Questions tagged [scientific-method]

The Scientific Method is meant to answer questions based on observation and experimentation.

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Models of explanations and their conditions

Carl Hempel's idea of explanation (D.N. model) in the sciences is that you should be able to make some deductive argument by which the fact you're trying to explain is the conclusion. I.e. you form an ...
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What is the logical fallacy in assuming scientific method?

When I assume that whatever some authority figure says is the truth, it becomes a logical fallacy called "appeal to authority". But then how do I assume that the scientific method is (most likely) ...
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In order for politics to be “scientific”, what does it require? Are there existing scientific political ideologues (measurement et al)?

In order for politics to be "scientific", what does it require? Are there existing scientific political ideologues (measurement et al)? Particularly, because I still feel that a lot around politics ...
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What is the philosophical status of the enlightenment project?

"“Enlightenment is man’s release from his self-inflicted immaturity. … ‘Have courage to use your own reason!’—that is the motto of enlightenment.” -Kant . "the difference between science and ...
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What is the Null Hypothesis for a negative claim?

If my claim is: There are no purple swans. How should this look like in a null/alternative hypothesis form? Like this? Null: There are purple swans Alternative: There are no purple swans Or like ...
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What is the difference between epistemic targets and epistemic motivations for simulations and experiments?

Now I am reading an article here about philosophy and epistemology of science. And here is a quote: Peschard's more sophisticated picture involving a distinction between epistemic targets and ...
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Are axioms assumptions and should they be minimized?

Are axioms nothing but assumptions and, if yes and in accordance to Occam's Razor, should they be minimized? When postulating scientific theorems which, unlike axioms, are subject to the scrutiny of ...
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On the explanation of facts

As a chemist, I have some philosophical doubts about explanation of facts. Short intro In Bertrand Russell's book 'History of Western Philosophy' he says that leading-to scientific knowledge is the '...
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Thought as a physical process

Short background I suppose everyone sometime ask to the mirror: what is thought? Answer requires some definitions or analogies. 'Thought is like motion', for example. But the question that leads to ...
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What is scientific mind?

How can you define scientific mind? What i think , it is a bend of mind that can be developed by any person(also one not related to field of science).This mind is fulfilled with abilities to observe ...
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Do theories come from observations or do they determine what is observed?

While re-reading Shimon Malin’s “Nature Loves to Hide” I was trying to get a better grasp of the distinction between Ernst Mach’s philosophy that theory comes from observable magnitudes alone and what ...
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Should I analyse my dataset first and formulate hypotheses later, or formulate my hypothesis first and analyse the relevant part of the dataset later?

I've got a huge dataset with hundreds of variables. However, I'm not sure which scientific method is more sophisticated in this case. The two scenarios are the following: Analyse my huge dataset ...
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Can shared-subjective knowledge be part of science?

On one hand, Einstein's relativity was non-scientific knowledge until it was proven using the scientific method. Since then, we can say that relativity is part of scientific knowledge. On the other ...
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It is posible a Resourced Based Economy? [closed]

When I refer to a resource-based economy, I refer to the proposal of the groups of The Zeitgeist Movement and The Venus Project https://www.thevenusproject.com/resource-based-economy/
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Is the business of science to construct models of objects and processes?

Prominent theoretical physicist and science educator David Hestenes begins his widely cited paper Modeling Games in the Newtonian World (American Journal of Physics 60, 732 (1992)) with this: The ...
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Is the scientific method ideological?

A scientific method being defined as a method whose rejection of less descriptive hypotheses of experience (acceptance of hypotheses that are 'accurate from more frames of reference') is always and ...
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Did Descartes really doubt the existence of God?

I've learned about Descartes' universal doubt and as I understood it, he says mind that is supposed to interact with God isn't part of res extensa and therefore isn't part of the senses we can doubt. ...
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How to argue for science against religion (ft. IASIP)?

(I previously asked posted this in Skeptics SE but was told that this might be a better SE for my specific question.) I was watching this scene from "It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia" where Mac (a ...
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Of which philosophy is this when these points stick together? [closed]

God made the Big-bang God created Earth God created creatures on Earth God created laws of nature including biology and evolution There are creatures created by God: Adam, Eva, other humans, … There ...
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Does Probability come before Scientific Method?

I am interested in the following epistemological problem. Usually, Probability is seen as a mathematical theory that we use to describe the physical world. Precisely, following the Scientific Method ...
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What role do values have in science according to Popper?

I have read a lot about Popper but I still can not answer. What is the role of values in Popper's philosophy? What role do they have in science according to Popper?
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Is holism likely incompatible with scientific method?

I've been reading on the holism-reductionism continuum. Reductionism strikes me as compliant with general principles of the scientific approach and method because it seeks to explain complex phenomena ...
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What is the difference between a scientific theory and a model?

What is the difference between a scientific theory and a model? Can someone explain the ideas with the help of a theory in physics and a model of physics?
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Deduction vs Induction — are they equally valid?

I've been reading on deduction vs induction as two primary modes of reasoning. Can't exactly remember where but I have also seen deduction being described as backward and induction as forward thinking....
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What in the philosophy of science makes it not mathmatics? What would I ask someone to filter out the bad faith? [closed]

I recently had someone make an argument from a mathematics background, to argue a point that had no actual correlation to the material world. When I began I asked them if they accepted objective ...
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If consciousness was an illusion, would it be less real?

Even though qualia are generally considered to be unexplainable, there are philosophers like Daniel Dennett attempting to get to the core of consciousness with scientific methods. In his view, ...
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Could some of our conceptions about the physical universe be wrong? [closed]

I managed to create cold fission by placing a carbon crucible into a polysyrene cut out, put a few small sticks of glow stick stuff from the dollar store, put the lid on and generated a 5 meter field ...
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Big Data's effects on questions in philosophy of science

The Oxford English Dictionary recently named ‘post- truth’ its word of the year. The term, whose use is reputed to have increased 2000% in the past year, is defined as: “…relating to or denoting ...
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Fallibilism and truth by science

I know that a fallibilist believes that our current beliefs may not be true but i'm trying to argue that one can be a fallibilist and also believe that science progresses towards the truth. Does it ...
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Basic understanding of the Scientific Method

As a layperson non-specialist I am trying to verify if I understand scientific method. Can someone look at the example I made up and tell me if it fits with scientific method. I'm using this diagram ...
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What are some examples of the implications of changing epistemological and ontological grounds of the research?

What are some examples of the variation in the answers of the same question among different researchers, that can be explained by the variation of epistemological and ontological grounds of their ...
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Do we consider all parameters when we deal the term, 'SCIENTIFIC'? [closed]

There are different sciences and different definitions to 'science'. But there must be some commonness when we use the term--'SCIENTIFIC'. Since it is supposed that almost all sciences are seeking ...
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Are some prominent atheists “religiously atheist” [closed]

There's a class of scientist (and non-scientist) that pursues the atheism argument religiously. It seems that their ears are closed to reasoned argument. They are typically, in all other spheres of ...
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Hypothesis and thesis

Hypothesis means several things, but I think (and Wikipedia roughly agrees) that there are two main senses: A. Epistemological - a tentative affirmation, posed as explanation for a phenomenon. In the ...
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Should we allow metaphysical explanations as a possibility in scientific inquiry? [closed]

For example,suppose that the universe was in fact created by a supernatural god as told in some religions. Suppose for the moment that this scenario is the true one. Now, Rejecting the possibility ...
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What is Feyerabend advocating when he says that science should be separate from the state just as the church is?

In the closing chapter of "Against Method", Feyerabend states that: "Science is neither a single tradition, nor the best tradition there is, except for people who have become accustomed to its ...
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Is Feyerabend confusing discovery and justification when he criticizes the scientific method?

I am reading Feyerabend's "Against Method", where he uses Copernicus's (and Galileo's confirmation) discovery of the fact that the Earth orbits around the Sun and other examples to show that ...
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How is Lakatos's hard core of theoretical assumptions different than Kuhn's paradigm?

Listening to a course on philosophy of science, Lakatos was presented as a middle way between Popper and the positivists strictly rational description of scientific theories and Kuhn's historical/...
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Should modern empiricists embrace string theory?

Conventional wisdom says "no", lack of new predictions being the main criticism. Johansson and Matsubara review string theory from various empiricist perspectives, and the best they can say (for ...
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How should science approach non-empirical phenomena?

I am not talking about miracles, religious revelation, or artistic expression, but something more mundane. There is a lot of "empirical" evidence that the Riemann hypothesis is true, the scare quotes ...
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How can probability statements be falsified?

Have studied recently some about philosophical views of probability and ran into an interesting problem put forward by Popper: According to Popper, probability statements are not strictly ...
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Is it correct to define a lack of understanding of the scientific method, as a “lack of epistemological education”? [closed]

I would like to learn about the scientific method, and philosophy of knowledge, so I'm trying to identify the concepts which I would study. If somebody makes a radically wrong (to be more precise, ...
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Is this type of induction a problem?

I can understand how the verification of hypotheseses based on inductive reasoning can be problematic, and I understand that a lot of prominent figures in philosophy are in opposition to this (Popper, ...
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What kind of knowledge can be gathered without testing hypotheses?

Question What is the set of conditions under which a given knowledge can or cannot be acquired without testing (statistics) hypotheses? Thoughts on different fields Below is a list and definitions (...
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Can one speak unambiguously of “The” Scientific Method?

When people in general discuss science, they talk about the scientific method as if it was a fixed and universally agreed upon principle. In a show I saw recently by Neil DeGrasse Tyson, he explicitly ...
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How did quantum mechanics shape the scientific method?

Quantum mechanics has certainly changed scientific concepts (deterministic <-> probabilistic). But to which extent did it change the scientific method? Since I perceive the scientific method more ...
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Why do old theories take priority over new ones?

Given two scientific theories that both agree with experiment, it seems that unless the new one is much simpler, the older one is accepted. Why is this so? Examples: Special Relativity wasn't ...
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What is the relation between proof in mathematics and observation in physics?

Recently in his 2015 Hirzebruch Lecture in Bonn, Arthur Jaffe re-amplified his famous perspective that finding proof in mathematics is analogous to making experimental observation in physics. In ...
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Is any aspect of the supernatural testable? What level of proof is possible for the supernatural?

Assume the supernatural does exist, and consists of beings/forces that can interact with our natural universe in ways that are contrary to the natural laws of this universe (at least as we know them). ...
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What is the relation between interpretation and explanation in social sciences? [closed]

I am interested in understanding the interaction between interpretation and explanation in social sciences in general and in economics particularly. It is argued that interpretation is pervasive in ...