Questions tagged [truth]

Theories of truth deal with questions such as: what are truths? what makes them true? what is the relation between truths and the things that makes them true? Not to be confused with "what is the truth", which is a completely different matter.

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What is the difference between truth and fact in mathematics and science?

I am particularly curious on how one can closely talk about truths and facts with the areas of knowledge mathematics and science. I cannot seem to distinguish between these two terms with respect to ...
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Do exceptions and deviations from general rules and facts pose a fundamental problem?

Only because nobody has found a counterexample, it does not mean yet for a long time that a regularity must be fundamentally correct and generally valid. Either because one does not know the true ...
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When can we have certainty in what we claim to know?

This is a question that my friends asked me a few times. I am confused, because I have been trying to answer this question myself, but I can't seem to come up with any valid answer. For example, what ...
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The inquisition and Kantian morality

I read in Williams' book on truth that during the inquisition priests were eager to apply Kantian ethics under torture, and that this proved difficult because lies - and arguably secrets - were ...
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Who first used the phrase "Deflationary Theory of Truth"?

SEP's history of the deflationary theory of truth does not explain the origins of the term Deflationary, but does point to the first people who "explicitly defended it". The deflationary ...
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Actual and potential truth for neo-verificationists

Neo-verificationists such as Martin-Löf and Prawitz make a distinction between actual and potential truth of a proposition, roughly defined as follows: ... that a proposition A is actually true means ...
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Can truth exist even though nothing happens?

There’s magnet. If the magnet didn’t attract the other magnet and then disappeared, in this case can “the magnet attracts the other magnet” never be true?
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Are opinions considered statements?

‘Aristotle was great’. Is this a statement? I consider a statement to be something either true or false (but not both). For an individual, this may be considered a statement (because either you ...
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What is the virtue of having true belief?

What is the virtue of having a true belief: where can I read about it? I have two specific questions, before reading about it (and I don't even know what we would call it, wisdom?) Is that virtue ...
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Is scientism a self defeating epistemology?

Some who have argued against the validity of scientism have argued that the view that only science can uncover truth is not a scientific discovery but rather a epistemology. Hence it has been claimed ...
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Defending the Unpopular: Foundationalism

Foundationalism, once considered a valid and popular philosophy, now receives nearly universal contempt. There seems to be a consensus, in both analytic and continental camps, it is dead. Are there ...
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Does deflationary truth collapse into a correspondence theory?

If you ask what justifies a deflationary account of truth, doesn’t that reveal an implicit isomorphism within the justification thus collapsing the account into a traditional correspondence theory?
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Would philosophy exist without semantics?

With so many threads on this forum seeming to me - from my point of view - as wars of words -can it be argued whether semantics are philosophy's oxygen? Would any philosophical debate actually take ...
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What is the proper definition of a truth bearer? [closed]

It seems to me that any expression of language that can possibly be resolved to exactly one of true and false is a truth bearer and any expression of language that cannot possibly be resolved to ...
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What are the categories of exact truth?

Most apparent facts are irremediably vague. For instance: "The chair in this room is red" may appear at first glance to be a statement that is either true or false. But in fact the meanings ...
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Diagonalization and Tarski's theorem of inexpressibility of truth

I've been reading Peter Smith's Intro to Godel's theorem but I cannot understand how diagonalization works in Tarski's theorem of inexpressibility of truth. The mentioned Carnap's equivalence is of ...
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Modeling of persuasion [closed]

I'd like to set out a model of how the mind changes its beliefs based on persuasive evidence, and I'm interested to know what work has been done similar to this. Borrowing some of the terminology of ...
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Philosophy of social motivations

There is a certain philosophy that social status seeking motivations stand in opposition to finding out the truth. A social-status-motivated person will look first at status markers on arguments, ...
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I can’t get what Nietzsche exactly referring to by (the later is in no respect whatever an argument in favor of the former)?

TRUTH”!—“The truth of Christianity was attested by the virtuous lives of the Christians, their firmness in suffering, their unshakable belief and above all by the spread and increase of the faith in ...
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If-then statement and time between antecedent and consequent

Suppose the following statement. "If I kick the ball then the ball will hit the wall." Can this sentence have a truth value? I mean the time that I kick the ball, it hasn't reached the wall so the ...
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What do you call refusing to accept any proposition when there is any remote possibility it could be false?

What do you call the philosophical position of a person who radically denies any knowledge saying the contrary might be true. Example: Aspirin cures headaches. Response: There are people on which ...
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Is there a name for this theory of truth?

I am wondering if there is a name for the following theory of truth, which I might call "persuasionism." Truth, for an individual, is the set of beliefs that individual would eventually, in ...
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Name for believing reality cannot be modeled?

What is the name for the belief that truth and reality cannot be modeled or represented logically, intellectually, nor linguistically and hence cannot actually be discussed? Do any philosophers say ...
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How can materialists make claims?

I dont have all the modern philosophical terms down, but I cannot see how materialists/physicalists can make any claims. If there is nothing but physical universe, then there is no “truth”. Actually ...
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What's the purpose of truth that can be psychosocially manipulated? When are they "science-capable"?

What's the purpose of truth that can be psychosocially manipulated? When are they "science-capable"? Such as things related to e.g. deservingness personal worth fairness Since it's not ...
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Why do I accept some inconsequential claims as "obviously true" without evidence? E.g. "Most people don't like to be hit on the head with a hammer."

There are certain claims that I accept as obviously true without (much) evidence. For example: Most people don't like to be hit on the head with a hammer. Donald Trump ate dinner some time last week....
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Is the statement "no form of human knowledge can justify metaphysical absolutes" self defeating?

A common objection to the statement "no form of human knowledge can justify metaphysical absolutes" is that the statement itself is a metaphysical claim. One response is that the statement ...
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The meaning of the word theory

The normal, day-to-day meaning of the word 'theory' denotes the uncertainty regarding factuality. For instance, when we say that "it is just another theory" what we imply is that there can ...
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Correspondence theory of truth and analyticity

The correspondence theory of truth states that truth is essentially correspondence to a fact or state of affairs. How does this theory handle analytic truths - that is, 'true by definition' type ...
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Justification values

The concept of truth values is sometimes expressed in terms of "truth as an object vs. truth as a property." My in-a-slogan understanding of this alternative is "sentences being ...
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Is political correctness a result of a more rational society?

Yes, I am aware of the insanity in the question. However, that is precisely why I am asking. The insanity stems from the popular idea, especially amongst academics or the type of people you might find ...
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What is an accurate description of truth?

I am writing an essay how there can be disagreement when people or experts are provided with the same facts. Now I mentioned that while the same facts might be present, the truth people might ...
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Why are true and false the only truth values used in mathematics?

Why do we use only true and false? It is possible to have many states in-between in fuzzy logic and other many-valued logics. If we assign numbers to true and false, such as 1 and 0 respectively, ...
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Is the concept of “knowledge” important for philosophy?

I learned the definition of “knowledge” of justified true belief. I wonder whether it is important in any branch of philosophy? If I think about information per se, this boils down to technical ...
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Did Bertrand Russell foresee, in 1943, the 21st century’s propensity to assign factuality to whatever information one finds most comfortable?

I recently read a short paragraph in Russell’s “History of Western Philosophy” which stunned me—it was the shock of recognition—to the extent that I put down the book and stared into space for a good ...
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Is T-schema just another name for Convention-T, or are they two different things?

Question: is the T-schema generally regarded among philosophers as the same as Convention-T? My understanding of Convention-T (and material adequacy) is as follows. Consider the sentence ‘Schnee ist ...
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Is the Notion of Truth more of a Delusion?

From Johann Gottfried Herder's "Letters for the Advancement of Humanity (1793-7)" Free investigation of the truth from all sides is the sole antidote against delusion and error of whatever ...
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"This sentence doesn't cohere with an ideal set of propositions."

It seems that we can reflect on various theories of truth by using their definitions of truth predicates in the formulation of liar and honest sentences. For example, imagine, "This sentence ...
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How can one formalize that an argument composed of a true and a false statement is "partly true"?

In classical logic if either A or B is false then "A and B" is false. But in natural language it's often the case to hear someone say "that's only partially true" or "that's ...
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The Difference Between Truth and Reality. And what does fact stand for?

I'm interested in the different forms of actuality. Fact For me fact must be a constant, base level of deducted 'fact'. Something that cannot be disproved. For instance, fire is hot. Fact is ...
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What makes an argument objectively more "compelling"?

If person A gives an argument to person B in order to convince them about the truth of claim X, how can B determine how compelling A's argument is in a way that is as objective as possible (i.e. in a ...
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Any concrete, real life example of Peirce's Law? [closed]

What would be a real life, concrete example of Peirce's Law? ((p → q) → p) → p There is a Wikipedia article on it, if you are unfamiliar with it: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peirce's_law There ...
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How extensive is the belief in consensus truth?

Consider the following propositions, reflecting a certain individualist perspective on truth and consensus: When a person believes something, they may be wrong. When a whole society agrees on a ...
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Understanding the meaning of a para from Hegel’s “The Philosophy of Right”

In the Note of the article 10 in “The Philosophy of Right”, G.W.F. Hegel writes: that because the truth is the idea, when any object or phase is apprehended only as it is in itself or in conception, ...
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Using the conception of 'reliable, unchanging' does 'truth' exist?

An 'archaic' definition for TRUE,TRUTH implies constancy, reliability, unchanging, fidelity. Using this concept of TRUTH is the following valid? There exists either that which is TRUE or that which ...
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How are you intended to interpret x.R and x.S in Davidson "Truth and Meaning"?

I'm entirely unfamiliar with the syntax and corresponding semantics Davidson uses for the four equations at the beginning of Truth and Meaning(https://www.jstor.org/stable/20114563). He states that ...
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Is mathematics truth? As in the sense of that which is manifest or possible in reality?

In mathematics there are imaginary numbers which cannot be represented directly in reality (the physical world). For example, you can't have i apples where i = √-1 (square root of -1) Can we ...
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Are extraordinary first-hand subjective accounts more likely to be true the more people report the same experience?

For illustrative purposes, let's take as an example the following claim X = "I went to sleep, but then I suddenly woke up at 3:00 a.m. feeling a terrifying evil presence, and then my bed began to ...
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Is there such a thing as an "opinion?" Is it the opposite of a "fact?"

I have a long-running argument with friends that the word "opinion" has more to do with how something is expressed, not whether it is true or not. That is, "I think it is raining ...
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How to disprove "I'm entitled to my opinion"

Background There is an article in The Conversation that attempts to disprove the notion that people are "entitled to their opinions." That is, people have a right to believe whatever they ...

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