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Questions tagged [theology]

Theology is the field of study and analysis that treats of God and of God's attributes and relations to the universe; the study of divine things or religious truth; divinity.

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Are Tillich and Dewey saying the same thing with regard to “ultimate concern”?

Both Dewey and Tillich refer to "God" in their respective interpretations of the object of faith. Also, each of them uses similar terms in speaking of faith. Tillich speaks of being "ultimately ...
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Did Meister Eckhart teach many times to only females?

In the 13th century this German monk/priest created his own philosophy and theology. But I've heard that he taught this often to mostly females. Now in the 13th century I don't think that women were ...
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Amoral argument for god?

Has there been a push for or the development of an amoral argument for a god that is indifferent to the moral practices of humanity, a sort of anti-moral argument for an indifferent god? This idea ...
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Must infinity involve repetitions?

Infinity for Nietzsche in at least one line of argument involves the eternal return; he refers to it in the Die fröhliche Wissenschaft and Also sprach Zarathustra; most completely in his Notes on the ...
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Can analogues of moral non-naturalism make some metaphysical hypotheses more defensible?

One common position in meta-ethics is that facts about morality exist, but are not natural properties of the universe but rather are something else. I can't measure the wrongness of slavery the same ...
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Does a negative claimant have a burden of proof?

I have often heard it said that the burden of proof is on the positive claimant but not on the one making a negative claim. A person claiming, "God exists" has a burden of proof but not a person ...
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Which Christian philosophers examine their understanding of Pharaoh hardening his heart? [closed]

I have read many Christian commentaries on Pharaoh and they all assume he had moral responsibility for having hardened his own heart. However did Pharaoh choose his nature and nurture or did his God ...
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A Timeless God and His Will to Create: Contradiction?

Many God believers say, God is timeless, or atemporal, he exists outside spacetime. Where there is no time, there is no change. But in order to create the Universe, God would have to have an impulse, ...
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Principle of proportionate causality - what are virtual and eminent causes?

I'm reading Edward Feser's book Five Proofs of the Existence of God. On pages 32-33 he introduces the principle of proportionate causality (PPC). I'm having trouble understanding what precisely ...
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How can God allow someone that is immoral to become highly successful?

How can God allow someone that lies, cheats, steals, homosexual and/or other acts considered bad by ancient religious moral texts to become successful? Are the negative consequences of karma and sin ...
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Problems with the Omnipotence paradox

From Wikipedia: The omnipotence paradox is a family of semantic paradoxes that explores what is meant by 'omnipotence'. If an omnipotent being is able to perform any action, then it should be able ...
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Omnipotence Paradox Defense and Meinongianism/Neo-Meinongianism

I was considering a solution to the omnipotence paradox in which excluding logical impossibilities from the definition of omnipotence is justified as follows. Consider the proposition, "God could ...
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What would the existence of the multiverse mean for theology?

The multiverse seems to be gaining traction of the scientific community, even becoming the prevalent worldview. It seems some types of the multiverse theory, such as the many-worlds interpretation, ...
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What is a miracle, and why should it influence our metaphysical beliefs?

There's a question on this site regarding what a rational person should accept as a miracle, but the question and its answers seem to take the definition and categorization (as well as consequence) of ...
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Can an eternal universe be created?

In both Christian and Islamic thought the universe is created and this is taken to mean that the universe had a definite beginning. Philosophically we can justify this position by arguing that were we ...
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Which modern philosophers profess an atheist personalism?

Thomas D. Williams and Jan Olof Bengtsson describe the origin of personalism in the following way: Personalism in the sense of a distinct philosophy or worldview focusing on the full, accumulated ...
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Gödel's incompleteness theorems - what are the religious implications?

Apparently Kurt Gödel believed that his incompleteness theorems have some kind of religious implications. Despite Gödel's belief in a personal God, this was still somewhat surprising to me. ...
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How does Schopenhauer maintain idealism without God?

In Berkeley's idealism God holds the world together, enabling us to avoid chaos and experience a shared, orderly reality. But Schopenhauer is an idealist and an atheist. How can we then explain the ...
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Is it believed by the religious that God's values change over time, along with humans'?

This is something that I have never been able to understand, so thought I would ask. It is common that, whenever we look back at previous generations and certain aspects of their lifestyle which ...
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What is the purpose of the universe?

There are two extremes known as creationism vs evolutionism. Let's consider creationism for a moment, and imagine that God exists, and he/she has created us. The question that obsesses my mind after ...
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If a creator of the universe was discovered then what effect would that have?

Suppose science finally unearths a creator of the universe. Let us say it is actually a collection of aliens who have always existed, that for them time is a synthetic concept, and we are all a part ...
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Spinoza's proof of God

Proposition 11. God, or a substance consisting of infinite attributes each of which expresses eternal and infinite essence, necessarily exists. His argument is such: If God didn’t exist then by ...
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How could a prophet prove its authenticity?

In the event of an existing god wanting to deliver a message to mankind and choosing one person for it, how could this person prove, if possible, that he speaks in the name of God? Edit: Please note ...
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How does Spinoza support the argument that there is a match between ideas and physical objects?

Spinoza argues that if God exists, He is a single continuous substance that constitutes all of reality. How does this argument go, and how does Spinoza use it to support the conclusion that there is ...
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Asserting that Atheism and Theism are both faith based positions

I am recently testing an assertion that I have concluded namely that atheism is a faith based position just like theism is a faith based position. The reason I arrived at this conclusion is that ...
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Is theism necessarily 'faith-based'?

Reading this question recently posted, an assertion was made that theism and atheism are both "faith-based" positions. Ignoring the argument regarding atheism, I feel the initial premise deserves a ...
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Can we logically prove that anything exists?

Suppose I want to prove that negative numbers exist. Well, I could easily do that using a mathematical proof. However, all I would be doing is adding another logical object to a list of known logical ...
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Is God either immoral or not omnipotent?

The usual (Christian) justification for suffering/evil in the world created by a benevolent God is freedom of the will. However, the more interesting question is not about the source of evil (which ...
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What arguments are there for the existence of a personal God?

Classical arguments for God's existence, like ontological, cosmological, teleological, etc., only derive the existence of something very abstract, greatest entity, first cause, etc., which is then "...
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What is the difference between free will and freedom to choose?

The Wikipedia article on "secondary causation" notes the following without footnote: According to the Jewish Torah which brought down the original idea in Genesis, the phrase "free will" is a ...
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Are there any solutions to the Euthyphro dilemma?

Is there a way to believe that God is the source of morality without also having to believe that morality is arbitrary?
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arguments about existence [closed]

I think therefore I am, so why should I exist? It seems as long as I exist there is a problem of explanation. It seems the only natural way it could be is for nothing to exist at all, as then no ...
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Where does a soul (aatma) lie in our body?

Like does it lie in our apparent heart, not the physical heart, like the place were we feel emotions? I am not able to understand it. They say soul never dies. It is inside us and self-realisation is ...
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Is Plato's Theory of the Forms entirely accepted by anyone?

Plato's theory of Forms or theory of Ideas asserts that non-material abstract (but substantial) forms (or ideas), and not the material world of change known to us through sensation, possess the ...
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Would a first cause exist necessarily, so that absences are uncaused?

Would a first cause exist necessarily? So, let's suppose God is the first cause. Does that mean he necessarily exists? Does He then mean that his effects also exist, contingently or not, so that ...
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How can we argue for the uniqueness of a God-like entity?

(I have in mind here, something similar to "uniqueness" proofs in math. I think if we want to name something, we should show both that it exists and is unique.) (By "divine attributes", I mean ...
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Is it possible that I'm “God” or a special being/deity?

I know the first thing you may be thinking upon reading this, but there's more to this than you may have assumed. This is not one of those crazy questions where ego-driven maniacs simply call ...
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Does the concept of a God who is both immanent and transcendent originate with Plotinus?

In discussing the One of Plotinus, Dominic J. O'Meara writes the following (page 46): Plotinus points to a distinction between elements which exist only as components of a whole (they depend on ...
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A philosophy of suspending disbelief. What is it called?

What do you call the following philosophy? On its own God doesn't exist. Imagination is essential for humans to thrive to their fullest potential. At specific times, imagination is so useful ...
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What philosophers have considered humans as gods?

Have any reputable philosophers considered this concept? If so, which ones? And how did they account for responsibility and accountability in this framework?
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Which idealogy states aatma (soul) doesn't exist; only paramatmaa (God) does? [closed]

The ideology states all this world is His creation and it will die. God is beyond all this. It is difficult to understand for normal people. But I believe it. It states we are mere lies. We will die. ...
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How do compatibilists understand “responsible”?

In Scott Christensen's book "What about free will?" on page 119 is "Pharaoh is held responsible for his actions". The reason given for God attributing culpability is "You are exalting yourself...". ...
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Isn't the knowledge of the non-existence of “God”, objective? [closed]

The term Objectivity can be defined as: of, relating to, or being an object, phenomenon, or condition in the realm of sensible experience independent of thought and perceptible by all observers : ...
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What were the theological objections to Plotinus' One?

Dominic O'Meara notes (page 68) that there were religious criticisms of Plotinus in which it is claimed that the necessity whereby Plotinus' One generates things compares (unfavourably) with the ...
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Why must the first mover be unmovable?

In the first way of Aquinas it is proved that there exists an unmoved mover (or unchanged changer or even better, actualizer which was not actualized). It is often claimed that God is pure act without ...
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If there is anything that could behave like a god, is it then a real god? [closed]

Let's assume that the our universe's physics allows time travel. This is my main assumption! Let's further assume that there is an quite intelligent, invulnerable being, that found a way to achieve ...
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How does Ravi Zacharias' defence of the problem of evil jump from the need of a moral law giver to there being a God?

On first finding this defense by Zacharias, I was rather convinced, but upon reading it again, I have some doubts. Firstly, here is the transcript from what he said about the problem of evil. ......
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What do theologians study about? [closed]

I have never seen a word which is as ill defined as the word "God". Consider a group of 10 people, if we ask them what do they mean by God.I am certain all of them will have different definitions. Yet ...
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If Satan punishes bad people, doesn't that make him a good person? [closed]

In Christian theology, the devil is generally thought of as both being evil in himself AND as being the punisher of bad people. But isn't punishing bad people a good thing? And if so, wouldn't that ...
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Does this modal ontological argument prove the existence of God?

What are some objections to this form of the argument? It seems like the only premise that can be disputed is premise 1, but nobody has successfully disproven the possibility of a maximally great ...