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Questions tagged [scientific-method]

The Scientific Method is meant to answer questions based on observation and experimentation.

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Deduction vs Induction — are they equally valid?

I've been reading on deduction vs induction as two primary modes of reasoning. Can't exactly remember where but I have also seen deduction being described as backward and induction as forward thinking....
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Do we consider all parameters when we deal the term, 'SCIENTIFIC'? [closed]

There are different sciences and different definitions to 'science'. But there must be some commonness when we use the term--'SCIENTIFIC'. Since it is supposed that almost all sciences are seeking ...
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Can a theory that is now wrong be right in the future?

For example we take as granted that energy is conserved (Energy conservation Principle). Imagine someone “build” a theory where the energy conservation doesnt apply. Scientific community should reject ...
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What are the relationships between Foucault's medical gaze, scientific investigation, and Buddhist detachment?

From this note from a clinical psychologist, the Foucault's gaze is described as: ... with this powerful gaze the physician could penetrate illusion and see through to the underlying reality, that ...
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Name of Principle Giving Precedence to a More General Hypothesis

As far as I know, there is a principle that gives precedence to a theory that is more general than a more specific one, i.e the more general one is more acceptable. What is the name of that principle?
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How can the credibility of dietary recommendations of medical sciences and EBM be upheld in light of a history of radical changes of its claims?

I know the typical argument is that science is a work in progress and is constantly self-improving. However, self-improvement demands some continuity in claims. For example, relativistic physics was ...
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Is it scientific or a logical error to claim something is true because I can't think of another explanation

The situation Let's say, someone is wrong on the internet. She says The forums on that newspaper article is closed. Apparently the newspaper want to suppress public debate. I reply: That's ...
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Can hypotheses have parts that are supported or falsified individually?

Can an hypothesis that is part of the scientific method have multiple parts which can be falsified or supported individually? Let's say the experiments provide evidence that Part A models correctly ...
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What is the opposite of the reductionist approach?

I am searching for two opposite words in philosophy of science to describe two opposite approaches in physics. To illustrate what I am searching for I will use statistical physics and particle physics ...
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On the explanation of facts

As a chemist, I have some philosophical doubts about explanation of facts. Short intro In Bertrand Russell's book 'History of Western Philosophy' he says that leading-to scientific knowledge is the '...
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Is there an alternative to the scientific method?

Intro The scientific method is a key process of how we acquire knowledge and may shape our understanding of the world. If I am not mistaken, this method has been defined several times during our ...
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What is the principle of underdetermination?

While studying I read about the principle of underdetermination of scientific theories. I made some researches online but I am more confused than before. I read about the Quine-Duhem holistic thesis, ...
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How would you describe the relationship of science and philosophy of science?

How would you describe the relationship of science and philosophy of science? Is it a worldview that sets a tone to scientific jargon? I mean that statements of eg. physics are under submission of the ...
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What hisorical time period does Kuhn's “pre-paradigm state” correspond?

In Thomas Kuhn's analysis of scientific development, in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, the "pre-paradigm state" is a condition in which all members of the scientific community practice ...
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What makes epistemology unscientific?

Epistemology is called a branch of philosophy and not science. There are several epistemic theories some of which actually were mainstream sometimes. But it appears that, for example, some of them ...
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In order for politics to be “scientific”, what does it require? Are there existing scientific political ideologues (measurement et al)?

In order for politics to be "scientific", what does it require? Are there existing scientific political ideologues (measurement et al)? Particularly, because I still feel that a lot around politics ...
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Philosophy of Science and the nature of observation: what counts as 'observable'?

In the realist-antirealist debate within philosophy of science, the distinction between the 'observable' and 'unobservable' is made very often though I have seen that this distinction is also ...
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What is the relation between proof in mathematics and observation in physics?

Recently in his 2015 Hirzebruch Lecture in Bonn, Arthur Jaffe re-amplified his famous perspective that finding proof in mathematics is analogous to making experimental observation in physics. In ...
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Should scientists stand against anything that cannot be statistically tested?

As I see it, scientists have three categories of non-science. Theories that actually have been falsified with data showing they are wrong. Theories that cannot be tested regardless of technological ...
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With regard to the methodological incommensurability, does Kuhn talk about astrology?

According to Kuhn's methodological incommensurability, puzzle-solutions from different eras of normal science are evaluated by reference to different paradigm and methods. This implies that what was ...
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What kind of knowledge can be gathered without testing hypotheses?

Question What is the set of conditions under which a given knowledge can or cannot be acquired without testing (statistics) hypotheses? Thoughts on different fields Below is a list and definitions (...
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Stronger evidence for Feyerabend's critique of self-consistency

Background Many physicists use 'reality cannot have a true paradox, only apparent ones in our theory' as a very common maximum and guide to theory checking. As with all universal rules, Paul ...
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Responses to the problem of Underdetermination

Underdetermination and the arationality in the process of theory choice is often brought up by anti-realists on science as a proof of the problems with the scientific process in tracking truth. What ...
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Models of explanations and their conditions

Carl Hempel's idea of explanation (D.N. model) in the sciences is that you should be able to make some deductive argument by which the fact you're trying to explain is the conclusion. I.e. you form an ...
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What is the philosophical status of the enlightenment project?

"“Enlightenment is man’s release from his self-inflicted immaturity. … ‘Have courage to use your own reason!’—that is the motto of enlightenment.” -Kant . "the difference between science and ...
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What is the logical fallacy in assuming scientific method?

When I assume that whatever some authority figure says is the truth, it becomes a logical fallacy called "appeal to authority". But then how do I assume that the scientific method is (most likely) ...
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What is the Null Hypothesis for a negative claim?

If my claim is: There are no purple swans. How should this look like in a null/alternative hypothesis form? Like this? Null: There are purple swans Alternative: There are no purple swans Or like ...
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What is the difference between epistemic targets and epistemic motivations for simulations and experiments?

Now I am reading an article here about philosophy and epistemology of science. And here is a quote: Peschard's more sophisticated picture involving a distinction between epistemic targets and ...
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What is the relation between interpretation and explanation in social sciences? [closed]

I am interested in understanding the interaction between interpretation and explanation in social sciences in general and in economics particularly. It is argued that interpretation is pervasive in ...
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How can probability statements be falsified?

Have studied recently some about philosophical views of probability and ran into an interesting problem put forward by Popper: According to Popper, probability statements are not strictly ...
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Are axioms assumptions and should they be minimized?

Are axioms nothing but assumptions and, if yes and in accordance to Occam's Razor, should they be minimized? When postulating scientific theorems which, unlike axioms, are subject to the scrutiny of ...
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What is the underdetermination of theories by evidence, and how does it square with scientific realism?

What is the underdetermination of theories in philosophy of science? Is it the lack of ability to choose between alternative scientific theories? If so, how can it be that more than one theory ...
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Thought as a physical process

Short background I suppose everyone sometime ask to the mirror: what is thought? Answer requires some definitions or analogies. 'Thought is like motion', for example. But the question that leads to ...
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Do theories come from observations or do they determine what is observed?

While re-reading Shimon Malin’s “Nature Loves to Hide” I was trying to get a better grasp of the distinction between Ernst Mach’s philosophy that theory comes from observable magnitudes alone and what ...
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What is scientific mind?

How can you define scientific mind? What i think , it is a bend of mind that can be developed by any person(also one not related to field of science).This mind is fulfilled with abilities to observe ...
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Should I analyse my dataset first and formulate hypotheses later, or formulate my hypothesis first and analyse the relevant part of the dataset later?

I've got a huge dataset with hundreds of variables. However, I'm not sure which scientific method is more sophisticated in this case. The two scenarios are the following: Analyse my huge dataset ...
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Is the concept of a universe of holographical nature discussed in philosophy?

In Michael Talbot's Book 'Holographic Universe' he comes up with some very interesting concepts regarding the nature of the universe (although much of the book is half-esoteric nonsense). Especially ...
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Is the anthropic principle in physics falsifiable?

The Anthropic Principle states that the fundamental physics of the universe must allow the possibility of conscious life in the universe - as that is an observable fact. It's often qualified as ...
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Can shared-subjective knowledge be part of science?

On one hand, Einstein's relativity was non-scientific knowledge until it was proven using the scientific method. Since then, we can say that relativity is part of scientific knowledge. On the other ...
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What role do values have in science according to Popper?

I have read a lot about Popper but I still can not answer. What is the role of values in Popper's philosophy? What role do they have in science according to Popper?
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Is the scientific method ideological?

A scientific method being defined as a method whose rejection of less descriptive hypotheses of experience (acceptance of hypotheses that are 'accurate from more frames of reference') is always and ...
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It is posible a Resourced Based Economy? [closed]

When I refer to a resource-based economy, I refer to the proposal of the groups of The Zeitgeist Movement and The Venus Project https://www.thevenusproject.com/resource-based-economy/
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Did Descartes really doubt the existence of God?

I've learned about Descartes' universal doubt and as I understood it, he says mind that is supposed to interact with God isn't part of res extensa and therefore isn't part of the senses we can doubt. ...
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Is the business of science to construct models of objects and processes?

Prominent theoretical physicist and science educator David Hestenes begins his widely cited paper Modeling Games in the Newtonian World (American Journal of Physics 60, 732 (1992)) with this: The ...
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How to argue for science against religion (ft. IASIP)?

(I previously asked posted this in Skeptics SE but was told that this might be a better SE for my specific question.) I was watching this scene from "It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia" where Mac (a ...
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Are there accredited theories that state that my definition of scientific method is the best way to gain knowledge? [closed]

I have a good idea of what the scientific method is, but I use a definition I formulated myself, that is broader than the definition of scientific method that only imply a process used for collective ...
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525 views

Does Probability come before Scientific Method?

I am interested in the following epistemological problem. Usually, Probability is seen as a mathematical theory that we use to describe the physical world. Precisely, following the Scientific Method ...
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Of which philosophy is this when these points stick together? [closed]

God made the Big-bang God created Earth God created creatures on Earth God created laws of nature including biology and evolution There are creatures created by God: Adam, Eva, other humans, … There ...
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What is the difference between a scientific theory and a model?

What is the difference between a scientific theory and a model? Can someone explain the ideas with the help of a theory in physics and a model of physics?
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Is holism likely incompatible with scientific method?

I've been reading on the holism-reductionism continuum. Reductionism strikes me as compliant with general principles of the scientific approach and method because it seeks to explain complex phenomena ...