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Questions tagged [theology]

Theology is the field of study and analysis that treats of God and of God's attributes and relations to the universe; the study of divine things or religious truth; divinity.

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Principle of proportionate causality - what are virtual and eminent causes?

I'm reading Edward Feser's book Five Proofs of the Existence of God. On pages 32-33 he introduces the principle of proportionate causality (PPC). I'm having trouble understanding what precisely ...
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Which modern philosophers profess an atheist personalism?

Thomas D. Williams and Jan Olof Bengtsson describe the origin of personalism in the following way: Personalism in the sense of a distinct philosophy or worldview focusing on the full, accumulated ...
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How can God allow someone that is immoral to become highly successful?

How can God allow someone that lies, cheats, steals, homosexual and/or other acts considered bad by ancient religious moral texts to become successful? Are the negative consequences of karma and sin ...
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Gödel's incompleteness theorems - what are the religious implications?

Apparently Kurt Gödel believed that his incompleteness theorems have some kind of religious implications. Despite Gödel's belief in a personal God, this was still somewhat surprising to me. ...
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1answer
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Amoral argument for god?

Has there been a push for or the development of an amoral argument for a god that is indifferent to the moral practices of humanity, a sort of anti-moral argument for an indifferent god? This idea ...
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If a creator of the universe was discovered then what effect would that have?

Suppose science finally unearths a creator of the universe. Let us say it is actually a collection of aliens who have always existed, that for them time is a synthetic concept, and we are all a part ...
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Is theism necessarily 'faith-based'?

Reading this question recently posted, an assertion was made that theism and atheism are both "faith-based" positions. Ignoring the argument regarding atheism, I feel the initial premise deserves a ...
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Asserting that Atheism and Theism are both faith based positions

I am recently testing an assertion that I have concluded namely that atheism is a faith based position just like theism is a faith based position. The reason I arrived at this conclusion is that ...
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What is the difference between free will and freedom to choose?

The Wikipedia article on "secondary causation" notes the following without footnote: According to the Jewish Torah which brought down the original idea in Genesis, the phrase "free will" is a ...
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arguments about existence [closed]

I think therefore I am, so why should I exist? It seems as long as I exist there is a problem of explanation. It seems the only natural way it could be is for nothing to exist at all, as then no ...
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Where does a soul (aatma) lie in our body?

Like does it lie in our apparent heart, not the physical heart, like the place were we feel emotions? I am not able to understand it. They say soul never dies. It is inside us and self-realisation is ...
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Would a first cause exist necessarily, so that absences are uncaused?

Would a first cause exist necessarily? So, let's suppose God is the first cause. Does that mean he necessarily exists? Does He then mean that his effects also exist, contingently or not, so that ...
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How can we argue for the uniqueness of a God-like entity?

(I have in mind here, something similar to "uniqueness" proofs in math. I think if we want to name something, we should show both that it exists and is unique.) (By "divine attributes", I mean ...
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Are there any solutions to the Euthyphro dilemma?

Is there a way to believe that God is the source of morality without also having to believe that morality is arbitrary?
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What philosophers have considered humans as gods?

Have any reputable philosophers considered this concept? If so, which ones? And how did they account for responsibility and accountability in this framework?
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How do compatibilists understand “responsible”?

In Scott Christensen's book "What about free will?" on page 119 is "Pharaoh is held responsible for his actions". The reason given for God attributing culpability is "You are exalting yourself...". ...
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Which idealogy states aatma (soul) doesn't exist; only paramatmaa (God) does? [closed]

The ideology states all this world is His creation and it will die. God is beyond all this. It is difficult to understand for normal people. But I believe it. It states we are mere lies. We will die. ...
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Isn't the knowledge of the non-existence of “God”, objective? [closed]

The term Objectivity can be defined as: of, relating to, or being an object, phenomenon, or condition in the realm of sensible experience independent of thought and perceptible by all observers : ...
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1answer
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What were the theological objections to Plotinus' One?

Dominic O'Meara notes (page 68) that there were religious criticisms of Plotinus in which it is claimed that the necessity whereby Plotinus' One generates things compares (unfavourably) with the ...
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Why must the first mover be unmovable?

In the first way of Aquinas it is proved that there exists an unmoved mover (or unchanged changer or even better, actualizer which was not actualized). It is often claimed that God is pure act without ...
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1answer
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What do theologians study about? [closed]

I have never seen a word which is as ill defined as the word "God". Consider a group of 10 people, if we ask them what do they mean by God.I am certain all of them will have different definitions. Yet ...
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How does Ravi Zacharias' defence of the problem of evil jump from the need of a moral law giver to there being a God?

On first finding this defense by Zacharias, I was rather convinced, but upon reading it again, I have some doubts. Firstly, here is the transcript from what he said about the problem of evil. ......
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If Satan punishes bad people, doesn't that make him a good person? [closed]

In Christian theology, the devil is generally thought of as both being evil in himself AND as being the punisher of bad people. But isn't punishing bad people a good thing? And if so, wouldn't that ...
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What puts Christians off “hard determinism”?

Scott Christensen has written a book, "What about free will?" published 1995, in which two Christian positions are examined. They are, page 238, Libertarian Beliefs and Compatabilist Beliefs. However, ...
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What's the name of the “God creates Evil” fallacy?

I see this fallacy everywhere, from anti-Christians to Socialists/Communists. It goes like this: "if God exists, then why did He make all this Evil?" Another example: "the baker, by baking bread and ...
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How compatible is atheism with agnosticism?

My question is about the presence of God in people`s lives. If we reject the form of God as a supernatural being with forces of punishing people, or providing them with afterlife rewards, are we ...
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1answer
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If God created evil would that make Him evil or, the creator of evil? [duplicate]

God cannot be what He has created. So if He creates something there will be a gap between Him and His creation. That gap is defined in various ways. e.g. God alone can create. God is holy. Evil exists....
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free will without evil

If God is omnibenevolent and omnipotent could not we say God is capable of giving us free will without the existence of evil based on the same logic as Descartes described God's ability to lift an ...
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Does the concept of a God who is both immanent and transcendent originate with Plotinus?

In discussing the One of Plotinus, Dominic J. O'Meara writes the following (page 46): Plotinus points to a distinction between elements which exist only as components of a whole (they depend on ...
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1answer
194 views

What does Marx mean in the quote from the bible?

The social revolution of the nineteenth century cannot take its poetry from the past but only from the future. It cannot begin with itself before it has stripped away all superstition about the ...
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1answer
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Does it matter if we never achieve the results of our being good? [closed]

I mean "good" broadly speaking. That could mean anything. It seems like we are bombarded with people who live, at least overtly, moral lives but who are somehow fake. The word "result" reminds me of ...
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Would logic be respected if we assume that the God's omniscience includes the ability to DIRECTLY OBSERVE future events?

If we assume that God knows the future, we think that the only possible way to do that is because He knows all possible states of the system: He could thus "compute" that future. But this "computation"...
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Is God free to make decisions?

God is omniscient, that means He knows the only one future. The only one future will become the only one past after some time. Thus we are sure that this future is really only one. It will be ...
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How did Hartshorne make the idea of perfection rationally conceivable?

This question is motivated by trying to find an answer for christo183's question: Why did Hartshorne believe in God? Looking at the Wikipedia article referenced in that question, I found two passages ...
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Why did Hartshorne believe in God?

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Hartshorne https://www.iep.utm.edu/hart-t-a/ Donald Wayne Viney and George W. Shields wrote that Charles Hartshorne denied justifying his own faith upon Anselm’...
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3answers
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Does theism imply worship?

There are and were many theistic religions. In most if not all of them there is some kind of worship. However, as far as I am aware theism only means a belief in some kind of unworldly beings who ...
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Logic vs Deity: does one supersede the other? [closed]

Note: This isn't a question asking for an explanation, that would be a debate, more one asking for clarification. I don't want this turning into a debate about the existence of deities. Whenever ...
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Does god know what comes after his death? [closed]

If god is omniscient, then he can see into everyone's future, including his own. If god is omnipotent, then he could in theory end his own existence at any moment. Would his omniscience include ...
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How is the theory of divine revelation coherent?

There is a long history of Christian philosophy† drawing a distinction between knowledge gained from rational/empirical sources and knowledge from divine revelation. It seems Tertullian was one of the ...
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How can God be temporal if he never began?

I was reading through this article and it says: What may be the dominant view of philosophers today is that he is temporal but everlasting; that is, God never began to exist and he never will go ...
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Is there any way to have substance dualism without invoking God?

Can one solve these objections to substance dualism without invoking divine intervention? 1.Causal interaction 2.Brain damage affects mind 3.Why do only living things with brains have consciousness?...
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Where does Marsilio Ficino write that all nations refer to God with a four-letter name?

I have seen quoted in the name of Marsilio Ficino (1433-1499), also spelled Marcellus Ficin, that all nations of the world worship a God whose name is spelled with four letters. Does anybody know ...
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Agnostic theism and agnostic atheism and their validity

Recently, there has been a rise of the terms like "Agnostic Theism" and "Agnostic Atheism" which one rarely comes across in philosophical literature. To me, these terms seem more of a mockery of the ...
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'Thanks, but no thanks' - God and my existence

Problem: God (in an Abrahamic religion) created me without asking me if I would want this life. Now I don't want this life. If I commit suicide, I will burn in hell for eternity. I just want to cease ...
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Once it happened, an event was necessary?

What would happen to an event in the past, if time itself ceases to exist? Without time, has what existed (such as the writing of this sentence) never happened? A total disappearance of space-time ...
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4answers
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Is there a name for people who believe in a self-professed God but reject to venerate him/her/it?

Suppose I believe there is an entity that considers itself to be "a god". This means that out of the whole of my lexicon, the word "god" is what best describes this entity. But I refuse to obey this ...
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Can we logically prove that anything exists?

Suppose I want to prove that negative numbers exist. Well, I could easily do that using a mathematical proof. However, all I would be doing is adding another logical object to a list of known logical ...
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Do logic and reasoning need to be validated by an ultimate authority?

A lot of presuppositional appologists argue that the Abrahamic God is real because the Bible is self validating and that everyone "knows" God (except you have to presuppose sense perception and that ...
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Is logic logic because God defined it as such?

A popular argument that comes, by some theists, for attributes of God is: The argument that some of God's attributes, such as Omnipotence, are illogical cannot restrict God from having them since ...
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Did Plato really use the concept of “God” or only of “gods”? [duplicate]

In medieval philosophy texts, it seems that Plato is presented as having the concept of "eternal light" if not of "God" - I'm taking, very indirectly, from this SEP entry: The problem of universals in ...