Questions tagged [propositions]

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Is there any self-contradiction in this statement that "everything is beautiful"?

'Everything is beautiful.' If you deny the proposition of 1), it is 'something is not beautiful'. The proposition 'something is not beautiful', which comes from 2), is included in 'everything'. In ...
NOH WHIREA's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
139 views

Is there a recognized topic in philosophy regarding the fallaciousness of debating what the ‘correct’ definition of a word is?

Or, what the defining properties of some thing are. For example, I might say, “Socialism is a government in which such-and-such happens,” and someone else might say, “No, socialism is when a society ...
Julius Hamilton's user avatar
10 votes
10 answers
4k views

Is it defensible to claim that religion is a personal relationship with God and therefore contains no claims?

It is a common line of argumentation against religion that it includes dogmatic claims without evidence and that the resistance to change that is peculiar to religion and stems from its dogmatism ...
gaazkam's user avatar
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5 answers
299 views

Is atheism a proposition?

Theism proposes the existence of God. Atheism makes no proposition, it is simply the absence of a belief in God. Theism is the proposition. Atheism is the negation. The negation is not a proposition. ...
Meanach's user avatar
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1 vote
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How should an argument containing an exceptive proposition be tested?

IX. Exceptive Propositions in 7.3 Translating Categorical Propositions into Standard Form in Copi's Introduction to Logic says: Because exceptive propositions are not categorical propositions but ...
Tim's user avatar
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4 votes
3 answers
265 views

Confused On The Definition Of A Proposition

One definition I encountered was something that is either true or false. (for example, I ate vegetables yesterday is a proposition). Another definition I encountered is the meaning of a sentence (for ...
HelpMePlease's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
70 views

What's the difference between analytic and synthetic AND implicit/explicit?

The statement 'a bachelor is an unmarried man' is an implicit and analytic statement. What is the difference between implicit/explicity and analytic/synthetic? Is there even a difference?
sket's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
199 views

"This statement is false" is neither true or false... Am I correct?

I have no background in philosophy. So I apologize if this question seems silly. The reason "This statement is false" is sometimes considered to be a statement that can be evaluated as ...
Joe's user avatar
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A question on the belief operator in Doxastic Logic

Let Bp be the statement "it is believed that p". Why is ~Bp not equivalent to B~p? in words it amounts of saying that: "it's not believed that p" equivalent to "it's believed ...
MathematicalPhysicist's user avatar
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0 answers
35 views

Is saying "I propose that..." expressing a proposition or not?

i'm trying to find out how to accurately express propositions, but i can't find the right words. If i say something like... "I propose that the detective was bias.", does this make sense as ...
Richard Bamford's user avatar
2 votes
3 answers
790 views

Truth-functional vs non-truth functional conditionals

I'm struggling to understand truth functionality. I know that a connective is truth-functional if the truth value of a compound statement formed with that connective is completely determined by the ...
user51462's user avatar
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Universal affirmative propositions and the similarity of individual objects?

I'm trying to understand what counts objects as being members of a class. I'm getting stuck when there are variations for each object of a class but they might still be said to be part of that class. ...
Richard Bamford's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
783 views

Why are there so many different opinions of categorical propositions?

I'm reading into categorical propositions and there seems to be lots of different opinions on what they are, and what their existential import is. Why are there so many different variations? Shouldn't ...
Richard Bamford's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
81 views

Intersection of the Gettier problem and knowing-what or knowing-how

From what I can tell, it seems like the Gettier problem comes down to Smith not knowing that the man who has ten coins in his pocket is going to get the job. What about Smith knowing what the ...
Kristian Berry's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
62 views

Does Kant implicitly (or maybe even explicitly?) hold to a propositional-operator gloss of aesthetics?

Now sometimes it is said that knowledge is primarily knowledge-that, i.e. some elementary epistemic operator is a propositional operator/"attitude report". Or at least there is an invoked ...
Kristian Berry's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
22 views

Is division of propositions by their modality comprehensive?

I call division of any concept comprehensive if the combination of concepts received by such division has a scope congruent (containing exactly the same objects) to the scope of the divided concept. ...
Rusurano's user avatar
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3 answers
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What's the difference between statements of wants and statements of should?

I am trying to find out what the relationship is between statements that involve the speakers wants, and statements that involve what the speaker thinks as should. Here is my example: Speaker: "...
Richard Bamford's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
91 views

What context do quantifiers make valid expressions?

Say I have a formal language such that x is an individual constant and symbolically has a particular value (say 2) a proposition such as x+1=3 already has the value of true, and I cannot define a ...
Confused's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
269 views

Do all true statements express the same proposition?

Do all true statements express the same proposition? I know that, for example, the statements "2=2" and "1+1>1" are distinct sequences of symbols. However, I want to know, do ...
user107952's user avatar
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2 votes
4 answers
164 views

What does it mean for a proposition to be without cognitive content?

As the title states, am wondering what it means for a proposition to be without cognitive content. It seems to me that somehow all propositions are produced by the mind, and therefore cognition is ...
LootHypothesis's user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
757 views

Are contradictory propositions in the propositional logic still contradictory in the predicate logic?

There is one seeming issue I happened upon that bothers me to no end. Take a proposition like “Snow is white”. “Snow is white” and its negation “Snow is not white” are obviously contradictory. However,...
Falcon's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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Propositions as set of possible worlds in FOL

In possible world semantics for propositional calculus, possible worlds are usually taken to be models for propositional formulas (the set of valuations in which a certain formula is true) In first ...
PwNzDust's user avatar
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2 votes
4 answers
495 views

What is my fallacy? LSAT Reasoning Question: Titanium Ink

I have a question regarding an LSAT Reasoning question and it drives me crazy Question is: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth century did not contain titanium. However, ...
user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
444 views

What is the difference between statement and premise?

What are the differences between a Statement and a Premise? I wonder if they are same or not? Any counterexample where a statement is not a premise?
Sazzad Hissain Khan's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
73 views

Can one only believe in perceptions?

In the following example provided by SEOP, Kai is said to believe a proposition: for example, when Kai reads that astronomers no longer classify Pluto as a planet, he acquires a new belief (in this ...
TomDot Com's user avatar
2 votes
3 answers
301 views

Is "thoughts exist" a synthetic a priori statement?

I'm working off of Kant's conception of analytic/synthetic and a prior/a posteriori judgements. The definition of "thoughts" does not subsume their existence. That is, it is logically ...
Mark's user avatar
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-1 votes
1 answer
431 views

When is a wish not a proposition?

Consider these sentences: S1. Would that Los Angeles were not that far away. S2. I really wish Los Angeles were nearer to New York. S3. I wish that Los Angeles were not that far away. S4. It is going ...
Vivek Joshy's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
303 views

what is meaning of accessibility of possible worlds?

I have a question about the notion of possibility in modal logic. There are systems and worlds with this notion. They say that a world w1 is accessible to an other world w2 if and only if for any true ...
MHghasemi's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
212 views

Can the word "probably" be used in a proposition? (logic)

I'm interested in applying logic to day-to-day reasoning. The problem is that formal logic seems really restrictive to limit inductive arguments to be only universal ("all swans are white"). Few ...
SingularJon's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
141 views

Analyticity and a priority

(1) Every bachelor is unmarried. I know this is one of the most famous examples (intensionally) denoting analytic and a priori propositions. No problems yet. (2) Every apple is a fruit. This one ...
Tzetachi's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
59 views

A set of three statements, of which only two at a time can be true: is there a specific term for this type of combination game?

Here's two examples of what I'm talking about 1 An ideal citizen would be smart, ethical and politically engaged. However, what usually happens in reality is this: If they're smart ...
user62099's user avatar
4 votes
4 answers
574 views

Can one have propositional knowledge without knowing the corresponding proposition?

The concept of propositional knowledge -- knowledge that one has through holding a justified belief in a proposition that states a fact -- is a foundational one in epistemology (for example, it is ...
A Raybould's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
226 views

Confused about the answers to two logic problems

True or False? If monkeys can fly, then 1 + 1 = 3. What is logically equivalent to all x (p(x) + ~q(x))? For the first one I think it is False.
Molly's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
2k views

How to make the statement "If A or B then C" More Rigorous?

Suppose that I say the following, If A or B then C It is clear what happens if only A is true, if only B is true, or if neither A nor B are true. However, what happens if both A & B are true? ...
Merudo's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
58 views

How did Aristotelian logic view this?

I am very interested in the logical aspect of Aristotelian philosophy, especially how it was used by al Farabi and Ibn Sina in explaining understanding and breaking this complicated process down ...
user27928's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
46 views

partial fictionalism about propositions

One theory of propositions is that they're "useful fictions." However, this faces the formidable objection that fictionalism makes it hard to explain how something fictional can tell us about the ...
Ben W's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
159 views

If logical propositions aren't tautologies (a la Wittgenstein), then what could they be?

This is a historical question about philosophical views. I believe I understand the claim made by Wittgenstein and others that logical propositions are tautologies. I'd like to know what other views ...
Max Wallace's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
546 views

Is the principle of non-contradiction self-evident?

The principle of non-contradiction is that contradictory propositions cannot both be true, e. g. the two propositions "A is B" and "A is not B" are mutually exclusive. However, whenever something is ...
user3776022's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
466 views

How does a truth tree provide positive and negative effect tests for implication?

I'm trying to prove that the truth-tree method can be used to give a positive effect test for implication, and a negative effect test for non-implication. I've been given the fact that The truth-tree ...
Noah Bensler's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
113 views

Why don't two equivalent propositions contribute to the same semantics?

We often have 2 propositions that have the same truth table, in that they are true and false given the same conditions. Nevertheless, we still feel as though there different semantics (i.e meaning..),...
SmootQ's user avatar
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0 votes
3 answers
159 views

On Truth and Lying

If A, consciously, reports false data to B, and B (or anyone else) has no way to verify, then no one can make the statement, "A lied". So, there exists no such person with respect to whom A lied. ...
Ajax's user avatar
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8 votes
2 answers
842 views

Existential import: in logic, do propositions default to true or false when objects in them do not exist?

In this hypothetical: Firefighters always tell the truth, while politicians always tell lies. Suppose three people, who are either a mix of firefighters and politicians, all politicians, or all ...
Josh's user avatar
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2 votes
4 answers
4k views

Why is questioning everything around us so important?

I've heard something disturbing from my friend. He said he's grateful to his father because his father taught him to question everything that was around us. Why is this so important?
Igor Kalinowski's user avatar
2 votes
3 answers
217 views

Understanding multiple values in a single cell of a truth table (P v ~Q) as (1 1 0 1) when P and Q are 1

This might seem basic to most here but I am struggling with a truth table for a disjunct. As I am looking at it further, I actually think the issue I am struggling with how to interpret truth values ...
LootHypothesis's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
197 views

Into what category does following view place me in moral philosophy?

At first, I believe the statements like "Pete is wrong" and "Mike acts in a bad way" have some cognitive value. At first glance, this puts me to ethical cognitivism. But at the same time I think the ...
rus9384's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
1k views

The nature of elementary propositions in the Tractatus

So all complex objects in the world are, at the most fundamental level, made up of simple un-analysable objects which are denoted by 'names'. Combinations of simple objects constitute 'states of ...
M. Guillaume's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
2k views

Making 'sense' of Wittgenstein's senselessness / nonsense distinction in the Tractatus

For this question I'm just considering Wittgenstein's theory at the time of the Tractatus. As far as I know, for Wittgenstein: Meaning - The object denoted by a word (i.e. referent). Sense - The ...
M. Guillaume's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
666 views

Confusion about an implication's contrapositive

I just begin learning propositional logic and find a little bit confused when trying to translate the contrapositive of an implication back to the English language. For example, I have an ...
Danny's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
294 views

Russell on Negative Facts

Okay. I am reading Russell's paper "On Propositions: What They are and How They Mean". Since the truth or falsehood of a belief depends upon a fact to which the belief "refers", and propositions are ...
Eli Bashwinger's user avatar
2 votes
4 answers
259 views

Problem with propositions about future

I have some questions about propositions of future like “tomorrow, there will be rain” or “you won’t go to school tomorrow” 1) Are there certain truth values of future propositions? For example, ...
Uğur Erdem Seyfi's user avatar