All Questions

2
votes
1answer
12 views

What are the conditions for RAA?

My textbook states that: In this case, however, what about situations where we can get Q ^ ~Q (sorry, unfamiliar with this formatting) without depending on P? For instance, the proof of EFQ: 1 (1) ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Negation of equality in FOL

I am unsure if there is a rule in FOL that allows me to make this derivation ¬(a = b) Assumption a ≠ b ??? Is this derivation allowed, and if so what notation should I use to justify it?
0
votes
1answer
12 views

Aristotle Categories: Original Greek text for Chap 2?

I'm trying to find the original Greek for this sentence in the Octavius Own Oxford edition. Does anyone know of a source? Likewise also some things are predicated of a certain subject, yet are in ...
0
votes
1answer
15 views

Cause and Effect - Finished infinity

I have a question it's best if I give you an example right away. Our universe has its limits. in terms of the effect or cause e.g. if we kill a human for some reason will also have the effect. I'm ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

The philosophy behind probabilistic events

I was thinking about probability, based on the definition a probability can assume any real value between 0 (impossible event) and 1 (the sure and absolute event). In my mind these two extremes never ...
0
votes
0answers
24 views

Do morality requires a grounding (especially a being)?

The Moral argument for God's existence as used by William Lane Craig is: If God doesn't exist, objective moral values do not exist. Objective moral values do exist. Therefore, God exists. Now, I ...
0
votes
1answer
25 views

What are the disadvantages of utilitarianism?

For a philosophy that is founded on usefulness I don't see much of a disadvantage. But, I'd love know more about it.
2
votes
0answers
69 views

Are there recent coherence theory of truth for mathematical truths?

Are there any recent works (papers, books, etc) in philosophy of mathematics where it is given an account of mathematical truth in terms of a coherence theory of mathematical truth? I am interested ...
2
votes
0answers
53 views

Does ◻(∀x)[Px ≡ ◻(E!x → Qx)] and ◻(∀x)(Qx → ◻E!x) entail ◻(∀x){Px ≡ ◻[E!x & (E!x → Qx)]}?

Say we are working in a free quantified modal logic system S5. Would the following argument be valid: ◻(∀x)[Px ≡ ◻(E!x → Qx)] (Premise) ◻(∀x)(Qx → ◻E!x) (Premise) ◻(∀x){Px ≡ ◻[E!x & (E!x → Qx)]}...
1
vote
2answers
69 views

Would it be ethical to use AI to determine a user’s gender from the content they upload, without them knowing?

I originally tried to find an answer on /UX but was told that this would get a better response here. I’ve been thinking about this for a while, and am unsure how the average user would feel about ...
0
votes
0answers
35 views

Can anyone explain the concept of “being-thus”?

I was reading a letter from Einstein to max born that says something like this: It is further characteristic of these physical objects that they are thought of as arranged in a space-time ...
-3
votes
0answers
180 views

How could the Tarski Undefinability Theorem be Refuted? [on hold]

When we specify that True(x) is the subset of the conventional formal proofs of mathematical logic having true premises then True(x) is always defined and never undefinable. In this case the Tarski ...
3
votes
0answers
43 views

Where can I read Kant's view of thinking as willing, spontaneity and re-presenting?

I am reading Martin Heidegger's Discourse on Thinking. At the beginning of "Conversation on a Country Path About Thinking*, the Scholar remarks: (page 58-9) But thinking, understood in the ...
-2
votes
1answer
40 views

Can a different universe be built with three dimensions? [on hold]

Can you theoretically create a universe that will have the same dimensions but will look different? For example, a paper that has a limit, or another similar dimension can it be different?
3
votes
0answers
24 views

What is the difference between a “ particular” and an “ individual being ”? ( Ontology)

The standard ontological classification distinguishes: (1) particulars and universals (2) concrete and abstract entities. I'm wondering what place to attribute to " individuals" in this ...
3
votes
1answer
85 views

Are phenomenological essences experiences that occur in every possible world?

Are phenomenological essences the case in every world? I believe they are a priori, but are they necessary and immutable? A stock example of an essence is the extension of white. We seem to ...
6
votes
1answer
210 views

What's so bad about giving up the Axiom of Choice?

The Axiom of Choice (AoC) in set theory famously gives rise to controversial and counterintuitive theorems. (Examples: Banach-Tarski paradox and existence of non-measurable sets.) I'm aware of some ...
0
votes
0answers
56 views

Why should we fear death

Shelly Kagan argues that contra Lucretius, we should fear death, because death necessarily involves the loss of the good things we enjoyed in life. Is Kagan’s argument a strong one, do we have ...
0
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0answers
35 views

Are these Two Premises Potential Flaws in Kant's Moral Theory?

In the Preface of the Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals Kant says he believes that moral philosophy must be devoid of inputs from human nature (“anthropology”): [Starting at about 4:389] “...
1
vote
0answers
14 views

Does Heidegger (or Blanchot?) reflect on the form of the question itself?

I have this notion that Heidegger is the first person to think about the framing of the question as a mode of inquiry. That is, to approach something as a question is to be already decided that a ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Nozick's Tracking Theory Problems

I have been studying Bonjour's clairvoyant rebuttal to externalist theories and also the New Evil Demon problem by Cohen and Lehrer. I wanted to ask whether Nozick's tracking theory can respond ...
5
votes
1answer
308 views

Is a paradox a concept?

Obviously 'paradox' is a concept, we name certain things to be so. We share the knowledge of those things through the use of language. But those things, "in themselves", those particular "instances of ...
0
votes
1answer
118 views

Examples of theories that assume the existence of an “External Reality”?

In this paper written by physicist Max Tegmark (https://arxiv.org/pdf/0704.0646.pdf) it talks about "External Reality Hypothesis". Specifically, he says: Although many physicists subscribe to the ...
-2
votes
1answer
42 views

Determining Ethical System

Is it possible to determine a moral system where the axioms aren't arbitrary? If no, then how could you prove that anything is right or wrong?
2
votes
1answer
39 views

How to create a “definition”, such as “what is the definition of a bear”

Dictionary.com defines bear as: Any of the plantigrade, carnivorous or omnivorous mammals of the family Ursidae, having massive bodies, coarse heavy fur, relatively short limbs, and almost ...
-2
votes
1answer
209 views

Is it there any model of the universe (considered by physicists) which would be the product of a simulation?

There are various philosophical theories that propose that the universe is the product of a simulation. But I was looking for theories that propose this and are also considered by physicists (not only ...
1
vote
0answers
68 views

Do qualia have Being?

Do qualia have Being? I'm unsure what 'Being' means, but take it that it has something to do with red always being red, self sameness or identity. If qualia do have Being, is that itself like ...
2
votes
2answers
96 views

Aristotle's Logic and Human Thought

Is Aristotle's logic sufficient to model human reasoning? If not, why not? Are there counter-examples, certain cases where we reason differently? Let's assume we're talking about sound reasoning,...
1
vote
0answers
78 views

The paradox of comprehension

If it can be known it cannot be communicated. Seemingly Gorgias held an ability to be communicated as intrinsic to the reality of a concept. And why not? Since for a solipsist there would be no ...
2
votes
1answer
88 views

Are the fundamental laws of logic always true in every field known to man?

the three fundamental laws of logic: (1) the law of contradiction, (2) the law of excluded middle (or third), and (3) the principle of identity. These are the three fundamental laws of logic and while ...
2
votes
2answers
41 views

Is there an argument against physicalism on the grounds that the view would make what we call a subjective experience astronomically unlikely?

If we assume that physcialism is true and all that there is, then we can safely assume that what we think of as subjective experience and consciousness, is driven by the atoms in our brain and the ...
0
votes
2answers
109 views

Poetry in Philosophy

"Ineffable" is the word for that which can be touched by the mind but not the tongue. But in poetry images may be made that transcend the reality of mere language. This seems to me an excellent ...
4
votes
1answer
42 views

Is my understanding on Kant's section contained in the critique of pure reason “The transcendental Aesthetic” correct?

I'm attempting to 'self-study' Kant's "critique of pure reason". I've just finished the section "The transcendental Aesthetic"" from both versions of the book and I'm looking for feedback on what I ...
2
votes
1answer
66 views

What is Kant's Proof for the Existence of the Noumenal World?

I have yet to read any convincing evidence that we should accept Kant’s assertion that a world outside our senses exists. I think Occam’s Razor tells us it is simpler to assume there is just one ...
-1
votes
0answers
25 views

advantages of philosophical and non-philosophical approaches [closed]

Question : Given the differences between philosophical and non-philosophical approaches to ethics, what do you think the advantages are to each? Is a philosophical approach to ethics obviously ...
-1
votes
0answers
65 views

Is a “truly infinite reality” possible? [closed]

A "truly infinite reality" must follow these guidelines: While a "truly infinite reality" normally allows the "re-occurrence" of most entities in either exact or self-similar form (like for example ...
2
votes
0answers
60 views

Does Tegmark's hypothesis include dynamical mathematical structures?

Tegmark's hypothesis is the idea that mathematical structures are physical and thus have physical existence (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mathematical_universe_hypothesis) Zuse's thesis says that ...
0
votes
1answer
48 views

What’s the difference between rhizome and monad?

Those two concepts seems quite close but I’m not able to find much resource on their distinctions.
3
votes
1answer
228 views

How to prove □Q from P→Q and □P?

Given P→Q, and □P, in what systems can we conclude □Q? I want to know in which system the consequent is derivable from the premises and in which it is axiomatic (or perhaps we can include it as an ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Rigorous theories about what makes a statement “literary” or “profound”? [closed]

Are there any philosophers or literary theorists who have worked on trying to rigorously determine why a majority of people would find statement A "literary" and not statement B, or would find ...
1
vote
1answer
36 views

Ethics of saying “this cause is a just cause, but now is not the time to fight for it”?

This question stems from a discussion I heard with regards to LGBTQ rights in Arab and Muslim communities: Arab progressive: LGBTQ rights are very important, and I respect LGBTQ people and think ...
0
votes
1answer
192 views

Can the Universe Be Infinite?

Some think that the universe is infinite. To convince one in the creditability of the idea they point mainly at our inability to conceive of its spatial limits. Hence, here, I use 'infinity' (of the ...
0
votes
1answer
40 views

What would be the name of this fallacy?

Current Indian prime minister had left his wife very early for he was not interested in marriage. Today, a chief minister commented on him - Narendra Modi you cannot take care of your wife, how ...
1
vote
1answer
48 views

Debating: Opponent asking for proof to deny his own statements and insists his statements were right at some point of time

This was the gist of the conversation I had recently. Me: I got item x from the capsule. Opp: It's impossible to get item x from the capsule, because such and such. Me: It is possible. I just got ...
2
votes
0answers
33 views

What to do before reading The World as Will and Representation

What should I do/read before reading the main work of Arthur Schopenhauer. I am 50 pages in and it seems like there has to be some pre knowledge before beginning this book. Any advices?
2
votes
1answer
41 views

For Kant, is it immoral to offer solutions that may backfire when generalized?

I once read long ago Immanuel Kant came up with a model of Maxim. What I interpreted of it is basically that "if everyone does this and it still works in the long run, then it is right." This makes ...
1
vote
0answers
31 views

Emotion and Knowledge [closed]

I was always curious, how largely do emotions play a part in our decision making using individual knowledge possessed? This question is making me feel confused as this may imply does being completely ...
2
votes
0answers
18 views

What are points of disagreement between Gabriel Marcel and Michael Polanyi?

I see similarities between Gabriel Marcel's distinction between problem and mystery and Michael Polanyi's distinction between explicit and tacit knowledge. However, I suspect that similarity may be ...
0
votes
0answers
41 views

What is moral particularism if there are no morally perfect persons?

Moral Particularism, at its most trenchant, is the claim that there are no defensible moral principles, that moral thought does not consist in the application of moral principles to cases, and ...
0
votes
0answers
16 views

Is there a perfect duty against self deception about imperfect duties?

I assume that Kant says that the categorical imperative exhausts all morality? I'm guessing so, both perfect and imperfect duties. There's, I think, a particular conclusion that appears a little ...

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