Questions tagged [reference-request]

This tag should be used when the question is asking for specific references.

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35
votes
17answers
33k views

What are some good introductions to philosophy?

I've been searching the questions posed here, and don't seem to find one that gives the answers I am looking for. I've proposed to start a list on meta but no one proposed anything, so I feel I must ...
11
votes
2answers
827 views

Does having free will presuppose consciousness, can philosophical zombies have it?

Philosophical zombies may lack a consciousness, but does this preclude the ability to have a free will? Why does consciousness matter, for agency, or at all, if determinism is real? (I've framed the ...
8
votes
3answers
362 views

What are the historic stances on the epistemological status of mathematics?

I know that Plato and Kant thought it was synthetic a priori (although Plato would not have phrased it in that way). What other major thinkers have weighed in on this issue, on both sides of both the ...
42
votes
16answers
12k views

How to get started with philosophy without getting overwhelmed quickly?

I’ve spent a lot of time trying to find how to get started with philosophy but I can’t. It seems that getting started with computer programming is nothing in comparison - with computer programming it’...
105
votes
25answers
44k views

How does one know one is not dreaming?

How does one know one is not dreaming? How could one logically demonstrate to a skeptic that one is "really" there, awake and not just dreaming the entire situation/world around him? Specifically ...
2
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1answer
276 views

Is Reality an intersection of Incompatible Ontologies?

Empiricists do not ask questions about the ontological status of mathematical or logical structures. Idealists don't explain how Ideas are developed, or how technological advancement in general takes ...
1
vote
2answers
426 views

References for the justification of the use of Logic

Following that question : How to justify the use of logic? I'm looking for references of the justification of the use of Logic (the question above didn't ask explicitly for resources but rather for a ...
32
votes
11answers
8k views

Where and how can I get started in contemporary philosophy?

We are living in an unprecedented era of philosophical research and development where "big thought" is once again everywhere. And yet I feel like I hear this question so often: Where to begin ...
50
votes
15answers
25k views

Does Pascal's Wager contain any logical flaws or fallacies?

Blaise Pascal's famous wager was that even if the existence of God cannot be determined through reason, a rational person should wager as though God exists, because living life accordingly has ...
15
votes
2answers
1k views

What are the current topics in philosophy of logic?

I'm contemplating another attempt at completing my long delayed MA in Philosophy, and I need a new thesis topic. As a student I excelled in advanced symbolic logic, but my connection with academic ...
12
votes
1answer
981 views

What sources discuss Russell's response to Gödel's incompleteness theorems?

In his book My Philosophical Development Russell writes, In my introduction to the Tractatus, I suggested that, although in any given language there are things which that language cannot express, ...
7
votes
3answers
2k views

Where is a good place to start reading about logic?

I would like to learn logic as an introductory subject. I am an undergraduate student and would appreciate any suggestions for books/articles where I can start from, also any books/articles about ...
13
votes
2answers
2k views

What is the difference between ethics and morals?

I am currently writing an essay on artificial moral agents, and I need to explain the difference between ethics and morals. However, I am finding it really hard to find a good book or research paper ...
5
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5answers
2k views

Philosophers on alternatives to capitalism and communism

Philosopher Karl Marx envisioned an economic system called communism to fight the abuses suffered by working class people during the industrial era. The exploitation of man by man and the excessive ...
1
vote
3answers
302 views

Can my attitude kill you?

Indeed, it might be a basic characteristic of existence that those who would know it completely would perish... -Nietzsche Would it be morally reprehensible to tell a truth to someone if I know or ...
2
votes
4answers
335 views

Can we know anything about the "outside", if we are in a simulation?

Please note this question isn't about "simulation" as such. It is cast in this way to illustrate a particular sub-to-super ontology relationship: Given that all we see or seem, are the product of ...
48
votes
6answers
20k views

What are the major branches of philosophy?

What are the major branches of philosophy? (For instance, as a first-order approximation, mathematics can be sub-divided into three main categories at the first level: Analysis, Algebra, and Geometry....
19
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6answers
1k views

What is the origin of the Continental vs. Analytic divide?

There's been much ado about the divisiveness between Heidegger and Husserl fans on the one side, with Frege and Russell stalwarts on the other. I'm mostly amused by accounts of name-calling between ...
4
votes
3answers
2k views

What would a fractal universe tell us about Time?

To begin with let's look at what is known as the coastline paradox. Briefly it goes like this: If you measure the circumference of Britain with a 1km long stick, and then do the same with a 100m long ...
23
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7answers
12k views

Did the Ancient Greek Philosophers actually believe in their Gods and Myths?

Is there any historical proof that shows what attitude the Ancient Greeks, specially the philosophers, had towards their Gods?
11
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5answers
9k views

Which of Kant's writings would be a good introduction to his work?

I've been planning to read some of Kant's work for a while, but have no idea where to start. Which of his writings would be a good initial introduction to his philosophical views?
11
votes
2answers
21k views

How do I use the "Barbara, Celarent, … etc." mnemonic?

Medieval logicians memorized this most famous logic mnemonic: Barbara, Celarent, Darii, Ferio ← direct first figure Baralipton, Celantes, Dabitis, Fapesmo, Frisesomorum ← indirect first figure Cesare,...
11
votes
7answers
2k views

What are some good resources for learning Indian philosophy?

I am a science student. During my free time, I study philosophy and occasionally do courses in philosophy in my university. I've noticed that in academia, "Philosophy" means "Western Philosophy". ...
5
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5answers
2k views

Does anyone argue that Karl Popper's theory of critical rationalism does not meet its own conditions?

I am a huge fan of Dr. Popper's work, and particularly his theory that the property of falsifiability separates the scientific from the non-scientific. However, it struck me that this theory does not ...
4
votes
1answer
317 views

In how many and which ways can a logic be non-classical? Are there systems for organizing them?

I asked on MathSE What are the various respects under which a logic can deviate from classical logic, thus being “ non-classical”? and received one short answer. So, I'm interested in responses from ...
9
votes
2answers
767 views

Are there philosophers who examined the reasons for believing in the existence of other people?

While I am familiar with Descartes and the oft-quoted idea, I think therefore I am, I am not familiar with any philosophy that actively sought to rationalize that anybody else exists. Are there ...
5
votes
7answers
364 views

What books offer a philosophical interpretation of contemporary physics?

What books which offer a philosophical interpretation of contemporary physics? Something just like Russell's Analysis of Matter but not horrid out of date.
4
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2answers
1k views

First book to self-learn logic, mainly to improve reading comprehension?

I read this and ask.metafilter.com, but desire to focus on improving comprehension of difficult writing. I never studied logic and prefer a textbook with practice problems with full detailed solutions....
4
votes
1answer
388 views

How valid is assignment of probabilites when evidence is totally lacking, as in Pascal's Wager?

The SEP article discussing Pascal's Wager states, Premise 1 presupposes that you should have a probability for God’s existence in the first place. However, perhaps you could rationally fail to ...
3
votes
1answer
80 views

Good texts on logicism

I'm trying to learn about the logicist programme by myself so I was wondering, what are some good book/papers/articles on logicism? I'm looking for introductory to medium level texts, nothing very ...
2
votes
3answers
157 views

Can my attitude kill you? Part 2

This question follows on (sort off): Can my attitude kill you? Taking attitude to mean: The unique medley of ideas that makes the person. Suppose I'm a doubly depressed neurotic pessimist. Who can ...
1
vote
2answers
255 views

What textbooks should I read after reading many short introductions? [closed]

I do not feel prepared to read primary sources yet. What should I read, after reading these short introductions? Are there exhaustive introductory textbooks? If not, then is the next step to branch ...
0
votes
3answers
266 views

Ref request: Reality objective or subjective

This is a request for a reference on (within) philosophy.stackexchange.com. It follows from discussions around this question. I am asking after having tried my luck at websearch. What I am searching ...
27
votes
3answers
2k views

What are the major research programmes in contemporary logic?

As an interested outsider who is prone to reading about different formulations of logic, I've become interested in better understanding the big picture of what people are trying to accomplish as they ...
8
votes
3answers
11k views

How can I start learning about political philosophy?

I'm interested in learning about political philosophy. What are the best ways to start? Are there any websites for beginners? Are there any books such as the "For Dummies" series? Are there any audio ...
16
votes
7answers
3k views

Are all paradoxes reducible to one "fundamental" paradox?

I may need to refine this question, since I am mostly grappling with a murky intuition and haven't yet done the real work. When I encounter many of the well-known paradoxes, such as Zeno's dichotomy, ...
23
votes
11answers
29k views

What are some criticisms of Epicurus' "death is nothing to us"?

Epicurus famously asserted that death should not be feared, with roughly the following argument: When we die, we no longer exist; Since we no longer exist, we can feel neither pain nor pleasure. ...
9
votes
3answers
885 views

Introductory book on philosophy of logic?

I know that there are quite a few questions like this here already, but I haven't yet found an answer that would satisfy me. I'm looking for an introductory logic book. My main goal is to work ...
15
votes
7answers
1k views

Why is it so difficult to write good Philosophy textbooks?

Why is it so difficult to write good Philosophy textbooks (exempting textbooks on logic)? There are plenty of useful and introductory textbooks to Mathematics, Economics, Physics, Psychology and ...
8
votes
1answer
434 views

Logic and Computation: a philosophical viewpoint on Curry-Howard isomorphism

The link between logic and computation is stronger than ever, especially since the establishment of the Curry-Howard isomorphism specifying that proofs can be seen as programs and formulas as program'...
8
votes
2answers
322 views

How to diminish the gaps in my knowledge about philosophy?

I have some formal training in philosophy, but I have lots of gaps in my knowledge. I mainly read what interests me, so the same gaps tend to remain - usually about things that doesn't draw my ...
7
votes
5answers
699 views

Are there philosophies that call for things which are not mind nor matter?

Physicalism is the idea that everything is matter. Idealism is the idea that everything is made up of a mental substance. Dualism claims that there are both matter and mind in the universe. It ...
8
votes
5answers
726 views

What are book recommendations on Philosophy of Consciousness by contemporary authors?

I am looking for a book that is more focused on the philosophy of consciousness(rather than general topic of Phil. of Mind) which takes up the hard problem as a major theme. Can you guys give me ...
3
votes
3answers
465 views

Fundamental Questions of Contemporary Philosophy

In John Searles 'Making the Social World" (2010), the chapter 'the purpose of this book' starts with declaring the following question as a fundamental question of contemporary philosophy: How, if ...
9
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6answers
664 views

Which authors have discussed death in philosophy?

Could anyone point me to some authors who have discussed the ideas surrounding death in western Philosophy? (Not whether we know we exist but rather the concept of mortality and immortality).
4
votes
3answers
250 views

Is there a philosophy of things that could not be discovered?

Excuse me for such nonsensical question, but for some time, the idea of things that could not be discovered bothers me. I guess that this is an interesting object of investigation, and I also guess ...
1
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1answer
210 views

Best philosophy of mathematics (text)book? [closed]

What work (or works) are best for beginning an independent study of the philosophy of mathematics?
10
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4answers
3k views

A companion or guide to Kant's Critique of Pure Reason

Which companion, or guide, would you recommend to someone trying to read and understand the original work, The Critique of Pure Reason? Why? I'm inclined towards these two, The Cambridge Companion to ...
5
votes
1answer
546 views

How do psychoanalysts like Freud and Lacan interpret the concept of "proof"?

How do psychoanalysts interpret the epistemological concept of "proof" in their theoretical work? Not necessarily of psychoanalysis.
4
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2answers
230 views

Are there philosophically serious moral arguments against eugenics?

First, I'm sure there are, but I have yet to read much in this area. It seems that most moral arguments are or quickly become historical arguments about violent or judicial racism, which may then ...