All Questions

-2
votes
2answers
51 views

Fitch-style natural deduction

How to prove the following questions? (a) p from assumption ¬(p → q) (b) ¬¬p → p from no assumptions.
3
votes
1answer
86 views

Is b⊢C∧¬b⊢C∧b⇒C∧¬b⇒C possible?

Are there any cases where b and C are real world statements where b⊢C∧¬b⊢C∧b⇒C∧¬b⇒C where b and C are not tautologies? It may seem like a silly question, but after searching hard and deep, I couldn't ...
0
votes
0answers
63 views

Pragmatism: A one-sided view? [closed]

Pragmatism, as defined by William James, seems to suggest a one-sided view of things, not by their essence, but by their effects. It seems to be one-sided, in that it does not seek knowledge of the ...
0
votes
0answers
35 views

How do I show that given p(a&b) > 0, when p(a&b) decreases, and p(b) stays the same, p(a) must decrease? [closed]

Just asking for a formal proof. Assume p(a&b) > 0. Let’s say p(a&b) decreases. But p(b) stays the same. How to I prove that p(a) must decrease? I’m thinking of using p(a&b) = p(a) + p(b) ...
3
votes
2answers
128 views

Does anyone know any philosophers who engage with (ordinary language) dictionaries in their work?

This may be a strange question, but here's the breakdown. I work on a concept that has received very little philosophical attention. For this reason, I have to consult good old dictionaries (Oxford, ...
4
votes
1answer
32 views

John Locke's historical context of Two Treatises of Government

I know that this a really vague question but, I just want to know what are the principal historical events that influenced John Locke regarding his Second Treatise (specifically the ideas exposed on ...
-1
votes
0answers
67 views

Why wouldn't you listen to a hobo promising infinities? [closed]

So there is this hobo. He tells you if you give him 100 dollars you will not suffer from eternal punishment after death. You don't do it. Why is the question. He promises eternal punishment if you ...
0
votes
3answers
73 views

How can you soundly argue for antinatalism based on lack of consent?

Of the many arguments that bolster antinatalism, I'm contemplating only consent here: Consent: The fact that life contains suffering might be tolerable under certain circumstances, i.e. if one ...
1
vote
1answer
46 views

A Problem With Kripke's Rule-Following Paradox Example?

It seems that there is a problem with the example that Saul Kripke gives in "Wittgenstein on Rules and Private Language" to explain Wittgenstein's rule-following paradox. I'm not asking about the ...
0
votes
1answer
36 views

Was Shakespeare a member of the lower classes? [closed]

Am I correct to assume there is a feud between academics considering Shakespeare's social origins? I understand that he was probably born as a member of the working classes (or even the Elizabethan ...
2
votes
0answers
77 views

Ethics of downloading copyrighted printed material

At first blush it's "theft of services" (among other things), as already pointed out by @MichaelDorfman's answer to Is unauthorized downloading of music stealing? Below's my maybe (or maybe not) more ...
2
votes
0answers
43 views

Prove that if the tree method determines that a set of sentences T implies a sentence A, then T does in fact imply A

Having trouble wrapping my head around how to prove this. My first question about this is what it means for the tree method to determine that the set of sentences implies A. I'm taking it to mean that ...
1
vote
2answers
109 views

From dialogue to monologue : Why (Platonic) Socrates claims to know nothing but manages to give book-length speeches all the time?

This inconsistency is very confusing to me. Socrates takes pride in knowing that he knows nothing. But if that is the case, how is he able to, as he often does, give book-length of "truth" (as opposed ...
1
vote
0answers
36 views

Is this transposition principle justified? [closed]

Say the universe its infinite. How does that infinity compare to the infinity of microstates available to an arbitrary volume? Lets say it's a larger ordering, though I invite any experienced ...
2
votes
2answers
86 views

Undue complexity in philosophical expositions [closed]

I feel that philosophy has become overly abstruse for general public over the years. One can easily read Plato Aristotle etc. but would not have a clue of what most modern philosophers are saying. The ...
2
votes
3answers
170 views

Logic. Truth of a negation

If I say: If I am paid today I'll go to the party tonight I am saying that if I receive a payment today I will go to the party tonight. But if I am not paid, can we conclude that I am not going ...
5
votes
3answers
111 views

Does history provide support for moral objectivism?

I must say this was thoroughly entertaining: The Lizard People Of Alpha Draconis 1 Decided To Build An Ansible - Scott Alexander https://www.lesswrong.com/s/zfXAcwLnGocsCsriG/p/...
7
votes
1answer
107 views

Are there any ancient Greek philosophers with a 'complete' philosophy that never made it to prime time?

There are at least a couple-dozen Greek Philosophers (in my estimation) whose ideas were both popular and comprehensive enough that they were taught throughout antiquity. Pythagoras, Democritus, Plato,...
2
votes
0answers
67 views

Does ontology study “being qua being”?

May I say that ontology studies "being qua being", while the sciences study "entity qua entity" ? I ask this because I don't understand how ontology could study the "entity qua entity", taking into ...
4
votes
0answers
67 views

Given the principle of innocence, how shall we explain logic's usefulness?

I have been reading Florian Steinberger's dissertation (Harmony and logical inferentialism) and I come across the following on p60: ...two fundamental assumptions (the other one being the principle ...
4
votes
1answer
104 views

Philosophical views on nudity

Some might argue that our attitudes towards nudity are simply cultural trappings. I believe they actually have a deeper biological origin. But I'm curious to know what philosophers have said on the ...
1
vote
2answers
87 views

arguments about existence [closed]

I think therefore I am, so why should I exist? It seems as long as I exist there is a problem of explanation. It seems the only natural way it could be is for nothing to exist at all, as then no ...
2
votes
1answer
40 views

How did Ivan Illich reconcile his dislike of academia with having been the vice rector of a university for years?

Did Ivan Illich apologize for being part of the Catholic University of Puerto Rico or his subsequent teaching at different universities? At some point he formed the opinion that schools cannot not ...
4
votes
1answer
376 views

What theorems are most important for the foundation of mathematics?

What are the mathematical theorems which are considered as the most important for the mathematics themselves? By importance I mean foundational to mathematics as a whole or foundational to a good ...
2
votes
1answer
53 views

Is there anything in epistemology beyond exploration+reinforcement learning (RL)? [closed]

I am trying to build consciousness in artificial intelligence. The general mechanism is that agent (randomly or based on some preexisting knowledge) performs some actions (gets some knowledge, makes ...
2
votes
1answer
73 views

What is the name of the “undeserved profits” fallacy?

I see this type of inference made a lot, for example in the context of distributional justice: A makes an investment. He thinks this investment was a rational decision, until he learns that B also ...
3
votes
1answer
779 views

Is it possible that a question has only two answers?

□ yes □ no "no" implies that a closed system with only two options like the one above is impossible. If you accept that such a system is possible by the way, it generates paradoxical results, since ...
1
vote
0answers
25 views

Is Kant an anarchist/libertarian while defending that the resistance to a resistance is legitimate by the same law?

While reading an excerpt of Kant's Metaphysique of morals I was shocked by the conclusion drawn from it. The resistance to the obstacle of an effect is a protection of it and agrees with it. Now ...
4
votes
1answer
61 views

What are the main oppositions to the extended mind thesis? and who presents them?

Andy Clark and David Chalmers are huge in promoting the extended mind thesis but who/what is their main opposition?
0
votes
0answers
44 views

How does Kant solve the problem of the difference between phenomenon and noumenon?

[I'm sorry for my incorrect English] Hello, I studied the Critique of Judgment of Immanule Kant, and I don't understand, how Kant solve the problem of the difference between Critique of Pure Reason ...
0
votes
2answers
97 views

At what point - if at all - can I call myself a philosopher? [closed]

I've been studying philosophy quite intensively for a year and a half. But when I say studying, I mean on the way to work, in audio format when I walk the dog and a lot of my free time. I do not ...
2
votes
0answers
109 views

Through what epistemological means is one's gender identity discoverable?

Though the epistemological means through which one's gender identity is often erroneously directed solely at transgender persons, I think --- as a cisgender person --- that it can uniformly apply to ...
1
vote
1answer
29 views

Putting natural language into sentence logic

I’ve been practicing expressing natural language sentences into sentence logic. However, I need help transcribing these following four sentences into sentence logic (along with an accurate ...
6
votes
7answers
254 views

What is the proper response in a debate when your opponent ignores your counterarguments?

I keep running into a situation in debates and arguments. My opponent makes an argument (or counterargument), and I carefully disprove all of my opponent's points. However, instead of addressing my ...
0
votes
0answers
29 views

Looking for someone to read and debate 'The Critique of Judgement' with

Kant's most difficult text has never received the attention it deserved on my part, which I now want to remedy. I would prefer to read the original German or at least work both both German and English ...
2
votes
0answers
90 views

How are 'voluntary' actions possible in the scope of Sam Harris's framework of free will (its absence actually)?

Disclamer: I am striving to understand the point of view, not to examine if it is right or wrong (makes sense or not, etc.). I have listened to two audio excerpts by Sam Harris, discussing his views ...
4
votes
1answer
82 views

Is the principle of non-contradiction self-evident?

The principle of non-contradiction is that contradictory propositions cannot both be true, e. g. the two propositions "A is B" and "A is not B" are mutually exclusive. However, whenever something is ...
2
votes
0answers
99 views

The double interpretation of 'a priori' in Kant's metaphysics

I'm sorry if this question has been asked before. My question regards the apparent double nature of the term 'a priori' in Kant's Critique of pure reason. Namely, as a presupposition for experience ...
1
vote
3answers
137 views

Is anything not proven impossible therefore possible?

Is it a truism that, except for that which is proven impossible, everything is or must be considered possible? If so, why? It seems to me to be an argument from ignorance to say that just because we ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Role of death in literal interpretation of recurrent dream in Plato's Phaedo

What is the role of perception of death that Socrates soon had to face in his new literal interpretation of this dream? Why not throughout his life he did not take the instruction of making and ...
1
vote
0answers
58 views

Is there a rigid model for distinguishing opinion, informed opinion and fact consistently and unambiguously?

Is there a rigid model for distinguishing opinion, informed opinion and fact consistently and unambiguously? What makes this confusing is that depending on the context, it's possible to deviate from ...
1
vote
2answers
71 views

Does the ineffability of the Dao contradict wuwei?

Wuwei, as I understand it, means the following, depending on the context: You do something because you are born for it and do it without wondering why you need to do it (e.g. trees produce oxygen ...
2
votes
1answer
164 views

How does a truth tree provide positive and negative effect tests for implication?

I'm trying to prove that the truth-tree method can be used to give a positive effect test for implication, and a negative effect test for non-implication. I've been given the fact that The truth-tree ...
2
votes
1answer
27 views

Where can I access or purchase Aristotelis Opera (edited by Immanuel Bekker)?

I have been trying to find the following as I am very interested in reading Aristotle in the original Greek: Aristotle. Aristotelis opera. Edited by Immanuel Bekker, Christian August Brandis, and ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

Razor to favor simpler methodology

problem : Two methodologies can be used to solve the same problem. One methodology is simple while the second is complex. question : Is there a razor to support methodology one? Or is there a ...
2
votes
5answers
198 views

How can we be certain that we cannot be certain?

I read a lot about people saying that it is impossible to be certain about anything with 100% certainty, but that means that this rule in and of itself must be true 100%. I mean the rule that "we ...
1
vote
0answers
41 views

Who coined a term in art philosophy refering to the danger of looking at older art through the lens of modern art? And what is it?

For example looking at african art through the lens of picasso, or certain landscape artists as proto-abstract art. Something to do with anachronism, but it was a specific art historian/philosopher ...
3
votes
1answer
45 views

What is the goal of tragedy, according to Aristotle and what is the role of the plot in achieving this goal?

I honestly think the goal of tragedy for him is catharsis. And the role of the plot is a story to follow in a logical order.
3
votes
1answer
47 views

How does Socrates's acting on a dream in Plato's Phaedo square with his rationality?

Socrates is a symbol of rational thinking. He called himself a lover of wisdom. But, on the other hand, he started to make music (poetry/composing) just on the direction of a voice that he heard in ...
-3
votes
1answer
59 views

practical example of Limitations of Predicate logic [closed]

Discuss the limitations of predicate logic. Cite practical example to support your answer.

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