# All Questions

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6 views

### Different ways of interpreting propensities

I am studying the propensity interpretation of probability and I am wondering if propensities are irreducibly intensional or if there is a possibility to interpret them in an extensional way. Could ...
20 views

### Transcendental and non-transcendental god and objectivism

Objectivism rejects transcendence as it is not part of the objective world that exists and which we can explore. But what if we put time in this equation? As we see through the years, many phenomena ...
12 views

### How do you prove (p => q => r) => (p => q) => p => r using the Fitch system?

I'm quite new to logic. Thank you for taking the time to review this post. I tried the following and got to the conclusion I wanted but I was never able to prove the statement.
14 views

### If entities are all that IS [entities = being], isn't Heidegger's claim that being is sth “extra” incongruent?

I saw there's already a question about this but the emphasis was on wht could be being be if not an entity... Heidegger thinks Being as something "exta", a priori, to entities. I'd like to question ...
45 views

### When is it okay to criticize someone?

Both in my family life and in politics, I see people running into the following dilemma. Some entity (a person, or an organization, or a country) is doing something that someone sees as wrong. So, ...
48 views

### Does knowledge have a “finite lower bound”?

Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge. Knowledge in the DIKW pyramid is represented in terms of information. Information, where the bit is the ...
31 views

### Cogito corollaries and meaning

Doubt implies thought. I'm doubting. So I'm thinking. [(d→t) ∧ d]→t Thought implies existence. I'm thinking. So I exist. [(t→e) ∧ t]→e d→t; ¬t→¬d; [¬t ∧ (d→t)]→¬d t→e; ¬e→¬t; [¬e ∧ (t→e)]→¬t [(d→...
83 views

### why “I think therefore I am” not “I think therefore I am thinking”? [duplicate]

why "thinking" jumped into the conclusion of "existence" as things can exist without thinking too. and what are all the other method except this that could prove our existence?
30 views

### Are there analytic philosophers of difference?

I've gathered from the IEP article on Differential Ontology that Gilles Deleuze wrote about difference in the sense that I'm interested in but not in a way that I'm interested in. I would like to see ...
51 views

### Does Bolshevik victory in the Russian Civil War make Marxism paradoxical?

Does Bolshevik success during the Russian Civil War make Marxism paradoxical in the context of 'Historical Materialism'? Please correct me if any of my understanding is incorrect, but as I am ...
43 views

### At what stage of human development does a person attain secondary consciousness?

In regards to Gerald Edelman's definition on consciousness, at what stage of human development would a person attain secondary consciousness apart from their existing primary consciousness? Could this ...
89 views

### Arguments against Relativism [on hold]

There are people who think that all claims are opinions. And no opinion is better than any other. It's clear to me that the reasons supporting 2 + 2 = 4 are on "higher ground" than the reasons ...
3k views

### Is the Münchhausen trilemma really a trilemma?

It claims there are three options of which none of them are satisfying. Circular argument doesn't prove anything because it's just when the premise is the same as the conclusion. x ∵ x Infinite ...
91 views

### How can one explain this conflict between philosophy and classical physics? [duplicate]

Consider two moving objects along X-axis direction with different speeds and different initial starting points. Let the initial distance of the objects be d0 and v1 is greater than v2 i.e v1>v2. ...
44 views

### Opposition to critical thought [on hold]

There are people who argument the following: In the absence of clarity and therefore more flexibility, we might generate the "next new thing". But that's like saying: an unclean room might ...
74 views

### Did we give up on Euclid's method? [on hold]

Most people seem to regard attempts at Euclid's method in philosophy as failures. Example: Spinoza's Ethics Some of them then say that because Spinoza failed, any modern attempt is futile. But I ...
27 views

### Formalism in (math) vs. (philosophy) [on hold]

What's the difference between formalism in math and formalism in philosophy?
174 views

### Does God still know what He has forgotten?

The following is from the Christian text Hebrews 10:15-17: [my emphasis] 15 The Holy Spirit also testifies to us about this. First he says: 16 “This is the covenant I will make with them ...
70 views

### Magical explanations in science? [on hold]

Why can scientists use a magical explanation such as "we do not know what's the origin of the first energy particle that existed in the universe, so we assume it was always there" with total impunity ...
34 views

### Natural/Artificial distinction

Is there in reality a distinction between natural and man-made products? Can airplane be considered natural as much as a squirel or a mountain?
71 views

### Trouble with cookies [on hold]

Matter cannot be created. Cookies are matter. So cookies cannot be created. I know this seems absurd but I'm using this to make an important point about arguments. The argument appears to be valid ...
48 views

### Does property dualism imply survival in the teletransportation paradox?

Property dualism posits the existence of only the physical substance, but the existence of both mental and physical properties. The teletransportation paradox presents a situation in which a person ...
49 views

### Does the real line mean that the start and end points of any line must exist?

In mathematics, a real number is a value of a continuous quantity that can represent a distance along a line https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Real_number We consider the set of real numbers, ...
50 views

### Free Will and Causeless Causes

When searching on free will, what will often be found is that free will is incoherent (Sam Harris) or an illusion. Other references will claim it exists while citing clinical studies which ...
62 views

### Why do people argue in favor of IQs, while then encouraging people (of any IQ) to use hard work to obtain the same successes?

At the same time people will say (science included) that IQ is a very important thing -- while at the same time saying that people with lower IQs can do things that people with higher IQs can -- while ...
62 views

### Philosophy in everyday life [on hold]

We play "armchair gods" as we sit here and philosophise, but these are breif interim moments of our humdrum mesoscale lives. In the domain of managing our household, relationships, health, and ...
50 views

### Life and death paradox [on hold]

Our lifespans are finite. Our "deathspans" are presumably infinite. Yet, infinity minus (anything finite) is still infinity! By this line of reasoning, we should be dead. But we're alive. So, ...
31 views

### What's the problem with empirical research and rational thought? [on hold]

There's obviously a relationship between the aforementioned "epistemic programs" and the following systems: The human brain has the hippocampus and frontal lobe, presumably giving us the capacity for ...
32 views

### Who are the author of the principle “everything is permitted that does not contradict the freedom of others”?

Who are the author of the following philosophical principle? everything is permitted that does not contradict the freedom of others Where are roots of this principle?
71 views

### Is Hegel's Logic an Ontology?

Stephen Houlgate, in his book The Beginning of Hegel's Logic, puts forward the argument that Hegel's Logic is to be seen as an ontology. But is this view convincing? I'll try my best to reconstruct ...
397 views

### What is the goal and toolset of philosophy?

I'm beginning to realize that I might have misconseptions about philosophy in general. Is it to question and contend indefinitely or is there a goal? I thought the goal was truth. While I'm at it, ...
140 views

### Does the Universe make sense? [on hold]

When faced with a paradox, we say: well this can't be because it doesn't make sense. p = "x doesn't make sense" q = "x doesn't exist" The contrapositive preserves validity: p implies q (not q) ...
34 views

### David Lewis and probability

I have read a general overview on David Lewis in order to have an idea of his philosophical perspective and in particular about humean supervenience. I am wondering how Lewis considers probability in ...
60 views

### What is the historical relationship between physics and philosophy?

I often hear people say that physics is/was part of philosophy or that philosophy gave birth to physics but I think this isn't correct. Imagine a big country called anonati. After a civil war, ...
56 views

### The enunciation clause (Lyotard & Levinas)

As kind of introductory remark, let me state that I'm not academically-trained in philosophy, so my apologies if this comes up as a rather simple question. I was reading Logique de Levinas by JF ...
47 views

### How does Dummett see deductive inference extending our knowledge?

Michael Dummett writes (page 195) Once the justification of deductive inference is perceived as philosophically problematic at all, the temptation to which most philosophers succumb is to offer too ...
48 views

### Did Nietzsche “believe” in causality?

In Human, all too human, part 1, par. 107 (“non-responsibility and non-guilt”) Nietzsche clearly brings forth the Spinozian theory of the “innocence of becoming”. I am a bit confused by this claim. ...
36 views

### Personal and unviersal existential nihlism

Let's say Alice has logically arrived at existential Nihilism, which is the philosophy that life is without objective meaning, purpose, or intrinsic value (wiki) This carries two claims, Alice's ...
50 views

### Solipsistic Thinking :: Is there no maximum number;

I have something(s) that causes me both trouble with (keeping emotionally connected to what I'm trying to express) Λ (expressing myself). So please be nice and ask questions :: εὐχάριστος (Grateful) ...
102 views

### Can we know anything about the “outside” of our simulation?

Please note this question isn't about "simulation" as such. It is cast in this way to illustrate a particular sub-to-super ontology relationship: Given that all we see or seem, are the product of ...
12k views

### Why doesn't philosophy have higher standards for its arguments?

Mathematical systems are an excellent model for organizing and conducting thought: A conjecture is an unproven claim, while a theorem is a proven claim. A corollary is a claim that follows from ...
25 views

### Which Philosopher would you recommend for learning about the implied philosophy of gifted education?

I'm searching for a philosopher who either commented on gifted education or someone whose writings would critique/applaud gifted education in America. Someone who might be (or have been) a vocal ...
182 views

### Is the idea that people believed in a flat Earth in ages past grounded in historical documents? [on hold]

My question about this answer was tangential, but I'm very curious to know where the idea comes from that people believed in a flat Earth. For example, were there Greek philosophers that held this ...
234 views

### Can someone explain this logical statement?

I have been trying to teach myself philosophical logic, but my mind is completely stuck. I cannot seem to understand the abstractions, which is unusual for me given that I have taken very advanced ...
118 views

### If time is emergent, how can time exist in a Christian heaven?

Many physicists say that time is an emergent property from quantum phenomenon, such as entanglement. Many Christians theologians also posit that time will exist in heaven, forever. Let's say that ...
60 views

### How to define a new logical language

There are a number of logical languages defined that are so called flavors of a certain logic (for example, flavors of First Order Logic). Such new logical languages sometimes extend or restrict the ...
47 views

### Why is there an O type conclusion in modus celaront

Modus celaront is type logical syllogism. No reptiles have fur. (MeP) All snakes are reptiles. (SaM) ∴ Some snakes have no fur. (SoP) The conclusion is of a O type(Some .. are not ...). Why is ...
89 views

### How to select between two competing theories?

Suppose we have two scientific theories A and B. They have different postulates but both make the same predictions. If the selection can not be taken out by Ochkam razor then how we select what theory ...