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18
votes
6answers
991 views

What is the origin of the Continental vs. Analytic divide?

There's been much ado about the divisiveness between Heidegger and Husserl fans on the one side, with Frege and Russell stalwarts on the other. I'm mostly amused by accounts of name-calling between ...
-2
votes
4answers
263 views

Do we have to know whether earth revolves around the sun or not? How does it effect our day-to-day life? [closed]

Does the revolution of the earth bother us in our day-to-day activities? If yes, how? If not, then why do we teach and study these thing? Isn't it right that we have to study only those things that ...
0
votes
3answers
295 views

Is the controversy about spirituality/divinity vs. atheism already solved? [closed]

Provided that humanity has addressed this issue with rationality and assuming it's been given enough time, there should be an answer to the following questions: Why do most people choose to believe ...
3
votes
2answers
275 views

How to address initial criticisms of modal logic, in particular “I can imagine a world where [necessary truth] is false?”

Whether you ultimately agree with it or not, I feel that a study of modal logic, including David Lewis's (and others') notion of possible words is a valuable facet of a proper understanding of logic ...
10
votes
3answers
6k views

Moral responsibility without free will

Are there any theories of moral responsibility that don't require free will? Sam Harris rejects the notion of free will and attempts to construct some form of moral calculus, but "The Moral Landscape"...
6
votes
3answers
214 views

What's a name for the impossibility of identity?

It appears to me that no two things can ever be identical, yet the notion that they can has been deployed rather without pause about a billion times in theoretical literature in philosophy and ...
4
votes
1answer
141 views

I want to prove that $L(M(\alpha))$ isn't a theorem in $K$ system

In Cresswell and Hughes: "A new introduction to Modal Logic" they in question 2.4 ask to show that $L(M(\alpha))$ isn't a theorem of $K$ system (where L is the necessary operator and M the possible ...
9
votes
5answers
544 views

A Question Regarding Russell's Paradox

Consider the 'set' behind Russell's Paradox: R = { x | x is a set and x ∉ x } in light of Cantor's definition of set ("aggregate"/Menge) in his CONTRIBUTIONS TO ...
30
votes
17answers
27k views

What are some good introductions to philosophy?

I've been searching the questions posed here, and don't seem to find one that gives the answers I am looking for. I've proposed to start a list on meta but no one proposed anything, so I feel I must ...
3
votes
3answers
163 views

Is complete mutual knowledge possible?

Consider a piece of information. I know it and so do you. Moreover, I know that you know it, and you know that I know it. Further, I know that you know that I know it, you know that I know that you ...
1
vote
1answer
122 views

Cause , Interaction and Effect

Let there be two hypothetical, irreducible objects A and B, both possess a changeable property P. If A and B interact, their property P is effected. How do I distinguish between entities and ...
6
votes
5answers
1k views

Is Dawkins arguing that a cause must be greater than its effect?

On the one hand, Dawkins is a rather vocal exponent of evolution. Evolution, to me, appears to hold that greater complexity can arise form lesser complexity (unless we want to argue that the causes ...
7
votes
1answer
462 views

Why does Aquinas argue that rationality of the universe points to a creator?

In the Summa, Aquinas, working from an Aristotelian philosophical position, argues that the rationality of the universe points to a creator. If I am correct in interpreting his work, he says that the ...
7
votes
2answers
435 views

What is the difference between formal and “realised” belief?

A distinction I have come across in some of Zizek's informal lectures, as well as in my own ponderings, is that which describes those beliefs which, although we know formally to be true, we do not ...
2
votes
0answers
72 views

Did Kant believe the enlightened and moral republican public could make up for legislative and executive institutions? [closed]

Kant's theoretical work Perpetual Peace could be seen as limited insofar as he didn't really provide any detailed thoughts on the legislative and executive institutions that would make international ...
5
votes
2answers
334 views

A strange generalization of the square of opposition?

I was recently introduced to categorical arguments and, since the square of opposition is merely a mnemonic, it doesn't seem completely unreasonable to me that there could be a 3-dimensional analogue (...
1
vote
1answer
1k views

Difference between Using Someone as an Ends vs Merely Using that Person

Can constraints against goodness maximizing actions be defended on grounds which suggests that such actions might illegitimately involve one using others without treating them as ends? What is the ...
2
votes
1answer
381 views

Who said “crisis is the end of an illusion”?

Which philosopher has stated "This is not the beginning of a crisis. This is the end of an illusion"? (approximate quote) And if you remember the philosopher: from which context or book comes this ...
1
vote
1answer
2k views

What is virginity from a philosophical perspective? [closed]

What is virginity in philosophers perspective? How do philosophers see virginity while its being a value and as part of a practicing religious belief? How do philosophers see this from their ...
2
votes
2answers
397 views

Negative facts and truths

I know Russell and Wittgenstein argued about negative truths. It is easy to prove the existence of some property provided there is considerable empirical evidence for its existence, but what if we are ...
1
vote
1answer
62 views

Better English equivalent for “set of methods”

I posted this question on english.se, and there have been a few interesting points, but I'm not sure the audience has the domain knowledge needed to fully appreciate what I'm asking. I restate below: ...
33
votes
22answers
4k views

In what sense is atheism scientific?

I have been reading a bit of Dawkins and the like and they all seem to hold a very strong viewpoint on atheism and its associated ideology. I have not found a direct citation for this but he ...
2
votes
2answers
2k views

What is Causality? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: What does “to cause” mean? Take an example, It is reported that short-circuit caused fire in city bakery. In this case short-circuit and fire was in a causality, short-circuit ...
1
vote
1answer
1k views

Moral Arguments for Deity? Russell's refutation

Reading Russell's Why I Am Not a Christian I stumbled upon a passage (The Moral Arguments for Deity) I don't seem to understand. Kant, as I say, invented a new moral argument for the existence of ...
0
votes
1answer
186 views

I am not good at formal logic, but I excel at moral philosophy and related branches. Does this mean that I cannot do philosophy? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Does a philosopher need much knowledge of mathematical/formal logic? That's right, I am weak in all subjects dealing with symbols and structures. My specialty lies with ...
4
votes
4answers
1k views

Cantor and infinities

I know we have accepted Cantor's ideas a long time ago and many mathematicians use sets and infinities without ever realizing that thinking about sets and infinities intuitively fails, because there ...
2
votes
4answers
139 views

How can a group report the same negative experience, relative to others of the same group?

If most people in population report the same negative experience relative to others - what is the source of that experience? For example, the majority of a student body reported feelings of exclusion ...
2
votes
2answers
3k views

What is the difference between paradoxical, dialectical and tautologous?

Can the above words be used interchangeably? The phrase "circular reasoning" is mentioned under "paradox" in wikipedia, which led me to think about "tautology". I understand "dialectical" to mean (a ...
8
votes
3answers
1k views

Does a philosopher need much knowledge of mathematical/formal logic?

I am not a philosopher but I would like to ask this question. I know that there are philosophers like Hobbes, Locke or Foucault, who excel in the areas of ethics, political philosophy and aesthetics. ...
14
votes
1answer
11k views

How do quantifiers work in predicate logic?

Predicate logic is somewhat like propositional logic, except that where propositional logic only works on the level of whole sentences (e.g. A = "Socrates is mortal", B = "All ...
6
votes
5answers
7k views

Best books on philosophy of mind and/or consciousness?

I'm looking for a book that isn't too dense and that is usually recommended for someone who wants to learn of the mind/consciousness but doesn't know where to start.
0
votes
2answers
264 views

How to use “some” and “not all” in logic?

As asked here about the difference between "some" and "not all". I'm looking for a practical example in real world where these two can be applied. Do we have a situation where we can use either of ...
7
votes
3answers
314 views

A (possible) puzzle regarding John Lane Bell's “Abstract Sets”

John Lane Bell, is his paper "Abstract and Variable Sets in Category Theory" (go to Bell's Homepage to download it), defines an abstract set as follows: "An abstract set is then an image of pure ...
1
vote
1answer
262 views

What is Marion J. Levy's tenth Law

I recently discovered Marion Levy's laws. And Princeton's news article on his life claims his laws grew to eleven, but only adds the eleventh. What is Marion J. Levy's tenth Law? My apologies if ...
5
votes
3answers
4k views

What do “universal” and “existential” mean in logic?

What's the difference between "universal" and "existential" when used in the context of wff (well-formed formulas)? We have a universal quantifier, which can be written as (x), and an existential ...
5
votes
2answers
1k views

Origin of the idea that something can't be proved, only disproved

Does anyone know if the idea that something can't be proved, only disproved has a specific origin? I often hear it and would like to make a reference to it in a term paper I'm writing. Is it from the ...
-5
votes
1answer
5k views

Briefly describe Aristotle's ethical theory? [closed]

Simply include 2-3 main points about the theory.
1
vote
2answers
645 views

How to check if this proof is valid?

I'm having some doubt if this proof is valid or invalid, especially regarding the line 4 derived from line 2. Do I need to change the letter in there? 1. (z)~Fz ∴ ~(z)Fz Using Indirect proof ...
2
votes
1answer
143 views

Philosophical implications of supplemental “time-like” dimensions?

Philosopher John G. Bennett proposed the idea that there are actually three time-like dimensions, in addition to the usual three spatial dimensions. I would be curious to learn what the ...
5
votes
3answers
878 views

Inference rules for quantifiers in logic

I have come across an inference rule that if I had statements like: Not all are birds which translates to ~(x)Bx, is equivalent to, Some are not birds which translates to (∃x)~Bx. According to this ...
7
votes
3answers
614 views

Introduction to Hegel for a Marxist

What subset of Hegel should a person know to understand Marxist philosophy? In political alignment i'm a Marxist, and mostly subscribe to social and political positions of the kinds like Slavoj Žižek ...
3
votes
1answer
363 views

Question about “Some A is B” in logic

In logic we say, "All A are B" to mean (x)(Ax ⊃ Bx) "Some A is B" to mean (∃x)(Ax . Bx) I can see how (x)(Ax ⊃ Bx) makes sense, By looking the table if we had A = 1, B = 0 then this statement wouldn'...
10
votes
5answers
5k views

What's the difference between “not all” and “some” in logic?

We have, not all represented by ~(x) and some represented (∃x) For example if I say, Not all are animals. Some are animals. Because we aren't considering all the animal nor we are disregarding all ...
2
votes
1answer
246 views

How do moral goals construct in someone's mind?

First, I understand the argument that "you don't need heaven or hell to be moral". That's not the question. Second, this question is about atheists and non-religious people. You see many of these ...
4
votes
1answer
457 views

What or who studies classification of thinking?

What branch of philosophy or what philosopher(s) study the classification of different types and processes of thinking (thought)? Mortimer J. Adler in his 1972 book "How to read a book" defines 3 ...
3
votes
1answer
231 views

Can applicable skills be gained through dreaming?

Recently had a dream where I was in a situation I have never been before in "real life" - (no real experience prior to the dream of this situation). After waking, all the feelings, thoughts, ...
6
votes
1answer
534 views

How would Wittgenstein respond to Functionalist accounts of consciousness?

So far, I've only been able to dig up a partial footnote by Kripke in his essay "Wittgenstein on Rules and Private Language" where he tantalizingly writes that "... Wittgenstein would regard his ...
5
votes
1answer
146 views

Is it possible to determine the truth values of propositional proof?

I have been trying to solve some propositional proofs, E.g. (A ⊃ B) (~A ⊃ B) Therefore, B And I know that this is valid argument. Can we ever know the real values of A and B from the truth table or ...
5
votes
3answers
2k views

Spinoza's a priori proof for the existence of God

I am currently studying some aspects of Spinoza's philosophy, mainly in contrast to Kant. It seems to me that Spinoza is just the kind of "dogmatic metaphysician" Kant criticises. I know that Kant ...
2
votes
3answers
344 views

Can death be given meaning through the theory of evolution?

Disclaimer: I haven't seen any other posts about this anywhere and one night, I was just thinking and scribbled this down, so I don't know where this could be found otherwise. What if, there is no ...

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