All Questions

2
votes
1answer
47 views

Do we need to predicate the past perfect tense to those that have died?

Do we need to predicate the past perfect tense to those that have died? The PAST PERFECT TENSE indicates that an action was completed (finished or "perfected") at some point in the past before ...
1
vote
2answers
85 views

Is this argument about ownership valid?

I came across an argument that I believe to be invalid: Ownership is defined as the ability to exclude others. "Everyone owns land" becomes "everyone has the ability to exclude others from land." I ...
0
votes
1answer
71 views

What is an event that was a counterexample to Occam's Razor?

I am asking for a set among n competing hypotheses where the simplest one was H_i but the correct one was H_j where i is not the same as j. That is, a time when scientists tested a bunch of hypotheses ...
3
votes
1answer
201 views

Does infinity in philosophy reduce to philosophy of mathematics?

It seems to me that any modern philosophical investigation of infinity reduces to looking at the mathematical concept of infinity (as introduced by Georg Cantor) and then delving into philosophy of ...
2
votes
1answer
94 views

The mereological account of sets

So it has come to my attention that David Lewis, David M. Armstrong and others tried a mereological account of sets. James Franklin states it as: Armstrong adopts David Lewis’s proposal that a ...
0
votes
0answers
34 views

Is Nietzsche an anti-realist about moral disagreement?

This question got me thinking: What is the difference between the Superman and the Ultimateman? As I understand it, moral anti-realism is the thesis that there are no moral facts outside the ...
0
votes
2answers
40 views

Proof with conditional introduction

Below is a screen-cap of part of a video where a proof using conditional introduction is shown, which is proving under certain assumptions that given A is true, then the adjacent sentence is also true....
-4
votes
3answers
91 views

If the universe is flat, how can the Earth be round? [closed]

Just another silly question that may deserve a wise answer.
4
votes
2answers
86 views

Is there a non-arbitrary way to choose rules in rule utilitarianism

In act utilitarianism you choose the action that most increases utility, there is no ambiguity (assuming utility can be calculated, etc.). Conversely, in rule utilitarianism rules are chosen that ...
2
votes
1answer
103 views

What is the difference between the Superman and the Ultimateman?

In Nietzsche's words : Man is something that shall be overcome. Man is a rope tied between beast and superman - a rope over an abyss. Although the concept of the superman is well documented, ...
-2
votes
4answers
166 views

A difficulty I've had with this “This sentence is false” and Russell's Paradox [closed]

I'm not sure if I'm engaging in some sort of circular logical trap but I don't really think "this sentence is false" is all that logically problematic. But it would be helpful if someone could fix up ...
5
votes
2answers
205 views

Are the “laws” of deductive logic empirically verifiable?

"Is Logic Empirical?" strongly suggests a question that I would like very much to get a handle on. That phrase is a title of an article by Hilary Putnam, and, according to synopses/reviews, the ...
3
votes
0answers
90 views

How to fully understand the first three chapters of Phenomenology of Spirit?

I read The Phenomenology of Spirit like 10 years ago, but I felt like it was very vague and abstract. Hegel seemed to have been describing the development of human thought with respect to the absolute ...
-1
votes
1answer
98 views

How do I keep up with the latest in the cutting edge of philosophy? [duplicate]

I always viewed philosophy to be dead after the arrival of modern science. The last great philosopher in metaphysics was Kant, I believe the others who followed him were made irrelevant by the ...
3
votes
1answer
42 views

Where does 'numerical' in 'numerical identity' come from?

L.S., the word numerical has several meanings. E.g. numerical in the meaning ''given by numbers', and when saying Numerical Identity, meaning 'only one'. When was the first time the word was ...
1
vote
2answers
1k views

Is the following statement true, false, or can't be determined? Why?

"If it snows and we don't have school, then (x^3)<0 implies x is negative" (Assume x is a real number).
-1
votes
1answer
55 views

What would be the negation of the following statement

"I sometimes work on Monday night" I'm struggling with the word 'sometimes'. Any advice on how to deal with this word?
2
votes
0answers
32 views

Hilary Putnam's criticism of Carnap's 'Principle of Tolerance'

I am left quite confused at how Hilary Putnam showed that Carnap's response to the self-defeating objection of the verification principle was circular and hence unviable. Can anybody help explain it ...
0
votes
3answers
91 views

How much platonism do I need to handle the halting property?

I always considered myself as platonist (in contrast to formalist / finitist) but recently I realized (if this is actually true) that you need a bit of platonism to even make sense of questions like '...
1
vote
2answers
69 views

I need some help determining the validity of the following argument

“I got the highest grade on the last test and I have perfect attendance. If I get a cold, then I miss at least one class. I came down with a cold. Therefore, if I missed at least one class, then I ...
2
votes
4answers
1k views

A doctor saves lives, but he is a murderer in normal life. Is he good or bad? Or Both? [closed]

Is he or is he not? Does the society accept him/her like that? This question came up to my mind when my father mentioned about a professional killer whose nickname was The Iceman. Normal life means ...
0
votes
1answer
43 views

Any contemporary/older philosophers who criticize the Christian concept of “preservation in the memory of others”? [closed]

I'm trying to sort out my ideas, so bear with me here if my questions is not abundantly clear. There's a Christian understanding that when one dies, only the body dies, therefore, the spirit remains, ...
1
vote
0answers
26 views

Plato or Aristotle on trading lives

I am sure I remember either Plato or Aristotle saying that most people, if a god approached them with an offer to trade their life for someone else's, would run away. But I have been wrong before ...
4
votes
5answers
161 views

Is an argument in natural language as logically valid as in formal logic?

Is a natural language philosophical argument which is argued strictly from first principles widely considered equally as valid as a proof written in formal logic?
3
votes
4answers
134 views

What is the name of this kind of reasoning? (Not a logical fallacy.)

Alice and Bob are playing rock-paper-scissors. Alice typically throws rock. Bob, while thinking to himself, is naïve and wants to throw paper, but also knows that Alice is sneaky and so will ...
1
vote
1answer
55 views

Lists and predicates on lists in classical first order logic

I have to express some basic Prolog code in classical first order logic (FOL). In Prolog i use lists, together with member/2 and append/3 a lot. Could you give me some tips for writing clauses like ...
2
votes
1answer
57 views

Is ◻((◻(P → ◻P)) ↔ (◻P v ◻~P)) derivable in S5?

Is ◻((◻(P → ◻P)) ↔ (◻P v ◻~P)) a theorem in S5? If so, is it also a theorem in B or just S5?
2
votes
1answer
93 views

Help with philosophical interpretation of the movie Cloud Atlas

I feel very sorry to ask for this but I really need help, I have a hard time getting an answer to what I need for my metaphysical essay related to the movie "Cloud Atlas", I have seen it several times ...
8
votes
1answer
131 views

Where to find Descartes’ violin player analogy?

I really tried finding the original passage where Descartes lays out the following argument: Descartes himself anticipated an objection like this and argued that dependence does not strongly ...
2
votes
2answers
117 views

Prove or disprove ~◇◻p → ◇◇~p in system K

How to start with the following proof? Any help would be appreciated. I have tried by assuming the left side is true, however, I get confused with the negation. ~◇◻p → ◇◇~p
5
votes
5answers
280 views

What is an example of an innate idea?

I don't see any justification to argue a person has an idea or knowledge that is not derived from its environment. How come Plato raised this question at all: How is it that we have certain ideas ...
0
votes
2answers
158 views

How far can faith reasonably go? [closed]

[EDIT] Faith is not usually invoked in justifying detailed accounts! To see what I mean, take the following statements: "I have faith in the determination of our players that I think they'll win the ...
24
votes
14answers
7k views

Isn't the existence of Hell inherently evil, and isn't God therefore evil in allowing Hell to exist?

In many religions, for example, the Abrahamic ones, there exists a place of eternal punishment for those who live in violation of God's commandments. Assuming an infinitely-long afterlife, in which "...
2
votes
1answer
108 views

Is it possible to conclude, whether similarity or difference is more fundamental notion?

Is it possible to conclude, whether similarity or difference is more fundamental notion? Is there any support from e.g. biology as to whether our senses support similarity more than difference? From ...
1
vote
1answer
69 views

Is metaphysical necessity an unambiguous concept, and if so, how do we capture it?

In Nature of Necessity (1974), Plantinga writes: The distinction between necessary and contingent truth is as easy to recognize as it is difficult to explain to the sceptic's satisfaction. ...we ...
3
votes
6answers
247 views

What are examples of causes that do not require energy to produce an effect?

As a comment to an answer Conifold mentioned that "Causes may not require any energy to produce the effect". After thinking about that, I couldn't come up with any such causes outside of metaphysical ...
1
vote
2answers
58 views

Does utilitarianism distinguish between pain/suffering and pleasure/happiness?

I consider myself a utilitarian and in my conception of it, happiness and suffering are distinct from pleasure and pain. I came to this conclusion by noting that I could be in pain but happy, or ...
52
votes
11answers
13k views

Does human life have innate value over that of other animals?

Does human life have innate value over that of other animals? If so, why? And is it wrong to murder another human, but morally permissible to hunt or fish?
5
votes
5answers
297 views

How can we argue for the uniqueness of a God-like entity?

(I have in mind here, something similar to "uniqueness" proofs in math. I think if we want to name something, we should show both that it exists and is unique.) (By "divine attributes", I mean ...
2
votes
2answers
333 views

How should an atheist rationally respond to finding out they're about to die?

What is the rational, or most rational, response to finding out you're about to die? Not just to mortality, but that there's little more you can do in your life, and you're soon going to be, or are, ...
2
votes
1answer
89 views

If people didn’t have a moral sense, would we still have enforced cultural moral codes?

Diverse, contradictory, and bizarre as they are, people commonly feel that everyone ought to conform to their culture’s moral norms and even feel violators deserve punishment, though perhaps that ...
5
votes
2answers
63 views

Are there writers on the topic of an inherent human bias towards the value of rational thinking?

Some people place humans as 'higher animals' because we are uniquely capable of rational thought, while most other animals are not. This assumes that the trait of rationality is superior to other ...
0
votes
0answers
59 views

Is “physicality precedes spiritual” a view or a state of nature?

Is "physicality precedes spiritual" a view or a state of nature? Are there views that would question this kind of "physicalism"? Perhaps one can find some dichotomy in expressing the idea through ...
1
vote
4answers
85 views

How is/was “good” (as the contrary of bad) defined?

As Nietzsche differentiated there are two kind of good: this question focus is on the contrary of bad, not the contrary of evil. There are quite a lot possibilities to define the common term "good". ...
1
vote
1answer
51 views

Why isn't Descartes using psychologism?

Descartes says "I think therefore I am", isn't he using psychologism, by using a personal experience of thinking? I had read someone claim he was against foundationalism, or specifically psychologism....
3
votes
2answers
115 views

Criticism of stoicism

In relation to the writings of Epictetus or Seneca, what is some adequate criticism to stoicism? Any writings/papers dealing with that in particular?
1
vote
1answer
74 views

When to label a philosopher as either a western philosopher or an eastern philosopher? [closed]

The criterion that determines a person who is professionally trained in philosophy and does philosophical research, to be either a western or eastern philosopher is not clear to me. Suppose, we have ...
4
votes
3answers
124 views

Do picture proofs of the Pythagorean theorem make it empirical?

As I understand it, the Pythagorean Theorem, which defines the metric for Euclidean space, is said to be strictly mathematical in the sense that it is derived from a set of purely theoretical axioms (...
-4
votes
3answers
277 views

Can science prove that the earth is not flat?

I've heard Neil deGrasse Tyson and other important scientists say that mature science does not rely on our senses, but all explanations I read about the roundness of earth are sense-based: How a ship ...
3
votes
3answers
171 views

Are there any solutions to the Euthyphro dilemma?

Is there a way to believe that God is the source of morality without also having to believe that morality is arbitrary?

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