Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 174 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Visit Stack Exchange

Questions tagged [reference-request]

This tag should be used when the question is asking for specific references.

2
votes
3answers
280 views

How to be a good critic?

How can we be a good critic when facing people's rigid beliefs? I'm interested in how to attack (logically) their dogmatic beliefs to have a "good" influence on their minds, because if we just attack ...
5
votes
1answer
103 views

Canonical Papers on Context

The notions of context and contextual disambiguation are either implicitly or explicitly deployed in order to solve problems of ambiguous reference and meaning in the majority of the theories of ...
5
votes
1answer
162 views

In which text does Berkeley develop his philosophy of subjective idealism?

A while ago, I asked this question about Borges's philosophical influences, which yielded Berkeley. Reading the wikipedia page on Berkeley, I can see that as far as philosophers go, his philosophy of ...
3
votes
8answers
4k views

Can conscription be morally justified during a time of war?

Consider military conscription, which is where a government forces its own citizens to join the army and fight in foreign wars. As I understand it, the typical argument is that freedom is not free, ...
3
votes
4answers
4k views

What should I read to learn about Spinoza's philososphy?

I don't have much philosophical background aside from a couple college classes and stuff I've picked up from general interest. I'd like to learn Spinoza's philosophy. What is a good starting place? ...
5
votes
1answer
241 views

literature and theories of man's encounter with himself

I am planning on writing a paper on what Sellars calls "the paradox of man's encounter with himself" (Sellars Philosophy and the Scientific Image of Man 1962: 6). To quote Sellars in more detail: "[...
9
votes
4answers
451 views

Which if any philosophers might be considered affiliated with Wittgenstein's school of thought or have expressed similar views?

Are there any philosophers who might be considered affiliated or belonging to the same turn or school, or perhaps hold the same kind of views, as Wittgenstein?
5
votes
2answers
540 views

Which writers might offer critical readings of Luhmann?

Niklas Luhmann introduces the so called Binary Code in his Systems Theory. Any system has its own binary code. For example, in science the code is "the truth vs. not the truth". Which writers might ...
4
votes
2answers
238 views

'Daemons' vis-a-vis transcendental personification of self-will

Greek mythology, classical philosophy and early theology is teeming with things referred to as 'daemons'. Many, such as those of Plato's Socrates, hint at an externalised transcendental corollary of ...
-1
votes
1answer
135 views

Would adopting the veil and Rawls' two principles bring about the result Rawls' desires? [closed]

What problem(s) is Rawls' veil of ignorance meant to fix? Do you think the problem is a real one in contemporary America? Would adopting the veil and Rawls' two principles bring about the result Rawls'...
40
votes
16answers
10k views

How to get started with philosophy without getting overwhelmed quickly?

I’ve spent a lot of time trying to find how to get started with philosophy but I can’t. It seems that getting started with computer programming is nothing in comparison - with computer programming it’...
8
votes
5answers
760 views

How is knowing that I am going to die influencing my life?

Does the fact that I know I am going to die make me superior in a sense to all the other living creatures that have no understanding of this event? Is the fact that I know that one day I am going to ...
9
votes
1answer
2k views

Was Aristotle aware of Buddha's teachings?

Are there any references in Corpus Aristotelicum to suggest whether Aristotle was aware of Buddhist teachings or Eastern philosophy? Aristotle travelled to Asia Minor at one stage of life, left a ...
11
votes
7answers
2k views

The eternal return, as thought experiment: what are the consequences?

Nietsche, as others before and after him (its roots, I am told, are in the West Asian tradition) , espoused the idea of an ever repeating clockwork universe, in which all lives are led over and over; ...
7
votes
2answers
316 views

Can any Nietzsche experts offer recommendations for research on the origin/meaning of suffering in Nietzsche?

I'm gearing up to explore Nietzsche for the first time in a junior undergraduate 19th Century Euro Thought class, and I'm interested in exploring a specific question regarding the meaning and origin ...
7
votes
3answers
263 views

Is there a formal presentation of Maturana's “Autopoiesis”

I have been reading through "Autopoiesis and Cognition" by Humberto R. Maturana and Francisco J. Varela. One of their goals in defining autopoiesis and the supporting concepts of simple and composite ...
16
votes
4answers
653 views

What are some good books about the philosophy of quantum mechanics?

I am fascinated about the implications of quantum mechanics to philosophy. Where can I find good references to the philosophy of quantum mechanics, and its implications for realism/antirealism, holism,...
8
votes
8answers
6k views

Which philosophers have written about fear?

It occurred to me some time ago that fear is the result of a lack of control, and try as I might I cannot conceive fear existing without this vacancy. Looked at from the other direction, in a ...
11
votes
5answers
7k views

Which of Kant's writings would be a good introduction to his work?

I've been planning to read some of Kant's work for a while, but have no idea where to start. Which of his writings would be a good initial introduction to his philosophical views?
3
votes
2answers
241 views

Books/Pieces/Essays about self-worth? [closed]

I'm interested in reading some good books/pieces/essays about self-worth (ultimate meaning of life, learning, working, etc). It's hard to precisely define the topic, but anything you think is ...
7
votes
3answers
940 views

Which philosophers provide theories of subjectivity?

Which philosophers write about subjectivity? What are some primary sources for philosophical theories of subjectivity?
25
votes
3answers
1k views

What are the major research programmes in contemporary logic?

As an interested outsider who is prone to reading about different formulations of logic, I've become interested in better understanding the big picture of what people are trying to accomplish as they ...
5
votes
1answer
259 views

Are there any responses to Penelope Maddy's “Second Philosophy”?

I am finishing up reading Penelopy Maddy's [2007] "Second Philosophy". I really enjoy her flavor of naturalism. Like Quine, she justifies parts of mathematics because of its application. Unlike Quine, ...
4
votes
4answers
212 views

What philosophers and schools have considered 'transcendental' economic values?

Background Settle a bet- more likely; enrich a debate. A friend of mine (a philosophy PhD with a penchant for economics) and I have been arguing for some time on the same topic. He is a libertarian ...
-1
votes
5answers
693 views

What are some good critical readings of the film The Matrix?

Where might I find some thoughtful philosophical or critical readings of The Matrix, in particular which treat the primary theme of virtual reality?
7
votes
4answers
1k views

What are some good resources for philosophy in laymen's terms?

What are some good resources for a layman to get a basic overview of modern philosophical theories, positions, and open questions in plain language? I'm reminded somewhat of Bryan Magee's videos, ...
0
votes
2answers
195 views

Language as barrier to concepts [closed]

Can the limitations of language be considered a barrier in conveying a philosophical concept? How can an idea that resists linguistic formulation be conveyed without losing the essence? Is there a ...
10
votes
3answers
1k views

What hierarchies exist in different branches of Philosophy?

If you were to map out different branches of Philosophy in a hierarchical nature on multiple levels in order to compare them what would some look like or could you point me to a reference that sorts ...
7
votes
2answers
1k views

Where can I find material on Epicureanism?

I'm looking for books by Epicurus, but I haven't been able to find any. Can anyone suggest one, or another reference book that deals with Epicureanism? I don't have any context by which to judge ...
5
votes
1answer
799 views

Can Kant's Copernican revolution be viewed as an extension of Wittgensteinian language games?

Forgive me if this question is clumsily posed. The so-called 'Copernican revolution' of declaring the mind as bringing objecthood and properties to objects, rather than their perception bringing ...
6
votes
4answers
2k views

Which ethical philosophy is concerned with maximizing expected universal good?

Take this ethical belief: "People should act such that they, upon considering with a reasonable amount of effort related to the significance of the decision, believe that they will maximize the good ...
6
votes
1answer
145 views

What if any cognitive science research has been done on the experiences of animals in captivity?

I was reading this question, and it reminded me of something interesting I had once stumbled upon, although for the life of me I cannot remember where. I think it may have been a book (perhaps a ...
11
votes
1answer
227 views

Are there any philosophical works consisting entirely in conditional propositions?

Related, I suppose, to this question. In mathematics most theorems are of the form: If we have a [type of object] with [property 1] then it also has [property 2] That is, they are conditional ...
9
votes
2answers
525 views

Are there philosophers who examined the reasons for believing in the existence of other people?

While I am familiar with Descartes and the oft-quoted idea, I think therefore I am, I am not familiar with any philosophy that actively sought to rationalize that anybody else exists. Are there ...
26
votes
7answers
1k views

What are some works that apply an axiomatic method to something other than mathematics?

The axiomatic method is today mostly associated with mathematics. However, historically there have been some works, as for example Spinoza's Ethics, that have applied axiomatic method to philosophy, ...
8
votes
1answer
169 views

What journal should I read for cutting-edge epistemology?

I'm a PhD candidate, but I still don't read many journals. Where should I start if I want to be up-to-date? One of my areas is epistemology, but this can be a more open ended question if need be.
9
votes
6answers
618 views

Which authors have discussed death in philosophy?

Could anyone point me to some authors who have discussed the ideas surrounding death in western Philosophy? (Not whether we know we exist but rather the concept of mortality and immortality).
18
votes
5answers
869 views

What responses are there to Singer's “Should this be the last generation?”?

The article can be found here. It deals with many issues, but what I would really like to see a response to is the following paragraph: [W]hy don’t we make ourselves the last generation on earth? ...
32
votes
11answers
7k views

Where and how can I get started in contemporary philosophy?

We are living in an unprecedented era of philosophical research and development where "big thought" is once again everywhere. And yet I feel like I hear this question so often: Where to begin ...
12
votes
3answers
700 views

Did Malebranche believe both the idea in the mind and the movement in the body are caused by God?

My senior thesis explored the notion of action under George Berkeley's system, and one claim I tried to address was that Berkeley contradicts himself when discussing will. In his Philosophical ...
14
votes
6answers
512 views

Do Kierkegaard's non-pseudonymous writings enable one to understand Kierkegaard's philosophy much?

As I read them, Kierkegaard's writings can be split into two groups: the mostly philosophical psuedonymous, and more theological non-pseudonymous works. I have read primarily the pseudonymous works (...
46
votes
6answers
17k views

What are the major branches of philosophy?

What are the major branches of philosophy? (For instance, as a first-order approximation, mathematics can be sub-divided into three main categories at the first level: Analysis, Algebra, and Geometry....
0
votes
2answers
395 views

Is pain needed in order to appreciate pleasure?

When good things become common in my life, I wonder if I truly still appreciate them as much as I did in the beginning. This makes me wonder if good things can only be appreciated in relation to their ...
46
votes
12answers
18k views

Does Pascal's Wager contain any logical flaws or fallacies?

Blaise Pascal's famous wager was that even if the existence of God cannot be determined through reason, a rational person should wager as though God exists, because living life accordingly has ...
-1
votes
1answer
3k views

A reference for understanding current trends in epistemology [closed]

I'm having trouble understanding all the various theories of epistemology and how they relate, and which are considered current. Is there a good resource or reference to understand the current state ...
14
votes
4answers
817 views

What are the most significant responses to Lewis' “On the Plurality of Worlds”?

What are the most significant responses to David Lewis' book On the Plurality of Worlds (1986)? In particular, are there any good critical readings of Lewis' views on modal realism?
12
votes
1answer
2k views

What are the main points of criticism of the ancient Stoic school vis-a-vis the system of philosophy of the Epicureans?

What was the main criticism of the ancient Stoic school of philosophy with respect to the system of philosophy of the Epicureans?
90
votes
24answers
27k views

How does one know one is not dreaming?

How does one know one is not dreaming? How could one logically demonstrate to a skeptic that one is "really" there, awake and not just dreaming the entire situation/world around him? Specifically ...