ...
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1answer
177 views

Does the universe have solid structures on multiple spatial scales?

Is it reasonable to suggest that if we were to "zoom out" further and further in space with our eyes focused on some object at our initial position, that all the solar systems, then galaxies, and so ...