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Questions tagged [rationality]

Rationality is the use of reason to find the truth based on facts and to decide how to act to achieve desired goals. Also use this tag for questions regarding any view or intellectual movement which holds rationality in high regard and accepts it as the only legitimate way to get to the truth.

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A contradiction in Feldman's rule for suspension of judgment?

In Reasonable Religious Disagreements, Feldman argues for the following. (#) On issues where there is widespread disagreement between epistemic peers, the rational approach is to suspend judgment. I ...
Ben Lou's user avatar
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7 votes
5 answers
870 views

Does suspending judgment require judgment?

In Reasonable Religious Disagreements, Feldman argues that much of the time when there is widespread disagreement over some issue, the rational approach is to suspend judgment. I have a question about ...
Ben Lou's user avatar
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4 votes
2 answers
370 views

What are some cases in which we can use reason but not logic?

I am curious whether there have been philosophers arguing that there are contexts in which we can use reason, but not logic. For example, some authors might say that logic cannot be used in the very ...
lfba's user avatar
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4 votes
3 answers
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Are two persons equally rational in choosing different dogmatic stopping points in their chains of justification as per the Münchhausen trilemma?

In epistemology, the Münchhausen trilemma is a thought experiment intended to demonstrate the theoretical impossibility of proving any truth, even in the fields of logic and mathematics, without ...
Mark's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
109 views

Simple question really: If pi is an irrational number, what does that say about circles and our measurements?

If we accept that pi is an irrational number and then we continue our discussion that pi is just described/accepted as the ratio of the circumference and diameter of the circle. My question now poses, ...
How why e's user avatar
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0 votes
2 answers
122 views

Shortcomings in the following definition of "rationality"?

I'm going to try to engage with the following Encyclopedia Britannica article on "rationality". Rationality, the use of knowledge to attain goals. I have a bigger personal project to ...
Julius Hamilton's user avatar
2 votes
4 answers
107 views

Are there certain plausible assumptions, such as block or physical determinism, that lead us to conclude that everything we do is equally rational?

It seems that with certain assumptions about reality, everything we can do is equally rational. Max Tegmark's theory of the multiverse, often referred to as the "mathematical universe hypothesis&...
AromaticInternal624's user avatar
2 votes
10 answers
2k views

How many dimensions does time have?

As phrased in the title, How many dimensions does time have? If one considers time by itself (in isolation from other putative phenomena such as space or spacetime), what can be said about the ...
pygosceles's user avatar
9 votes
9 answers
4k views

Do people who "withhold judgement" also have a burden of proof?

I will illustrate my question with several examples involving 3 individuals: A, B, C. Example 1: The shape of the Earth A defends the claim that the Earth is round. B defends the claim that the Earth ...
Mark's user avatar
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1 vote
5 answers
302 views

Is atheism a proposition?

Theism proposes the existence of God. Atheism makes no proposition, it is simply the absence of a belief in God. Theism is the proposition. Atheism is the negation. The negation is not a proposition. ...
Meanach's user avatar
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Who wrote this uncited quote?

The following uncited quotation appears in The Early Modern European Catachism by Joshua Gibbs. He includes many quotes from philosophy and literature but does not cite any of his sources. Would ...
Phineas Greene's user avatar
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0 answers
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Is the reasonableness of a belief or moral claim relative?

Is the reasonableness of a belief or moral claim relative? I found some articles on the ethical word "reasonable", but lack access. Apparently it is key to "liberal" political ...
user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
84 views

Using 'love' to make sense of knowledge

I love my spouse, but I suspect (I think I believe the are) they are cheating on me, and I've even heard my friends gossip about my spouse's affairs etc.. But I love my spouse, so do not think I know -...
user avatar
-3 votes
5 answers
589 views

Can the sexual double standard be justified according to this logic/reasoning? [closed]

The sexual double standard is a social phenomenon where the sexual value of males and females are evaluated differently, based on their sexual history with sexual partners of the opposite sex. Given ...
user avatar
7 votes
2 answers
895 views

Is it ever rational to stumble onto the conjunction fallacy in probability?

The conjunction fallacy is the phenomenon where many people believe that the probability of the event (A AND B) is strictly greater than the probability of the event A. It is usually thought of as an ...
user107952's user avatar
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7 votes
9 answers
2k views

Is desire closed under logical equivalence?

Suppose some person P desires a statement S to hold. Also, S is logically equivalent to S'. Does this mean that P desires S' also? Basically, is desire closed under logical equivalence?
user107952's user avatar
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3 votes
6 answers
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What is the basis of the sunk cost fallacy?

Is the so called sunk cost fallacy truly a total fallacy, or does it have some kernel of truth? Certainly it is a widespread instinctive/impulsive form of reasoning. Presumably it must then have had ...
TylerDurden's user avatar
1 vote
4 answers
167 views

How does one test their credences of belief?

Suppose I feel that event A is more plausible than event B. How can I test, verify, or falsify this? For example, suppose I have a belief that my partner is cheating on me. Suppose I have another ...
user avatar
2 votes
3 answers
166 views

How to rationally decide between two events A and B having happened

If someone listed you an event A and an event B, told you that only one of those events happened today, and then asked you which one would you bet on, how should one make this bet? Initially, I was ...
user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
602 views

Which philosophers have considered irrational conviction

It seems a characteristic of humans to be convinced about a matter in the absence of overwhelming evidence, even where logic suggests that are other valid alternative positions to take. We see this in ...
Marco Ocram's user avatar
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6 answers
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Does philosophy rely on intuitions? If so, does this mean all of philosophy is nothing more than hunches?

Does philosophy rely on intuitions? If so, and all of philosophy comes down to intuition, how can one person be deemed to be more rational than other? In this world, most would agree that you cannot ...
user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
410 views

Lumen naturale, Lumen gratiae, Lumen fidei, what are they?

Unfortunately, I'm unable to locate a good source to cite on these terms you see in the question title. Below is a short abstract based on Google. Natural light (lumen naturale), equivalent to lumen ...
Hudjefa's user avatar
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2 votes
7 answers
164 views

Is there a philosophy ideology that "whatever is beneficial to me, is the reasonable thing"?

I have run into such people more frequently, and it is: whatever that is beneficial to them, that's the correct thing. (or the reasonable thing). Is there a philosophy explanation or term for this ...
Stefanie Gauss's user avatar
1 vote
5 answers
194 views

Can you lose something that you don't care about?

I'm new to philosophy and as of now, I don't have any knowledge related to what he said in order to properly redirect him to a source that mentions something similar. His philosophy goes like this: If ...
Fodorina's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
99 views

Is it irrational to care more about the last candy in the bag than the others, and if so, does the fallacy have a name?

I have a bag of candies. Someone else asks if they can have one. If the bag is still full, I have no issues, and tell them they are welcome to take one. If there is only one left in the bag, I am much ...
Arthur's user avatar
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2 answers
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Given a positive ontological claim X, is not-X the default position?

Given a positive ontological claim X, I see at least four different subjective positions one could adopt regarding X: I believe that the evidence provides persuasive reason to believe that X is true (...
user avatar
2 votes
4 answers
247 views

Isn't it rationality circular reasoning?

Rationalists say that reason is the source of ultimate truth or logic. Reason is absolute but if reason is absolute then won't defending it through reason be a circular reasoning? Like you can't ...
Schnoz's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
231 views

Can you help me understand Derek Parfit's thought experiment?

This is an excerpt from Parfit's Reasons and Persons. I can't totally wrap my head around it. Of course, I get the basic idea: Kate is a writer who works too hard. Her work makes her happy. But she ...
Benjamin Grange's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
83 views

Argument for a social conception of objective morality

What might some objections to this argument be? By definition a rational agent is, when exercising their agency, evaluating different courses of action before deciding among them. The actions they ...
Joa's user avatar
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0 votes
2 answers
218 views

Graham Priest's "escape from Hell" puzzle

The gist of the puzzle is that every day, the Devil offers to flip a coin to see if you escape; one loss and you're guaranteed to be stuck forever, but each day the probability of a winning toss ...
Kristian Berry's user avatar
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0 answers
74 views

Is a decision made before the rationalization?

Well, I was listening to a podcast in Spanish and a great scientist was saying that there are studies that are seeing that decision making is not as rational as we think it is. He says that the moment ...
WiseMode's user avatar
-1 votes
6 answers
169 views

What is "rational"?

Rational = x x = ? I've been defining words for myself for a while and one that I haven't defined rational yet. Anyone have a good definition for one, on a basis of utilitarianism.
Swift360's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
52 views

Does Aumann's agreement theorem extend to moral propositions?

Aumann's agreement theorem says: two perfectly rational agents with the same prior estimate of an event's probability and common knowledge of one another's posterior estimates cannot come to ...
causative's user avatar
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9 votes
6 answers
2k views

Does determinism prevent rationality?

If hard determinism is true, and our thoughts are merely the results of a causal chain of atomic interactions, are reason and logic illusory? This matter has likely been discussed in another thread, ...
Futilitarian's user avatar
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0 answers
35 views

Would it be fallacious to assume rationality presumes pre-emptive knowledge?

In short, would it be a fallacy to presume that rational thinking (as opposed to empirical thinking) leads to the conclusion that all knowledge is innately contained a priori? In that sense, all ...
DanielFBest's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
55 views

How do Rational Egoists Respond to Psychology?

Rational egoism is the position that humans always act rationally and to further the actor's self-interest. But ever since Carl Jung psychologists have pretty much been in agreement that humans do not ...
E Tam's user avatar
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0 votes
0 answers
28 views

What is the distinguishing factor between conviction and threat?

What is the distinguishing factor between conviction and threat? I want my friend to restrain from doing an action. I am showing him the bad consequences of the action thus, I am trying to convince ...
Sazzad Hissain Khan's user avatar
2 votes
3 answers
1k views

What's the difference between morality and rationality?

What's the difference between morality and rationality? Some of my friends argue with me saying, What is rational is what is moral I do not believe so because, I believe there are absolute moral ...
Sazzad Hissain Khan's user avatar
1 vote
3 answers
317 views

Does Parfit's self-interest theory imply that you should be never self-denying?

In "Reasons and Persons", Derek Parfit introduces a "self-interest" theory of rationality, which says you should ensure that your life goes as well as possible. In §3 (p. 9 in my ...
Josh Hunt's user avatar
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-2 votes
3 answers
122 views

Is rational to logical as rectangle is to square?

That is, if X is logical, is it necessarily rational? What's an example of something that is rational, but not logical. If logical does not necessarily imply rational, what's an example of something ...
user avatar
6 votes
4 answers
388 views

Question about Cogito, ergo sum

As far as I know Decartes tried to prove that he existed from the fact that he was thinking. And he thought this was only proof. My question is following: -- why is the argument brought up above, ...
don's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
166 views

How does Kant argue that all people have moral dignity

How does Kant argue that all people have moral dignity, the ability to conform to a moral law in which all people are ends only. I have not substantially read Kant, but it occurred to me, suddenly / ...
user avatar
0 votes
3 answers
73 views

According to game theory, are people trustworthy? [closed]

According to philosophical presumptions of game theory, are people trustworthy if there are incentives (profit and less loss) involved in lying? And if this question isn't entirely accurate as a ...
Philosophy101's user avatar
2 votes
3 answers
315 views

Why should we treat others as *always* rational when they are not?

In Kantian system, murdering is nonrational because it cannot become a universal law. Yet Kant insists that it's immoral to lie to murderers. This is the same with saying they are rational being, ...
Ooker's user avatar
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0 votes
3 answers
2k views

How do ethicists tackle the question "Is it immoral to have sex in public places?" Is it possible to use rational and empirical ideas to answer?

Is it immoral to have sex in public places? If so, what are the rational and empirical reasons? Most people believe it’s immoral to have sex in public places. Have ethicists come up with any good ...
Sazzad Hissain Khan's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
51 views

According to Kant, which one is an autonomous being: me or my rationality?

If we consider a person's identity lies not in his rationality, but in, say, his body or his consciousness, then it seems not so obvious why we can regard a person as autonomous simply from the status ...
inverse's user avatar
-2 votes
2 answers
308 views

Can "why-is" close the "is-ought" gap? [closed]

[UPDATE: Clarified that choosing what-ought-to-be from what-can-be is based on our knowledge of ourselves, not on our knowledge of good and evil] “I know you won't believe me, but the highest form of ...
Yuri Zavorotny's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
279 views

Can animals follow logical rules of inference?

I've been trying to recall a thought experiment, which I very vaguely remember to have come across either in Davidson or Dennett, that considers the following scenario: A hound is chasing its quarry ...
alghazali's user avatar
2 votes
3 answers
584 views

What are the most rational basic beliefs?

I understand that this question might be difficult or even unresolved. But within a foundationalist view of knowledge, has anyone proposed a set of basic beliefs that seem to be the most rational for ...
blue-raven's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
1k views

What does rationalism prove that empiricism can not?

I have always had trouble understanding rationalism. I am very unclear as to what a rationalist can prove that an empiricist cannot. Are their any examples of something or a situation being ...
Noah's user avatar
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