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Questions tagged [reference-request]

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17 answers
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What are some good introductions to philosophy? [duplicate]

I've been searching the questions posed here, and don't seem to find one that gives the answers I am looking for. I've proposed to start a list on meta but no one proposed anything, so I feel I must ...
JNat's user avatar
  • 736
12 votes
2 answers
1k views

Does having free will presuppose consciousness, can philosophical zombies have it?

Philosophical zombies may lack a consciousness, but does this preclude the ability to have a free will? Why does consciousness matter, for agency, or at all, if determinism is real? (I've framed the ...
NationWidePants's user avatar
8 votes
3 answers
445 views

What are the historic stances on the epistemological status of mathematics?

I know that Plato and Kant thought it was synthetic a priori (although Plato would not have phrased it in that way). What other major thinkers have weighed in on this issue, on both sides of both the ...
A. Thomas Yerger's user avatar
5 votes
5 answers
4k views

Philosophers on alternatives to capitalism and communism

Philosopher Karl Marx envisioned an economic system called communism to fight the abuses suffered by working class people during the industrial era. The exploitation of man by man and the excessive ...
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28 votes
7 answers
2k views

What are any contemporary, state-of-the-art references defining philosophy, from a meta-philosophical point of view?

What is a comprehensive definition of philosophy? Or is it impossible to define philosophy? At the risk of being ‘too broad’ a question, I would like to point out that the question of what philosophy ...
5 votes
1 answer
437 views

In how many and which ways can a logic be non-classical? Are there systems for organizing them?

I asked on MathSE What are the various respects under which a logic can deviate from classical logic, thus being “ non-classical”? and received one short answer. So, I'm interested in responses from ...
Floridus Floridi's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
594 views

References for the justification of the use of Logic

Following that question : How to justify the use of logic? I'm looking for references of the justification of the use of Logic (the question above didn't ask explicitly for resources but rather for a ...
Boris's user avatar
  • 896
2 votes
1 answer
341 views

Is Reality an intersection of Incompatible Ontologies?

Empiricists do not ask questions about the ontological status of mathematical or logical structures. Idealists don't explain how Ideas are developed, or how technological advancement in general takes ...
christo183's user avatar
  • 2,475
0 votes
4 answers
391 views

Ref request: Reality objective or subjective

This is a request for a reference on (within) philosophy.stackexchange.com. It follows from discussions around this question. I am asking after having tried my luck at websearch. What I am searching ...
Rushi's user avatar
  • 3,469
25 votes
7 answers
18k views

Did the Ancient Greek Philosophers actually believe in their Gods and Myths?

Is there any historical proof that shows what attitude the Ancient Greeks, specially the philosophers, had towards their Gods?
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15 votes
2 answers
1k views

What are the current topics in philosophy of logic?

I'm contemplating another attempt at completing my long delayed MA in Philosophy, and I need a new thesis topic. As a student I excelled in advanced symbolic logic, but my connection with academic ...
Chris Sunami's user avatar
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5 votes
3 answers
3k views

What would a fractal universe tell us about Time?

To begin with let's look at what is known as the coastline paradox. Briefly it goes like this: If you measure the circumference of Britain with a 1km long stick, and then do the same with a 100m long ...
christo183's user avatar
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32 votes
11 answers
9k views

Where and how can I get started in contemporary philosophy?

We are living in an unprecedented era of philosophical research and development where "big thought" is once again everywhere. And yet I feel like I hear this question so often: Where to begin ...
5 votes
2 answers
450 views

Are there philosophically serious moral arguments against eugenics?

First, I'm sure there are, but I have yet to read much in this area. It seems that most moral arguments are or quickly become historical arguments about violent or judicial racism, which may then ...
Nelson Alexander's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
202 views

How do you progress in self-learning Critical Thinking, after completing an introductory textbook?

The assertion♦ that Critical Thinking (hereafter CT) includes, but does not equal, Logic, implies the insufficiency of Logic to teach CT. I plan to read textbooks in both CT and Logic that ...
user avatar
14 votes
1 answer
1k views

What sources discuss Russell's response to Gödel's incompleteness theorems?

In his book My Philosophical Development Russell writes, In my introduction to the Tractatus, I suggested that, although in any given language there are things which that language cannot express, ...
user avatar
12 votes
7 answers
3k views

What are some good resources for learning Indian philosophy?

I am a science student. During my free time, I study philosophy and occasionally do courses in philosophy in my university. I've noticed that in academia, "Philosophy" means "Western Philosophy". ...
shivams's user avatar
  • 359
12 votes
2 answers
4k views

What is the difference between ethics and morals?

I am currently writing an essay on artificial moral agents, and I need to explain the difference between ethics and morals. However, I am finding it really hard to find a good book or research paper ...
Chris Headleand's user avatar
6 votes
11 answers
2k views

Can empiricism be found in any Eastern Philosophy/philosopher?

I was wondering if any Eastern philosophies/philosophers have adopted points of view similar to those found in the Western view of empiricism, that is (italic in the original SEP entry linked too): ...
Alexander S King's user avatar
6 votes
3 answers
2k views

Where is a good place to start reading about logic?

I would like to learn logic as an introductory subject. I am an undergraduate student and would appreciate any suggestions for books/articles where I can start from, also any books/articles about ...
user4167's user avatar
  • 165
2 votes
5 answers
617 views

Can we know anything about the "outside", if we are in a simulation?

Please note this question isn't about "simulation" as such. It is cast in this way to illustrate a particular sub-to-super ontology relationship: Given that all we see or seem, are the product of ...
christo183's user avatar
  • 2,475
1 vote
3 answers
339 views

Can my attitude kill you?

Indeed, it might be a basic characteristic of existence that those who would know it completely would perish... -Nietzsche Would it be morally reprehensible to tell a truth to someone if I know or ...
christo183's user avatar
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46 votes
6 answers
22k views

What are the major branches of philosophy?

What are the major branches of philosophy? (For instance, as a first-order approximation, mathematics can be sub-divided into three main categories at the first level: Analysis, Algebra, and Geometry....
user avatar
19 votes
6 answers
2k views

What is the origin of the Continental vs. Analytic divide?

There's been much ado about the divisiveness between Heidegger and Husserl fans on the one side, with Frege and Russell stalwarts on the other. I'm mostly amused by accounts of name-calling between ...
Ryder's user avatar
  • 2,436
14 votes
2 answers
28k views

How do I use the "Barbara, Celarent, … etc." mnemonic?

Medieval logicians memorized this most famous logic mnemonic: Barbara, Celarent, Darii, Ferio ← direct first figure Baralipton, Celantes, Dabitis, Fapesmo, Frisesomorum ← indirect first figure Cesare,...
Geremia's user avatar
  • 8,250
11 votes
5 answers
11k views

Which of Kant's writings would be a good introduction to his work?

I've been planning to read some of Kant's work for a while, but have no idea where to start. Which of his writings would be a good initial introduction to his philosophical views?
kevinmicke's user avatar
9 votes
2 answers
929 views

Are there philosophers who examined the reasons for believing in the existence of other people?

While I am familiar with Descartes and the oft-quoted idea, I think therefore I am, I am not familiar with any philosophy that actively sought to rationalize that anybody else exists. Are there ...
davidlowryduda's user avatar
7 votes
7 answers
4k views

How do philosophers understand intelligence (beyond artificial intelligence)?

Do philosophers have working definitions of 'intelligence'? The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy provides a lot of references, but all of them are related to artificial intelligence and other ...
luidam's user avatar
  • 79
5 votes
4 answers
633 views

What is it that is done when we DO mathematics?

I want to understand more deeply and philosophically what exactly mathematicians do. Wikipedia lists some major subareas like analysis, geometry but ends its lead paragraph with There is no general ...
user107952's user avatar
  • 7,450
5 votes
7 answers
472 views

What books offer a philosophical interpretation of contemporary physics?

What books which offer a philosophical interpretation of contemporary physics? Something just like Russell's Analysis of Matter but not horrid out of date.
user avatar
5 votes
5 answers
2k views

Does anyone argue that Karl Popper's theory of critical rationalism does not meet its own conditions?

I am a huge fan of Dr. Popper's work, and particularly his theory that the property of falsifiability separates the scientific from the non-scientific. However, it struck me that this theory does not ...
SAH's user avatar
  • 289
4 votes
1 answer
480 views

How valid is assignment of probabilites when evidence is totally lacking, as in Pascal's Wager?

The SEP article discussing Pascal's Wager states, Premise 1 presupposes that you should have a probability for God’s existence in the first place. However, perhaps you could rationally fail to ...
Josh's user avatar
  • 355
4 votes
2 answers
2k views

First book to self-learn logic, mainly to improve reading comprehension?

I read this and ask.metafilter.com, but desire to focus on improving comprehension of difficult writing. I never studied logic and prefer a textbook with practice problems with full detailed solutions....
user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
100 views

Good texts on logicism

I'm trying to learn about the logicist programme by myself so I was wondering, what are some good book/papers/articles on logicism? I'm looking for introductory to medium level texts, nothing very ...
user926356's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
307 views

What textbooks should I read after reading many short introductions? [closed]

I do not feel prepared to read primary sources yet. What should I read, after reading these short introductions? Are there exhaustive introductory textbooks? If not, then is the next step to branch ...
user avatar
1 vote
3 answers
172 views

Can my attitude kill you? Part 2

This question follows on (sort off): Can my attitude kill you? Taking attitude to mean: The unique medley of ideas that makes the person. Suppose I'm a doubly depressed neurotic pessimist. Who can ...
christo183's user avatar
  • 2,475
1 vote
2 answers
2k views

Quotations from Descartes on Animals as Automata

Animals do not feel pain and are automata. This view is commonly attributed to Descartes. And I would agree that in his philosophy no other conclusion makes sense. But still, I want to distinguish ...
viuser's user avatar
  • 4,841
27 votes
3 answers
2k views

What are the major research programmes in contemporary logic?

As an interested outsider who is prone to reading about different formulations of logic, I've become interested in better understanding the big picture of what people are trying to accomplish as they ...
Niel de Beaudrap's user avatar
24 votes
11 answers
32k views

What are some criticisms of Epicurus' "death is nothing to us"?

Epicurus famously asserted that death should not be feared, with roughly the following argument: When we die, we no longer exist; Since we no longer exist, we can feel neither pain nor pleasure. ...
commando's user avatar
  • 7,389
17 votes
12 answers
5k views

How to start learning philosophy and overcome my bias towards mathematics?

I am interested and curious about philosophy, especially topics like morals, justice, ethics, etc. I want to read books that explain the philosophy behind them. However, I am very ignorant and I don’t ...
pie's user avatar
  • 496
15 votes
7 answers
3k views

Are all paradoxes reducible to one "fundamental" paradox?

I may need to refine this question, since I am mostly grappling with a murky intuition and haven't yet done the real work. When I encounter many of the well-known paradoxes, such as Zeno's dichotomy, ...
Nelson Alexander's user avatar
14 votes
7 answers
1k views

Why is it so difficult to write good Philosophy textbooks?

Why is it so difficult to write good Philosophy textbooks (exempting textbooks on logic)? There are plenty of useful and introductory textbooks to Mathematics, Economics, Physics, Psychology and ...
duskn's user avatar
  • 405
11 votes
4 answers
4k views

A companion or guide to Kant's Critique of Pure Reason

Which companion, or guide, would you recommend to someone trying to read and understand the original work, The Critique of Pure Reason? Why? I'm inclined towards these two, The Cambridge Companion to ...
Adeel Ansari's user avatar
10 votes
5 answers
980 views

What are book recommendations on Philosophy of Consciousness by contemporary authors?

I am looking for a book that is more focused on the philosophy of consciousness(rather than general topic of Phil. of Mind) which takes up the hard problem as a major theme. Can you guys give me ...
Bunny's user avatar
  • 1,310
9 votes
3 answers
1k views

Introductory book on philosophy of logic?

I know that there are quite a few questions like this here already, but I haven't yet found an answer that would satisfy me. I'm looking for an introductory logic book. My main goal is to work ...
user265554's user avatar
9 votes
5 answers
368 views

Is there a philosophical conception of not necessarily biological life?

Biologists usually think of life in terms of the ability of a system to harness energy from the environment to grow and to reproduce. However in Stanislav Lem's book 'Solaris' there is a vivid ...
Sergei's user avatar
  • 191
9 votes
6 answers
769 views

Which authors have discussed death in philosophy?

Could anyone point me to some authors who have discussed the ideas surrounding death in western Philosophy? (Not whether we know we exist but rather the concept of mortality and immortality).
Chris S's user avatar
  • 535
8 votes
1 answer
696 views

Logic and Computation: a philosophical viewpoint on Curry-Howard isomorphism

The link between logic and computation is stronger than ever, especially since the establishment of the Curry-Howard isomorphism specifying that proofs can be seen as programs and formulas as program'...
Boris's user avatar
  • 896
8 votes
2 answers
293 views

Contemporary objections to "human nature"

Motivation The sentiment that Human Rights are not universal poses legal, political, and philosophical problems. Stephen C. Angle cites the head of a Chinese delegation, Liu Huaqiu (1995), in his book ...
Philip Klöcking's user avatar
  • 14.4k
7 votes
8 answers
1k views

tips for future philosophy student

In September I will begin my first year in uni and because I have studied philosophy only in high school, do you have any tips / advice to give me? I have been thinking a lot about the different ...
christopher's user avatar