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Questions tagged [theology]

Theology is the field of study and analysis that treats of God and of God's attributes and relations to the universe; the study of divine things or religious truth; divinity.

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In the Contingency argumemt it is referenced that alternative having things can not be necessary, whats the alternative in here can be considered as?

In the Argument of Contingency there is referenced that if something has alternatives, that thing can't be necessary because of it could be something different than what it is, so is this information ...
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3 answers
343 views

A quantum mechanical response to van Inwagen's rejection of the PSR

Peter van Inwagen famously rejected the PSR due to his argument that it implied necessitarianism: Take the conjunct C of all contingent facts. Being contingent itself, the PSR demands an explanation F....
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Is belief in god considered a matter of faith or reason in philosophy?

Everything happens for some reason or none. If it happens for no reason, there’s nothing to inquire about. If it happens for some reason, surely it seems simpler to believe that it happened for some ...
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Can numbers be considered to have alternatives in terms of contingent contingency argument?

in the Argument of Contingency, alternatives are mentioned they bring a argument like if a thing has alternatives, it can't be necessary existent because if it could be different then it doesn't have ...
3 votes
3 answers
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How can god exist outside of time if exist is a connotation of time`

Some guy would probably tell me that [] your small human mind can't comprehend it, but it can comprehend some things; it knows 1 + 1 has to be two, so its not like it knows nothing. For example, some ...
1 vote
1 answer
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What is the reason behind the fourth axiom in Gödel's ontological proof?

In Gödel's ontological proof, axiom 4 goes like this: And I'm not sure about what it means. If that P(φ) is true, then isn't it necessarily true as well? There's some basic concept about modal logic ...
1 vote
6 answers
133 views

How can God gives us free will and yet be the creator and originator of everything at the same time? [closed]

Religious people say we have free will in that god has the knowledge of whatever will happen but he doesn't cause our actions, we have a choice. I did an act of sin out of my own choice; god was only ...
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1 answer
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How can religious conception of choice be consistent with the notion of omnipotent, all powerful God? [duplicate]

Religious people say we have free will in that god has knowledge of whatever will happen but he doesn't make us do sin. I did an act of sin out of my own choice; god was just already aware of the ...
2 votes
4 answers
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How to evaluate the impersonal God and the personal God? [closed]

How should we evaluate the impersonal God and the personal God? Aristotle holds the former view, while Christianity, as well as Islam and Judaism advocate for the latter.
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If God existed, would He exist for no reason?

Why would He exist rather than something else such as a godless universe or simply nothing? How have theologians tried to answer this question in the past? I have read that because God is eternal or ...
15 votes
15 answers
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Is the surprising applicability of mathematics to the physical world a brute fact, or something crying out for a theistic explanation?

William Lane Craig proposed the following argument for God's existence: For those who are unfamiliar with the argument for God from the applicability of mathematics to the physical world, here is a ...
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2 answers
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Are there versions of theism or supernaturalism that offer testable predictions?

Theism and supernaturalism often draw criticism for their perceived lack of a practical framework capable of generating testable predictions. In contrast, physical theories like general relativity and ...
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If we assume God exists, why isn't He doing something about all the wars and suffering on Earth? Is there a plan behind His reasoning? [duplicate]

Just so you know, I'm religious, I'm Christian. However, that doesn't stop me from wondering about this question. I'm sure someone must have asked a similar question before, so I'm sorry if I'm boring ...
2 votes
3 answers
269 views

What kind of evidence would make theism/supernaturalism more theoretically virtuous than naturalism?

Graham Oppy is well-known for arguing that naturalism strikes the best balance between minimizing all of one's theoretical commitments and maximizing the explanation that one's theoretical commitments ...
1 vote
2 answers
161 views

Can an immaterial being not be conscious?

Is it possible for an immaterial being or object with causal powers to not be conscious? Or is this a contradiction? The only immaterial being I can conceive of to have causal powers is a conscious, ...
12 votes
16 answers
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Can we logically prove that anything exists?

Suppose I want to prove that negative numbers exist. Well, I could easily do that using a mathematical proof. However, all I would be doing is adding another logical object to a list of known logical ...
3 votes
7 answers
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What are theistic responses to Graham Oppy's argument for atheism from naturalism?

Short version I'm specifically referring to Graham Oppy's paper An Argument for Atheism from Naturalism: Abstract This paper outlines an argument for atheism from naturalism that I have developed in ...
4 votes
9 answers
811 views

Do multiverse theories undermine intelligent design arguments mathematically?

It is well known that the probability of life arising in a universe of our sort is vanishingly small. Theists have used this fact to argue that life is designed by God. However, if there are an ...
6 votes
5 answers
651 views

Are agent explanations better than non agent explanations?

Suppose you were using a telescope and zooming into Jupiter on the surface and saw a rock that had a face that looked very very much like your great grand mother. Suppose that it was very detailed to ...
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3 answers
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If you believe that our reality is some kind of reflection, what should be your label? Atheist? Nonbeliever? Agnostic?

If you believe in the external presence (God), but you are not religious in a conventional way. You believe in destiny, guidance from above, the afterlife, but you don't believe that Jesus Christ or ...
1 vote
0 answers
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Would God, if He existed, be considered a stroke of luck? [closed]

Many, many theistic arguments often point out the sheer luck that would be involved in this universe existing such as through the fine tuning argument or talk about the sheer luck that would be ...
3 votes
2 answers
167 views

What does it mean for something to “break” infinite regress?

When it comes to the cosmological argument, proponents point out that a first cause is needed to stop an infinite regress of causes. In epistemology, foundationalism is used to break the infinite ...
23 votes
8 answers
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Is atheism a requirement for a consistent existentialist philosophy?

Søren Kierkegaard is generally considered to be the "father of existentialism". This always bothered me, since to me Sartre and Camus are the defining figures of the movement, and it seems ...
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1 answer
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If the world had zero suffering, would this be evidence of God?

Applying the principle of prediction to an Designer-God hypothesis, it is generally recognized that a Designer God would reasonably be expected to design a universe which is optimized for the ...
3 votes
1 answer
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A multiverse of afterworlds [closed]

My question touches on multiverse theory and possible worlds. Put simply, could there be an infinite number of afterworlds, I’m most fixated on there being an infinite number of possible hells. Each ...
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What inconsistencies arise from a first, or uncaused cause?

If it's uncaused it didn't begin, but then if it causes something, that itself couldn't begin thus the effect must have been coexisting. If it's uncaused, it means it can't be reached via external ...
2 votes
4 answers
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What is the state-of-the-art of formal definitions of God?

Isn't the only formal analytic definition of God, that of Cantor's Absolute Infinity? What is the state-of-the-art of this approach? Are there other definitions?
23 votes
15 answers
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Does the argument from order apply to God?

Lots of people consider the universe to be too complex, ordered, structured, and too advanced to have come about, without a designer. However, isn’t God the most complex, ordered, structured, and the ...
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2 answers
101 views

Why can't God be limited? [closed]

As far as I understand, many religions claim that God is perfect and unlimited in (almost) any way (e.g. the Christian God is often described as omniscient, omnibenevolent, omnipotent, omnipresent, ......
4 votes
10 answers
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When people say I need evidence to believe in God, what constitutes 'evidence'?

In the debate of whether or not God exists, which is often used to ridicule those that do believe in God as simple idiots who have no brains, the premise if often thrown out the there is no 'evidence.'...
16 votes
5 answers
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Why is Dawkins not respected amongst philosophers?

After reading peoples’ opinions of Dawkins over the years where he is known to be arrogant and brash, I decided to actually delve into what he says and watch some of his videos and read some of his ...
1 vote
1 answer
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Do gnostic valentinians contribute their sect nowadays? [closed]

Why did people abandon Valentinian teachings and why isn't it practiced today? Here are links to who Valentinus was, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valentinus_(Gnostic), and a summary of his views: ...
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1 answer
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Why real distinction in God gives act and potency composition

So Thomists believe that there are no real distinction between perfections in God as He is pure act and He isn't composed in any manner. But Im not getting how real distinctions between perfections ...
3 votes
1 answer
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Omnipotence Paradox Defense and Meinongianism/Neo-Meinongianism

I was considering a solution to the omnipotence paradox in which excluding logical impossibilities from the definition of omnipotence is justified as follows. Consider the proposition, "God could ...
6 votes
3 answers
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How does one judge the "complexity" of a given assumption (for the purpose of producing the “best explanation")?

In philosophy and science, we may wish to argue that some hypothesis 'explains' some facts we observe. In which case, we may lay out some assumptions for our hypothesis, in order to show how these ...
2 votes
1 answer
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In Thomas Aquinas's Argument from Degrees, how does he mean that fire is maximally hot and the cause of all heat?

Thomas Aquinas is famous for having made 5 arguments for the existence of God. The weirdest of them is arguably the Argument from Degrees. To illustrate his point, he claimed, if I correctly ...
1 vote
3 answers
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If a lesser being could create a higher being, who is the higher being then? Who is the god? [closed]

As we create artificial intelligence and biological robots, in the not too distant future there is the potential for humanity to create a being far superior to humans that is a living, breathing ...
1 vote
3 answers
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Is the fundamental nature of knowledge intimately linked to the fundamental nature of minds (consciousness)?

This is a follow-up to Is knowledge non-physical?. Can knowledge exist outside of minds? Can something devoid of consciousness truly possess knowledge? Consider objects like books, inscribed rocks, ...
2 votes
13 answers
4k views

Could Occam's Razor ever favor theism?

In principle, could Occam's Razor ever favor theism over rival hypotheses like naturalism? What conditions would have to be met for this to be the case? BONUS: for those interested in naturalism vs. ...
7 votes
12 answers
3k views

Can you mathematically prove the existence of God?

So I came across this video (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z0hxb5UVaNE), which claims to prove the existence of God using math. I then searched and found stuff like this: mathematician Kurt Gödel's ...
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2 answers
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Does philosophy suffer from an ad populum bias?

It seems to me that positions in philosophy are taken more seriously depending on how many people believe in them. For example, someone who believes in a monotheistic God is taken a bit more seriously ...
1 vote
9 answers
874 views

Could Secularism or Atheism or materialism be considered a religion?

Could Secularism or Atheism or materialism be considered a religion? Any Philosophy that deals with life and people and how one interacts with all this in order to maintain some sense of a good life ...
4 votes
6 answers
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Are all explanations either personal or scientific?

In A New Cosmological Argument, Richard Gale and Alexander Pruss offer up a cosmological argument for a personal God, from the weak principle of sufficient reason (among other premises, but the WPSR ...
2 votes
4 answers
255 views

Proving God and believing only provable things

This question has two, related, parts. Part 1. I recently have been on some discussions regarding proving God exists and proving that Jesus is really the son of God; intertwined with that, there was a ...
4 votes
0 answers
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Divine impassibility + divine simplicity = strong impassibility?

(In theory, this is a denomination- or even religion-neutral question about the concept of a divine being. We take properties (like omniscience or having avatars) or hyperproperties (like aseity or ...
4 votes
7 answers
360 views

Mutually contradictory but simultaneously correct

In continuation of Two competing theories that are logically inconsistent my second question is there can be a theory/framework which can be interpreted in many mutually contradictory but ...
3 votes
6 answers
263 views

If God is infinite and unchangeable how is there room for the universe? [closed]

If God is infinite and God cannot change, how is there room for the universe?, how could the universe come into existence? UPDATE: By "room" or "space" I did not necessarily mean ...
18 votes
6 answers
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Is God either amoral or not omnipotent?

The usual (Christian) justification for suffering/evil in the world created by a benevolent God is freedom of the will. However, the more interesting question is not about the source of evil (which ...
1 vote
6 answers
3k views

If God exists why is murder wrong?

In some debate between atheists and theists, the theist will often say something along the lines of; "If you don't believe in god, why is murder wrong?" But can't the opposite be argued better? If God ...
1 vote
2 answers
104 views

Does it make sense for an omniscient being to be able to give an answer about the universe without any internal processing?

It makes little sense to speculate about the mind of God. Anyway... If God wants to know if it will snow today in Bergen, I would imagine that there are 2 approaches to 'solving' this question God ...

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