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2
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0answers
31 views

Are “univerals” created? Do they evolve?

I've come across the philosophical debate about "universals" versus "particulars". On the one hand, some believe there are no universals, only particulars (nominalists). On the other hand, there are ...
8
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9answers
4k views

Why are there so many religions and gods? [closed]

Why are there so many religions and gods all over the world? Come to think of it, when the idea spread, why did people develop different gods and beliefs rather than follow the same one? If the idea ...
1
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1answer
32 views

Book Introduction to Logic. Patrick Suppes-Section 2.1-Excercise 4

Anybody can help me with the solution of this exercise? Construct a (non valid) rule of inference which by itself will satisfy Criterion II but violates Criterion I? Thank you in advance. Diego.
1
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1answer
24 views

What did Ivan Illich think of Helmut Schoeck?

Is there any record of Ivan Illich commenting on the writings, viewpoints or life of Helmut Schoeck?
0
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1answer
31 views

What is the distinction Donnellan uses between referential use and attributive use in regards to Strawson and Russell?

Donnellan called attention to what he called the referential use, as opposed to the attributive use, of a definite description. Donnellan’s objection to the Theory of Descriptions is just that ...
2
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0answers
84 views

Is there a word for the type of rhetorical strategy where you distract from the point in order to seem authoritative?

Is there a word for distracting someone from the topic of the argument, and using the authority they have established in the mean time to (fallaciously) prove their original point? An example I ...
0
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0answers
86 views

What falls under Hegel's concept of “absolute knowledge”: does that include deductive logic and scientific explanation?

In the wikipedia page for Hegel's Science of Logic, it states: According to Hegel, logic is the form taken by the science of thinking in general. He thought that, as it had hitherto been ...
1
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0answers
41 views

When did the idea of free will begin? Same for determinism

Hey so I'm doing this free will v determinism thing for class and I've tried but I can't seem to find when the separate beliefs came about. I know Socrates and Aristotle had something to do with them ...
1
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1answer
58 views

What is the meaning of free variables?

In some books I see something like: phi(x1,...,xn) with free variables among x1,...,xn. An example of this is on 2nd paragraph, page 25 of the book Knowledge in Action. I have included a snapshot of ...
0
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0answers
91 views

A possible way to test whether integrated information theory causes collapse?

One criticism, of the hypothesis that consciousness causes collapse, is that 'consciousness' has not been well defined. Perhaps, in order to test whether consciousness causes collapse, it is best to ...
3
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1answer
44 views

Could the link between virtues and pleasures and pains in the third chapter of Nicomachean Ethics' book II be considered a hypothetical syllogism?

In the chapter 3 of Nicomachean Ethics' book II, Aristotle says: Again, if the virtues are concerned with actions and passions, and every passion and every action is accompanied by pleasure and ...
2
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0answers
59 views

The source of a Nietzsche quote

I remember Nietzsche wrote "it is OK to philosophize by just touching on subjects" instead of developing a systematic way. In which book was it? Or do I misremember the quote? Thanks in advance, Best ...
1
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1answer
138 views

Can mathematics and physics be thought of as branches of philosophy?

I think that they can be viewed like that, with some suitable definition of philosophy. Then mathematics could be defined as one of the branches of philosophy in which theories are built on ...
0
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2answers
95 views

Is is logically inconsistent to say that male on female violence is wrong? (Compared to vice versa)

I have always believed that the reason it is more wrong for a man to hit a woman than vice versa is mainly because women tend to be physically weaker then men, and that even if a women initiated ...
1
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2answers
72 views

What fallacy is committed when one argues that a conclusion is false simply because the person arguing it has lied before?

For example, suppose I were to make the claim: President Trump says climate change is false. President Trump has lied before; therefore, climate change is true.
1
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1answer
44 views

Logical, semantic and self-referential paradoxes: The Truth teller and the Liar (draft) can an expert on the matter give feedback?

Title: Logical semantic and self-referential paradoxes: The Truthteller and the Liar (draft, informal) (major) assumption: A statement is either true or not true (law of excluded middle, classical ...
1
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4answers
99 views

Completeness and Consistency of Moral Systems(Ethics)

Before I state my question: I have no formal education in philosophy but am exposed to the basics of most moral systems - (utilitarianism, altruism, etc.) Is it possible to show that it is possible ...
2
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0answers
111 views

Reference request - philosophy of history of science

I am interested in exploring philosophical aspects of the history of science, or philosophy of history of science, if you will. Are there any canonical texts dealing particularly with the philosophy ...
0
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1answer
103 views

Size of infinite sets [duplicate]

Cantor's method of comparing set size uses one to one correspondence i.e. existence of a bijection. Now, set A = (0,1) and set B = (0,2). Using function x -> 2x, every element of set A can be uniquely ...
-2
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0answers
56 views

Is Wheeler's “It from Bit”/“Participatory Universe” and the Multiverse related? [closed]

Did physicist John Archibald Wheeler propose the existence of multiple universes through his "It from Bit" or "Participatory Universe Principle"? Is the multiverse related to Wheeler's ideas? https://...
3
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1answer
54 views

Popper and indeterminism, why is it part of philosophy?

Popper states that: ...There can be 2 incompatible theory, equally irrefutable; for example, determinism and his opposite, indeterminism. Popper; Conjecture and Confutation chapter 8. How can ...
1
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1answer
67 views

Should we accept non-predictive inductive arguments based on cultural judgments?

Some inductive arguments that are taken seriously are based on observations about society/culture that cannot be objectively confirmed and do not produce any predictions. Does that make them less ...
1
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0answers
47 views

Popper on metaphisics [closed]

It'a actually a simple question, not articulated at all. What's the role of metaphisic for Popper? I know that for him philosophy is not just non-sense nore simply a "lenguage clarificator", but apart ...
0
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2answers
78 views

Does it mean that argument from ignorance can be non-fallacious?

Particular type of "argument from ignorance" is "absence of evidence is evidence of absence." I have proof that it's in fact true. Does it mean that argument from ignorance can be right? If not - ...
2
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2answers
105 views

Does all information about you belong to you? [closed]

This is a multi-faceted topic, one that sprawls many fields, from computer science to law, but I will attempt to be brief. Does information about you belong to you? In today's society, the topics of ...
1
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1answer
62 views

Fitch Proof - Arrow's logic of preferences

I've been stumped on this one question in particular for several days now and I'm hoping to get some help on where I'm going wrong. Given the following premises: ∀x∀y(StrongPref(x,y)→ ¬StrongPref(y,...
2
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0answers
37 views

The extended problem of criterion

The problem of criterion simply states two claims: I can only identify instances of knowledge provided I already know what the ?>criteria for knowledge are I can only know what the criteria ...
0
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1answer
55 views

Can anyone tell which one of these sentences are materially implies(implication) and logically implies(implication)?

these are the contexts: 1): If the number 0 has a certain property, and any natural number a has the property implies that a +1 also has the property, then every natural number has the ...
0
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1answer
70 views

How could Occam's razor possibly be used metaphysically?

Occam's razor, or the law of parsimony, states that the simplest explanation for any given data is most likely the correct one. Some have attempted to use Occam's razor in a metaphysical sense, to ...
1
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1answer
59 views

Why does one need to specify that the language is “well-orderable” for first order logic to be complete?

While reading Wikipedia I noticed the phrase "well-ordered language" in the following related to Gödel's completeness theorem: The completeness theorem then says that for any first-order theory T ...
0
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0answers
57 views

Is there a term for the belief that if it's illegal, it's immoral?

Closely related to Is there a term for the belief that "if it's legal, it's moral"? Is there a term for the belief that if something is illegal, it's immoral? Is it simply a variant ...
2
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0answers
27 views

Maurice Blanchot's view on death?

Can someone please explain in simple terms what are the two types of death that Maurice Blanchot talked about? I came across an article about it on the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy but I don't ...
4
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1answer
126 views

Is all language meaningful?

Wittgenstein claimed that many philosophers misuse language and write nonsense. He later claimed that a private language, one that cannot in principle be understood, is impossible. Does that suggest ...
3
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1answer
71 views

Inconsistency in Tegmark's Mathematical Universe Hypothesis?

Physicist Max Tegmark is widely known for proposing that there is a multiverse where mathematical structures would exist as real and actual universes (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/...
1
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1answer
60 views

What are the types of non-deductive arguments?

I've been looking for it, but Google leads the search to multiple sort of pages that, although they talk about logic, explain the subject very differently from each other and they don't fix a list ...
1
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1answer
63 views

What are the conditions needed for a good argument in the field of informal logic?

I'm trying to get the difference between the concept of argument in the field of formal and informal logic and I'm still a little bit confused by how. Are true premises and non-false conclusions ...
0
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0answers
50 views

Can a fact rely on an inference?

A syllogism with two facts as premises leads to a deduced fact: Premise 1: The sky is above my head (fact) Premise 2: I look up and I see blue (fact) Conclusion: The sky is blue (...
2
votes
1answer
132 views

Is the doomsday argument flawed?

Through the doomsday argument people try to calculate the number of humans that will ever live based only on the number of humans that have lived until now. To me this arguments seems very flawed, but ...
8
votes
2answers
2k views

What do they call philosophers in China?

The English word "philosopher" comes from the Greek, and literally means "lover of wisdom." But what is the literal translation of the analogous term in Chinese? (There's more to this question than ...
2
votes
3answers
144 views

Goal of liberation in yoga - Isn't it Boring?

I see that the goal of yoga is liberation from the karma and from the birth/death cycle. People say that it is the ultimate happiness forever. But wouldn't that be boring and monotonous if there is ...
2
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0answers
45 views

What tends to be the opinion on Heidegger's analysis of Greek philosophy?

What tends to be the opinion on Heidegger's analysis of Greek philosophy? What do experts in the (classical) history of philosophy make of his statements about ancient Greek philosophy?
-3
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1answer
70 views

Fitch Arrow Proofs [closed]

Using the FITCH program and the FITCH derivation rules you should make a proof or derivation of C10 from P5 through P11. P5: ∀x∀y(StrongPref(x,y)→ ¬StrongPref(y,x)) P6: ∀x∀y∀z((StrongPref(x,y)∧...
0
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1answer
65 views

A question about material implication

I have a question about reading material implications. I know this read as "if p then q". like: if the moon is made of green cheese then the earth is round. but I can't read it in this sentence: ...
1
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0answers
40 views

What is the difference between Adorno's 'fragmentation' and post-modern art's fragmentation?

the most authentic art is modernist art which reflects in its own fragmentation the fragmentation of society. What is the difference between Adorno's 'fragmentation' and post-modern art's ...
44
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6answers
13k views

Is there a term for the belief that “if it's legal, it's moral”?

Sometimes I hear arguments that seem to appeal to the fact that something is morally permissible because it is legally permitted. For example: Abortion is moral because it's legally permitted. ...
0
votes
2answers
173 views

Would this experiment establish whether wave function collapse is caused by consciousness?

I'm currently writing an article on the philosophy of physics. Part of the article involves an experiment which would substantiate whether or not consciousness causes wave function collapse. Many ...
1
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1answer
44 views

Pythagorean metaphysics

I have developed an interest in studying Pythagoras, mainly his idea of Number as the Arche. It seems that neither him nor his school left any writings, and what survives of it comes through Aristotle'...
1
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0answers
55 views

Prerequisites to study aesthetics

So, I plan to begin to self study aesthetics, and was wondering whether a working knowledge of art history would be helpful for the same? If so, would Gardner's History of Art be sufficient? Also, on ...
0
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1answer
37 views

Which solution is better for this predicate?

We have this predicate: Prime(x) ≡ x>1 ∧(∀y)(Divide(y,x) → (y=1 ∨ y=x)). Now I have to turn this into an English sentence. I've come up with three answers: x is a prime number if x is greater ...
1
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1answer
41 views

On the meaning of “θάνατός ἐστιν ὁκόσα ἐγερθέντες ὁρέομεν, ὁκόσα δὲ εὕδοντες ὕπνος”

Can someone give an explation on the meaning of "θάνατός ἐστιν ὁκόσα ἐγερθέντες ὁρέομεν, ὁκόσα δὲ εὕδοντες ὕπνος," a remaining fragment by Heraclitus. This website translated it as "All the things we ...

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