All Questions

2
votes
3answers
270 views

Interpretation and symbolic notations of operations in mathematics

As we know a mathematical operation is a function. And a function is a special type of relation. Ultimately a relation is a set of ordered pairs. For example, what is addition of natural numbers? At ...
1
vote
0answers
40 views

What difference is there between scientifically testable premises and personal biases that are tested? [closed]

What difference is there between scientifically testable premises and personal biases that are tested? That's, when is it possible to do scientific probing that is not somehow subjectively-oriented? ...
2
votes
1answer
53 views

A universal game [on hold]

In this question by "metagame" I mean a game which functions to create the rules of a sub-game. Is there a universal metagame that would allow to create any game (including itself). Such game would ...
1
vote
2answers
50 views

What's the fallacy of relevance here?

To know absolutely that there is no God one must have infinite knowledge. But to have infinite knowledge one would have to be God. it is impossible to be God and an atheist at the same time. Atheists ...
4
votes
2answers
69 views

What should be understood by 'being' in the context of ontology?

I am trying to understand some very basic concepts in ontology and can't figure out if being is used as a noun or a verb. Sometimes it seems some authors use being to refer to (1) that which is, which ...
1
vote
0answers
61 views

What is the minimum statement of faith?

Taking 'faith' to mean: an effective trust or acceptance of the veracity of certain statements of fact, or the truth of existential claims. I.e. the kind of faith/beliefs that are cardinal to the ...
4
votes
1answer
160 views

What does Aquinas mean when he refers to things being “identical numerically” or “specifically identical” with things?

In his discussion on the simplicity of God in Summa Theologica, Thomas Aquinas considers the question of "whether God enters into the composition of other things": Objection 1: It seems that God ...
0
votes
1answer
62 views

What does this line from “A Happy Death” by Camus mean? [closed]

Here is a set of lines from the book 'A Happy Death ' by 'Albert Camus' : 'In the past, whenever Mersault had spent any time with one woman, he made the first gestures of commitment, he was conscious ...
1
vote
1answer
19 views

Common name of “overgeneralization” logical fallacy

There is a fallacy (I believe) that I see committed often that goes something like this (super contrived example): X does not care if Joe stole Bob's car. X doesn't even know Joe or Bob. Y states ...
1
vote
1answer
60 views

Going from ◊(∃x)◻Fx and ◻(∀x)(Fx --> E!x) to ◊(∃x)◻(Fx & E!x)

Is it a valid inference (in, say, any quantified modal logic S5 system) to go from ◊(∃x)◻Fx and ◻(∀x)(Fx --> E!x) to ◊(∃x)◻(Fx & E!x)? (E!x is the existence predicate, by the way.)
-2
votes
2answers
73 views

How to prove : P v ( P → Q ) by Natural Deduction

Another of Tomassi's exercises I can't solve (Logic, page 109, Revision exercise III, 9) : P v ( P → Q ) I have to use natural deduction and the only rules I know are: • assumptions, • modus ...
3
votes
1answer
97 views

Do necessary ought nots follow from impossible oughts?

I'm reading about Hume's is-ought gap and how oughts can't follow from is's. My question is if there are impossible oughts and if these impossible oughts create necessary ought nots. Example: "you ...
1
vote
0answers
35 views

Does Langan think syntax is meaning free isomorphic structures?

Refer: Christopher Langan, "An Introduction to Mathematical Metaphysics", Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy, vol. 13, no. 2, 2017 Accepting syntax is that part or ...
0
votes
2answers
49 views

Making a computer simulation therefore being in a computer simulation?

Suppose we were to make a perfect computer simulation of our own world (granted, the Heisenberg uncertainty principle prevents this so consider it to be mostly, and not exactly, like our world). The ...
1
vote
1answer
39 views

Is Foucault's analysis of history opposed to absurdism?

Sisyphus, just like the absurd man, keeps pushing. Camus claims that when Sisyphus acknowledges the futility of his task and the certainty of his fate, he is freed to realize the absurdity of his ...
4
votes
2answers
107 views

Realism vs Antirealism…why does it matter?

I have a foundational knowledge of philosophy but Ive never managed to understand the basics of realism vs antirealism debates and why it matters. Ive read that there are ontological, epistemic, ...
0
votes
0answers
32 views

In what way was Nietzsche anti-relativist and anti universalist?

Just trying to wrap my head round this very basic question. Relativism holds that moral claims contain an essential indexical element, such that the truth of any such claim requires ...
3
votes
1answer
90 views

Does the pessimistic meta-induction say that best scientific theories may be untrue, or merely not true about reality?

Does the pessimistic meta-induction say that best scientific theories may be untrue, or merely not true about a mind independent reality? Might examples from the history of science of past refuted ...
6
votes
3answers
119 views

How can the credibility of dietary recommendations of medical sciences and EBM be upheld in light of a history of radical changes of its claims?

I know the typical argument is that science is a work in progress and is constantly self-improving. However, self-improvement demands some continuity in claims. For example, relativistic physics was ...
0
votes
3answers
58 views

The powerful will always exploit the weak! [closed]

"The powerful will always exploit the weak no matter how backward or advanced a society is." I mean this is the law of nature which apply not only to humans but to every living creature. Dogs always ...
-1
votes
0answers
23 views

Is an inductive premise an empirical premise?

Is an inductive premise an empirical premise? In developing the principle of equivalence, after seeing that bodies would free fall inertially in a box in space free of gravitation (just as it would ...
1
vote
1answer
58 views

What did Mersault mean?

In the book "A happy Death" by "Albert Camus" , what did Mersault mean when he said, 'When I look at my life and its secret colors, I feel like bursting into tears' ?
-1
votes
0answers
43 views

Can some explain this quote from Fromm with an analogy?

I'm having a hard time figuring this out, but what would be an apt anecdote or fictional story that fully explains this quote - A person who has not been completely alienated, who has remained ...
0
votes
2answers
53 views

Privacy in the modern context [closed]

In Roman times, 'privacy' had more to do with one’s “private” domain where one is the master of one’s own house rather than the sense we have today where the emphasis is more on one’s private thoughts,...
1
vote
1answer
37 views

What's the difference between XY=F and XY=0 in Jeffrey's Logic of Decision?

I'm stuck solving problem 14 in Chapter 5 of Jeffrey's Logic of Decision. The first part of the problem says: Show that in presence of prob is nonnegative (prob X≥0) and prob is normalized (T=1)...
1
vote
1answer
58 views

Does it make sense to say that change is just what is changing?

Does it make sense to say that change is just what is changing? If so, which philosopher or philosophers have claimed it? If no-one goes as far as to say so, then what could change be in addition to ...
3
votes
3answers
178 views

Is Benatar's “asymmetry of pleasure and pain” wrong?

I’ve some doubts regarding the epistyle of David Benatar's thought, the “asymmetry of pleasure and pain”. In Better Never to Have Been: The Harm of Coming into Existence he writes that: Both good ...
2
votes
0answers
87 views

Why did Nietzsche say he would not live his life again?

Why did Nietzsche say he would not live his life again? Kaufman Gay Science p. 19 introduction... “Nietzsche in ... one of his notes... “I do not want life again. How did I endure it? ...
16
votes
4answers
3k views

For a utilitarian, is a lie morally equivalent to a mistake?

As far as I know, utilitarians consider that only the consequences should be considered as the calculation of the morality of an action. Since a mistake and a lie differ only in their intent, are ...
6
votes
3answers
171 views

Are Platonic Forms alive?

Reading Dominic J. O'Meara's Plotinus, I noticed that he seems to be claiming that Plotinus looked at the Soul, Forms and the One as active and in some sense alive. However, I am trying to get a ...
3
votes
0answers
94 views

What are the consequences of rejecting identity of indiscernibles

What kind of system are we in if we explicitly take its negation as an axiom? Here's the identity of indiscernibles. (1) ( ∀P.P(x)↔P(y) ) → x = y Here it is written in prenex normal form (2) ∀x∀y.∃...
2
votes
3answers
126 views

What is the premise and conclusion here?

"Half of the American population believes that the universe is 6000 years old. They are wrong about this. Declaring them so is not 'irreligious intolerance'. It is intellectual honesty." -Excerpt ...
0
votes
1answer
27 views

how do I input these statements into a truth table generator?

I am in rush to finish this homework and have tried inputting my problems into several truth table solvers. I keep getting error messages, which solver should I use and how do I change my statements ...
0
votes
4answers
108 views

Non Cyclic definition of life/death? [closed]

Life and death have a cyclic dictionary definition. Can one not be defined without the other? ( a question on philosophy of language) I am hypothesizing that the immediate words that come to the ...
1
vote
0answers
16 views

Reference for book — cultural relativism — cognised/cognisable/real worlds (with golden dragon)

I am hoping someone can give me a reference for a book I read once. (I should [as in "would"] have a note, but if I do I can not find it.) The book was, from memory, a collection of articles/...
2
votes
1answer
49 views

Is Kantian deontological ethics just consequentialism?

Kant's second formulation of the Categorical Imperative states that "Act in such a way that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, never merely as a means to ...
3
votes
3answers
81 views

Can a single thought experiment have multiple outcomes?

Is it possible for a particular thought experiment to have multiple outcomes based on the view point of the person conducting said experiment? Or can a thought experiment never yield multiple ...
1
vote
0answers
19 views

Who are some (relatively) modern “platonists” with respect to aesthetics/philosophy of art?

I'm interested in discovering post-Enlightenment to contemporary thinkers who discuss art in terms of form and beauty, and imitation vs "true forms." Thanks!
2
votes
3answers
160 views

How do pragmatists avoid this modal argument against their view of truth?

I am reading Harry Gensler's Introduction to Logic (Routledge, 2002) and doing exercise 1 of 7.3b in the "Basic Modal Logic" chapter. I think I follow the steps. The answer is in the book. My ...
1
vote
3answers
125 views

Arguments/premises to disprove God's omniscience

I was thinking about validity of God's omniscience and stumbled upon three statements, which can be summarized as - To be omniscient, a being would require to capture and store all the data in the ...
2
votes
1answer
52 views

Ontology : being and kinds of being [closed]

Can we study being without making reference to kinds of being or the being of entities ? Can we identify pure being? Heidegger apparently thought we could and should. Did he really think this ? If so,...
0
votes
1answer
116 views

What puts Christians off “hard determinism”?

Scott Christensen has written a book, "What about free will?" published 1995, in which two Christian positions are examined. They are, page 238, Libertarian Beliefs and Compatabilist Beliefs. However, ...
4
votes
2answers
83 views

Thought experiments and empiricism

The debate between Norton and Brown regarding whether thought experiments transcend empiricism is interesting with Norton suggesting that thought experiments do not transcend empiricism. If one had ...
0
votes
1answer
58 views

Does anyone know how to prove ~ ∀x (Ax→Bx) from Ǝx(Ax & ~Bx)?

Ǝx(Ax & ~Bx) Premise SHOW: ~ ∀x (Ax→Bx) I really appreciate anyone who could help The instructions for the homework were to Prove that the obverse of a particular ...
0
votes
4answers
76 views

How is it possible to encourage morality in others when everyone is morally imperfect?

No human begin is morally perfect. My question is then, how can any one human being encourage another to improve their ways when that other person can always just reverse the question and ask "Why don'...
1
vote
1answer
41 views

Has there been any philosophical guidance regarding when to use logic vs empirical testing?

One obvious disadvantage of testing a given claim with scientific constraints is that one may never know the number of possible constraints to try, in which combinations, and in which order to modify ...
2
votes
0answers
193 views

Does Reflective Set Theory “RfST” fulfill the requirements of founding Category Theory and Mathematics?

On mathoverflow I've posed the question in the title in connection to Muller's 2001 criteria for a founding theory of mathematics, which largely raised in connection to Category theory [see here]. ...
13
votes
4answers
1k views

Is using analogies a bad logic reasoning?

When discussing with someone, I like to take the argument they use and put it in another context, to see if it works, and if it doesn't, ask why the argument should be valid in one context but not in ...
3
votes
0answers
84 views

Propositions that can't be used to distinguish possible worlds

Are there known ways of formalizing the notion of propositions that can't be targeted by counterfactuals in a coherent way? Or of propositions that are outside the scope of the framework in question? ...
5
votes
5answers
150 views

Is it scientific or a logical error to claim something is true because I can't think of another explanation

The situation Let's say, someone is wrong on the internet. She says The forums on that newspaper article is closed. Apparently the newspaper want to suppress public debate. I reply: That's ...

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