Questions tagged [syllogism]

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Why is there an O type conclusion in modus celaront

Modus celaront is type logical syllogism. No reptiles have fur. (MeP) All snakes are reptiles. (SaM) ∴ Some snakes have no fur. (SoP) The conclusion is of a O type(Some .. are not ...). Why is ...
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Why do we need Aristotle's theory of predication?

My question is about Aristotle's theory of predication. Why do we need it at all? I know it's intuitive to pick up something and say something about it like "S is P", but doesn't this lead us to ...
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54 views

Can paraconsistent logic be translated to Aristotelian logic? [on hold]

Maybe if you split sentences in parts you could translate in atomic ideas and translate paraconsistent logic to Aristotelian logic.
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Could the link between virtues and pleasures and pains in the third chapter of Nicomachean Ethics' book II be considered a hypothetical syllogism?

In the chapter 3 of Nicomachean Ethics' book II, Aristotle says: Again, if the virtues are concerned with actions and passions, and every passion and every action is accompanied by pleasure and ...
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1answer
150 views

What is a predicate according to Aristotle's Organon?

There is of course predicate as in predicate logic; but I'm asking about the notion in Aristotle's Organon. Consider the proposition: Socrates is a man. Man is a universal, Socrates is a ...
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Do I have to use the BARBARA, CELARENT… etc?

My logic book is making me memorize the mnemonic that lists all these Latin names in order to remember valid syllogism forms, as well as how to reduce them into the first figure. My question is, do I ...
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1answer
120 views

Why isn't the method of listing Terms in syllogisms widespread?

From: Philip Johnson-Laird BA PhD Psychology (UCL), Stuart Professor of Psychology Emeritus at Princeton. (Author isn't a logician.) How We Reason (1st edn 2008). p. 145. Is there a term for ...
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158 views

Which logical fallacy is this: A is a C, B is a C, therefore A is a B?

Does this kind of logical fallacy have a name? Apples are fruit. Oranges are fruit. Therefore, apples are oranges. I'm guessing it's a particular kind of statistical syllogism?
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“Syllogisms which produce understanding”

I remember reading somewhere that the aim of Aristotle's Prior and Posterior analytics was to show which kinds of syllogisms produce understanding. I do not remember where I read this but I think it ...
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Is this an example of Undistributed Middle?

Is this an example of Undistributed Middle? John is not a teenager, since all teenagers are impulsive, and John is not impulsive.
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Why is the darapti syllogism invalid?

I found the following exposition of darapti on wikipedia: All squares are rectangles. (MaP) All squares are rhombuses. (MaS) ∴ Some rhombuses are rectangles. (SiP) As far as I can see, this is ...
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242 views

Why does one negative premise suffice to imply a negative conclusion?

Capaldi PhD Columbia, Smit PhD Catholic University of Leuven. The Art of Deception (2007). Why's 2 true please? I can't intuit why, because 3 outwardly contradicts it. I prefer an intuitive ...
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140 views

Does Hume reject the possibility of is-ought syllogisms?

Suppose the following syllogism: It is impossible for anyone to get X without him/her doing Y. It is possible to get X (by doing Y). I want to get X. Therefore I ought to do Y. There is, very likely,...
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125 views

Is the reiteration rule in formal logic begging the question?

Wikipedia defines "begging the question" as To "beg the question" is to put forward an argument whose validity requires that its own conclusion is true. I assume this is something Aristotle's ...
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What is an example of a monadic predicate calculus argument that cannot be represented by the 19 classical Aristotelian syllogisms alone?

While reading Wikipedia's description of the monadic predicate calculus, I read the following: Inferences in term logic can all be represented in the monadic predicate calculus. and Conversely, ...
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428 views

Modus Ponens as Substitute for Syllogism

This is a pretty basic question, but I haven't been able to find a clear answer in the various sources I've looked at, including the Kneales' chapter on conditionals in 'The Development of Logic'. ...
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426 views

Is Euclid's syllogistic approach to proving mathematical theorems logically insufficient?

I think that deduction used in syllogistic systems, employing axioms and hence inferential conclusions i.e. theorems is rather weak, and cannot suffice for the robustness needed for proving ...
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syllogism, truth-functional, or neither?

I dreamed that John F. Kennedy was born in 1917, and everything I dream is true. Therefore, Kennedy was born in 1917. All horses are animals. Therefore, all heads of horses are heads of animals. If '...
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236 views

Do premises in modus tollendo tollens arguments require greater certainty than others?

In a standard syllogism, the two premises of the argument are independent of each other, so all extrinsic warrant being equal, the argument will prove the conclusion to be probable if and only if... ...
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442 views

Is there a way to generate the 24 valid syllogisms in term logic?

There are four qualifiers in term logic, organized according to two distinctions: particular/universal (some versus all) and affirmative/negative (permitting none and not all). There are 256 ...
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441 views

Is syllogism an inference rule?

I was reading Anthony Andres' article, "ARISTOTLE AND THE CONVENTIONAL LOGICIANS ON THE FOURTH FIGURE". The author explains why according to him the introduction of the fourth figure by his ...
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405 views

How many valid categorical syllogisms are there?

Almost all contemporary logic books I have checked (as well as Wikipedia) agree that there are 24 conditionally valid logic syllogisms (Aristotle interpretation) 6 per figure and 15 unconditionally ...
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Are syllogisms independent of humans?

For example, if "All a are b" and "All b are c" then "All a are c". To make this syllogism, does a conscious being need to exist? Or is it inferred from the sentences?
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Reverse Conclusion of Hypothetical Syllogism

I am presented with an argument of form: If p, then q. If q, then r. Therefore, if r, then p. Does this structure have a specific title? I know that it is invalid, and am assuming that "reverse ...
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1answer
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how do people pick the letters for syllogistic logic problems?

I encountered the following argument while I was studying syllogistic logic from a book: All red cars kill papers, (premise) All cars that kill papers are beautiful, (premise) All red ...
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What is the nature of implication? [duplicate]

Or: how do statements follow from other statements? Consider: All turtles have shells (s1), Ricardo is a turtle (s2), therefore Ricardo has a shell (s3). Why does s3 follow?
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Is reduction to the absurdum to be considered a syllogism?

I was reading this article called Aristotle on the fourth figure. Thea author while exposing Aristotle theory of syllogism, identify 3 kinds of syllogisms which believes Aristotle to discuss: ...
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711 views

Does an implied premise mean a formal fallacy if used in deduction?

Let's just say we have an implied premise: 2.a Socrates is a philosopher (implied premise), but not explicit Then is the following a formal fallacy? Socrates is a man. All men are mortal. ...
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How can I explain the distribution of an O proposition's predicate?

A student raised a tough question while I was teaching formal fallacies: couldn't the statement that "some cats are not tabbies" be made with confidence upon seeing a single cat that is not a tabby? ...
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156 views

Does transposition of the premises preserve validity in categorical syllogisms?

This morning I've stumbled upon this doubt to which I couldn't find a clear answer. I intuitively myself that yes, it does preserve validity because as long as you don't change the premises the ...
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Question about Syllogisms

Statements: I) No picnic is blades II) Some blades are CD's Conclusions: I) No CD is a picnic II) Some picnics are definitely not CD's Which one of these conclusions follow? I stated that ...
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309 views

Only valid syllogisms are syllogisms?

If I have an invalid syllogism, it can still be considered a syllogism, right? Example: All A is B All B is C All C is A It is invalid. But it's still syllogism? (I know that may seem obvious, but ...
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459 views

Real World Example to break the logic of this Syllogism

I saw an example in a book talking about this setup: All 'P' are 'Q' All 'R' are 'P' All 'R' are 'Q' I am wondering if there are any real-life examples where the premises are true, but the ...
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Are “All A is B” and “If A then B” always logically equivalent?

Will "All A is B" always imply "If A then B?" If so, can we say that the following follows the form of Modus Ponens? All dogs are mammals. Toby is a dog. So, Toby is a mammal. Can I rewrite ...
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Why do singular propositions have a universal quantity?

Why do singular propositions have a universal quantity? Singular propositions like Amy is woman. Why do we treat them as if they referred to classes of things?
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Is restatement true in syllogism?

Statement : All A is B Conclusion : All A is B. Does this conclusion follow?
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Is there a name for a fallacy wherein it is assumed either someone is lying or their assertion is true?

I'm hoping to find a name already in somewhat common usage for a fallacy of the following form: A person claimed X. Therefore either X is true or the person is lying. I've seen this fallacy ...
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638 views

Does this syllogism by Russell show that Aristotelian logic doesn't work?

I have been reading through Hurley's A Concise Introduction to Logic, and I just finished reading the chapters about categorical syllogisms. While prodding around Wikipedia looking for some ...
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Syllogism Problem Assistance

I have problem with the following syllogism. Some A are B All B are C ———————————— Some B are C Some A are C I think both are correct answers while my book says that the only correct answer is "some ...
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472 views

Categorical syllogism question

I have trouble understanding this syllogism. Given: Some P are not G No O are P My conclusion is : Some O are not G In this online exercise I did my answer was incorrect and that website does not ...
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help with answering the set of statements : All cats are lions, some lions are mice, all mice are giraffes

Consider the three statements A,B and C to be true even if they are different from the commonly known facts I drew two euler diagrams for this and concluded that conlusion II and IV follows and ...
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“All men are mortal, Socrates is a man, therefore, Socrates is mortal” original quote

Where the syllogism "All men are mortal / Socrates is a man / Therefore, Socrates is mortal" first appeared?
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How do I use the “Barbara, Celarent, … etc.” mnemonic?

Medieval logicians memorized this most famous logic mnemonic: Barbara, Celarent, Darii, Ferio ← direct first figure Baralipton, Celantes, Dabitis, Fapesmo, Frisesomorum ← indirect first figure Cesare,...
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143 views

Wendelin, Marcus Friedrich - Logicae Institutiones tironum adolescentum

where can I find an English translation of this book? Also, in it he talks about 12 pairs of term categories. which are really 21 (9 actual pairs and 3 "double sided" categories): he writes - De ...
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320 views

Particulars in a conditional syllogism

I have the following syllogism: Should all goods come from virtue, no evil man possesses the good. Some evil men possess the good. Therefore, some goods do not come from virtue. I ...
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In modern logic, why does “All S is P” contradict “Some S is not P”?

In modern logic, the existential import is removed from universal statements. So All S is P may still be true if there is no S at all. Contradictory statements must have opposite truth values. Why ...
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92 views

Why are these formulas not well-formed in syllogistic logic?

I'm studying formal logic, and I get stuck in the beginning. I'm trying to do easier translations in syllogistic logic. I'm using Gensler book "Introduction to Logic". They say that this examples ...
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Is “only A are B” the same as “all B are A”?

I have two syllogisms which I think are pretty similar. Correct me if I am wrong but I believe "Only A are B" is the same as "All B are A". Only A are B (Can be rewritten as "All B are A") Only B are ...
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503 views

Why can an affirmative conclusion never be drawn from negative premises?

Source: A Concise Introduction to Logic (12 Ed, 2014), by Patrick J. Hurley. Please observe my amelioration (and so change) of Hurley's notation. [p 287:] Rule 4: A Negative Premise Requires a ...
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How do affirmative premises assert class inclusion rather than class separation?

Source: A Concise Introduction to Logic (12 Ed, 2014), by Patrick J. Hurley. Please observe my amelioration (and so change) of Hurley's notation; I use MIN, MAJ, and MID to abbreviate the Minor, Major,...