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# Questions tagged [reason]

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49 views

I am looking for books which have a critical view on reason and rationality especially in the light of all the new things we currently know in 21st century. In a sense maybe new versions or iterations ...
67 views

### The truth of statements which do not capture everything about the object [closed]

Logically it could be true to say: "All human beings are mortal (and therefore Peter is mortal because Peter is a human being)." But the above statement could be false in a sense, because mortality ...
64 views

### What is the purpose of logical division for classification?

It's my understanding that we use division to classify things in the world so that we can define them, say, with a genus-species tag. However, in the introductory books I've read, they mention that ...
76 views

### What is the fundamental axiom of reasoning?

Is it true that a fundamental axiom of logical reasoning is that reality doesn't contradict? Can someone explain why this assumption is a reasonable starting point if true or what a more accurate ...
68 views

### Bayes and unknown probabilites: is this reasoning from the failure of explanation a fallacy?

Bayesian probability is an interpretation of the concept of probability, in which, instead of frequency or propensity of some phenomenon, probability is interpreted as reasonable expectation ...
134 views

### The illogical nature of want/motivation and its effects on free will

Are all the decisions and desires of humans made in order to stimulate pleasure centers and avoid pain? If so, could someone/thing which is unable to feel pleasure and pain, and only had the power of ...
2k views

### Teaching my son the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning

My son has shown an increased ability to grasp complex ideas, and one that he recently brought up was logic, more specifically the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning. What would be ...
63 views

### What is “circular logic” argument?

I read from this link : If the the bible is true God exists, and if God exists the bible is true While both claims still have the same very low probability, it is now a more coherent – ...
69 views

### Is argument from need a valid type of reasoning, even in some cases?

To begin with, I know that if I need X , does not necessarily mean that X exists. But in some cases, it seems very convincing that if I need X then X exists. These are some examples : If I am ...
259 views

### Reason is the adversary of thinking

I came across this quote by the German philosopher Martin Heidegger: Thinking only begins at the point where we have come to know that reason, glorified for centuries, is the most obstinate ...
142 views

### What is the name of this kind of reasoning? (Not a logical fallacy.)

Alice and Bob are playing rock-paper-scissors. Alice typically throws rock. Bob, while thinking to himself, is naïve and wants to throw paper, but also knows that Alice is sneaky and so will ...
652 views

### We do everything for pleasure

I have been in debate for a while now with me friend. I come here looking for feedback and possible outlooks to related sources. The question we posed a long time ago is interesting one: why do we ...
147 views

### Is there a name for the idea of inherent bias in an authority figure or expert?

We often appeal to experts and authorities due to the usefulness of their acquired knowledge, and a lot of the time, this is a fairly sensible thing to do. However, very often, I feel like there is a ...
227 views

### Why do I doubt my logical reasoning?

I have been wondering for several years why I just can't trust my own proofs in math or when giving some logical arguments. I keep thinking I might be making a mistake at some step of the proof and ...
312 views

### What is the premise and conclusion here?

"Half of the American population believes that the universe is 6000 years old. They are wrong about this. Declaring them so is not 'irreligious intolerance'. It is intellectual honesty." -Excerpt ...
138 views

### Can a reason cost 5 dollars?

Imagine a school where no one can wear a red hat. John goes to school with a red hat costing 5 dollars. Someone says John's red hat "is" the reason why he can't get into the school. What is the ...
260 views

### If nature is inherently imprecise, how is it so easy for us to conceptualize mathematical certainties?

In modeling any real physical system, we are required to employ inductive reasoning. We can never be completely certain about the state or properties of any system or of any future observation we will ...
216 views

### How is it possible to be thankful for what you have?

Question: How can one be thankful for what he has? Details: Many religions, philosophies and self-development lectures advocate people to become grateful for what they already have so that they can ...
621 views

### How do I operate with philosophers if I reject deductive reasoning?

Deductive reasoning is the one that takes premises for granted. I never do it. Therefore I never do deductive reasoning. Well, enough jokes. It is safe to assume that deductive reasoning never should ...
103 views

### If-then syllogism and multiple conditionals

Can one condtional statement cancel another one ? For example i say if you get 85/100 at maths test i will gift you a car a but if you get 85/100 at maths and 50/100 at history i wont gift you ...
69 views

### What does it mean to be rational? [closed]

What does it mean to be rational/reasonable? Is it reasonable to believe only things that can be and are verified empirically? Are things reasonable only if we understand them at an intuitive level? ...
190 views

### Definition of “reason”

After seeing the interview of Jordan Peterson about the gender pay gap I was discussing about this topic with my flatmate. Rather than discussing about the gender pay gap here, my question is about ...
83 views

### Is the following considered an argument or just a set of statements? If it is an argument what would be the premises and conclusion?

In every age, philosophers have compared the human mind to the latest technological gizmo. Currently we use computers as models of our minds. Seventy-five years ago, our minds were compared to ...
381 views

### Existence of Jungian archetypes

I can't seem to make sense of any of the summary definitions of an archetype according to Jung. Has a consise, consistent definition been given anywhere?
141 views

### Help me understand Earman and Salmon's pragmatic vindication

"Hume showed convincingly that, if nature is uniform, inductive reasoning will work very well, whereas, if nature is not uniform, inductive reasoning will fail. This much is pretty easy to see. [Some ...
121 views

### Faith versus Reason

I am looking for books on the discussion of terms and concepts like reason, faith, instinct, evidence, confidence, justification, etc. But especially reason versus faith. I not looking for science ...
830 views

### Is there a deduction analog to the problem of induction?

Aren't deductive and inductive reasoning equally unjustified? So, inductive reasoning is going from specifics to general, whilst deductive reasoning is going from general to specific. But in deductive ...
256 views

### Is knowledge in the arts based on abductive reasoning?

Is knowledge in the arts based on abductive reasoning? In the arts esp. visual art, do we use abductive reasoning to try to come up with the best possible interpretation of a piece of visual art?
908 views

### Logic and reason is circular reasoning..?

In an argument about circular reasoning the opponent does nothing but state over and over that if 'God exists because the bible says so and the bible is true so god must exist' is circular reasoning, ...
56 views

### Why is a position without a reason invalid?

A position without a reason is fundamentally a premise, where the premise is simply much more profound than usual. Since every non-trivial argument is based on a subjectively procured premise, it ...
60 views

### Is it a fallacy to argue that if something is much much more likely to occur then it is in fact the case?

Is it OK to argue that what is hugely more likely to occur is in fact the case? There seems to be a class of paradox that relies on the idea that what we think is the case is in fact much much less ...
363 views

### David Hume - Reason being a slave the passions [duplicate]

In David Humes' book, "A Treatise of Human Nature" he states that reason is the slave to the passions. "Reason is, and ought only to be the slave of the passions, and can never pretend to any other ...
795 views

### What is the difference between an excuse and a reason? [closed]

I've been told not to use excuses, as per a "set of ethics", that if I gave reason for being late for an appointment, for work, not being a mathematician, etc. But, I don't see a moral difference ...
98 views

### Does the discovery of Earth- like planets make it reasonable to assume that life also exists on those planets? [closed]

There has been much interest recently around the discovery of Earth- like planets. While thinking of the possibility of life on those planets, I came to the realization that assuming there is no life ...