All Questions

1
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1answer
32 views

Universality of aesthetic judgment in Kant

In the Critique of Judgement Kant tries to characterise the aesthetic judgement as (among others) universal, i.e as a judgement that we can demand others to have as well as us. If I understand ...
2
votes
1answer
147 views

Are there clear counter-examples to this definition of mathematics?

Here I'll re-present the question about a definition of mathematics as being about deduction, that I've given in a prior posting, but here I'll further clarify that this might not be what is usually ...
2
votes
2answers
137 views

What is the fallacy when someone refuses to be specific

A Muslim apologist was debating two Atheists on DW channel in Arabic, the host asked him whether he agrees with "executing atheist apostates". The Muslim apologist knows that apostates are to be ...
4
votes
2answers
57 views

Where to start to be savvy about the current literature on consciousness?

I imagine that there are probably only a few major schools of thought, though this may be a misjudgment on my part. I am very familiar with Daniel Dennett's work, Chalmers, Hoffman's (though I'm not ...
1
vote
1answer
68 views

Would a “Classless society” be better than the present society? [closed]

In today's era many countries have 'Marxist' political parties, and their purpose is a "classless society". Can a classless society be possible, can it run successfully run?
0
votes
2answers
79 views

What does it mean for something to be “evil”?

Is evil a perception or is it something that is objective? Here's my line of thought on it: "If evil were a perception then the law would be moot to some extent. However, if evil were objective then ...
1
vote
0answers
30 views
3
votes
1answer
109 views

What does Machiavelli say about friends of my enemies?

What does Machiavelli say about friends of my enemies? I read the Prince, and some continental stuff relating it to Marxism, such as Specters of Marx. The former mostly seemed like practical, in some ...
2
votes
1answer
99 views

Why is first-order logic defined as a collection of formal systems?

I think I understand what a formal system is and what formal languages are. But I have trouble grasping why first-order logic is referred to as a collection of formal systems whereas propositional ...
0
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0answers
44 views

What is modern take on the idea of wills?

Under wills I mean either Schopenhauer's will to live or Nietzsche's will to power or other wills like will to meaning and many more. As I guess, their authors intended to explain human behaviour by ...
0
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1answer
166 views

What philosophers have considered humans as gods?

Have any reputable philosophers considered this concept? If so, which ones? And how did they account for responsibility and accountability in this framework?
5
votes
2answers
124 views

What is Descartes arguing for in the text below?

Now it is indeed evident by the light of nature that there must be at least as much [reality] in the efficient and total cause as there is in the effect of that same cause. For whence, I ask, could an ...
-3
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3answers
156 views

How is Cannibalism any different from eating animals and plants? [closed]

I'm stuck thinking that Both are similar and thus equivalent. Am I wrong?
26
votes
8answers
8k views

Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence

"Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence." I think this statement raises some kind of epistemic problem. Like, how are we supposed to conclude the potential non-existence of something, like ...
2
votes
3answers
101 views

Can mind-body dualism be modelled by computer programs and their corresponding logic gates at the physical level?

If we a consider complex computer program (such as an operating system) running on an unknown architecture, then somebody observing the computer program at the logic gate level may be able to gain a ...
0
votes
3answers
118 views

On Truth and Lying

If A, consciously, reports false data to B, and B (or anyone else) has no way to verify, then no one can make the statement, "A lied". So, there exists no such person with respect to whom A lied. ...
6
votes
5answers
2k views

Golden Rule - Conflict

"Do unto others as you would have them do unto you." Jesus, Plato... I don't care who said that, this is not a history question, I mean philosophy. So, my questions: Should one do good with someone ...
3
votes
3answers
484 views

Equivalent forms of “if p then q”

I'm wondering if "If p then q" is equivalent to "p unless q" or "p or not q" in regards to philosophy?
4
votes
2answers
136 views

What's a name for the fallacy of concluding something must be based on truth because it is successful?

I have noticed a type of fallacious reasoning that conflates truth and success. For example, a company might assume their predictive models are correct because these models make the company more money....
2
votes
3answers
159 views

Is this argument about abortion being both right and wrong valid or invalid?

Abortion is either right or wrong. If it is right, then people should be allowed to kill fetuses. Killing fetuses is wrong. Hence, abortion is not right. If it is wrong, then women won’t have the ...
2
votes
1answer
36 views

Prove the rule that proves X(P) from X(a) preserves derivability in modal system K

I'm trying to solve a problem which asks me to show that the meta-rule defined by deriving X(P) from X(a) preserves derivability (i.e. if ⊢X(a) then ⊢X(P) in modal system K, where a is a sentence ...
0
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0answers
55 views

Why did Western philosophers decide to divide culture and religion as distinct things? [closed]

Historically, when Western people came to other cultures, those cultures had no notion of religion. To them their beliefs in higher entities and necessity of rituals or similar things was similar to ...
3
votes
3answers
83 views

Is it possible to a define human being without reference to metaphysical hypotheses?

Is it possible to define a human being without implying any sort of metaphysical hypothesis? It seems to me that every statement one can make to define a human being must necessarily imply some ...
2
votes
0answers
113 views

How do compatibilists understand “responsible”?

In Scott Christensen's book "What about free will?" on page 119 is "Pharaoh is held responsible for his actions". The reason given for God attributing culpability is "You are exalting yourself...". ...
1
vote
4answers
296 views

Is this discussion fallacious?

I heard people having this kind of discussion. I don't know why it sounded a bit off, but I want to know if it was just me or if there is a fallacy here somewhere. Person 1 = X Person 2 = Y X: ...
2
votes
2answers
60 views

“Syllogisms which produce understanding”

I remember reading somewhere that the aim of Aristotle's Prior and Posterior analytics was to show which kinds of syllogisms produce understanding. I do not remember where I read this but I think it ...
1
vote
1answer
118 views

Is there an established name for position that argues against law?

This is my position. But for some reason I'm sure I'm not the first to accept it (I guess some anarchists would have it). So, there likely should be other people with this position. Is there a name ...
0
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1answer
154 views

Infinity in modern integration theory

The Riemann integral itself doesn't work with infinity (±∞) as “endpoints”, you have to take a detour by calculating the integral for arbitrary endpoints ±z and then take the limit for z→∞, which ...
0
votes
1answer
128 views

Which idealogy states aatma (soul) doesn't exist; only paramatmaa (God) does? [closed]

The ideology states all this world is His creation and it will die. God is beyond all this. It is difficult to understand for normal people. But I believe it. It states we are mere lies. We will die. ...
2
votes
3answers
104 views

Aside from Jesus who have put justice (legalism) and friendliness (benevolence) in opposition?

I'm more interested in ancient thinkers. Maybe there are notable people with such views who lived before Jesus. I will use the term friendliness as a treatment of someone as a potential friend. And a ...
2
votes
2answers
147 views

Suppose you have an argument with false premises and a false conclusion. Given this information, what do you know about the validity of this argument?

The argument is almost valid. The argument is neither valid nor invalid. The argument must be valid. The argument must be invalid. The argument may be either valid or invalid.
1
vote
1answer
58 views

Kant and Utilitarians vs War

A soldier is about to execute 20 prisoners. He tells you that if you kill one of them, he'll let the other 19 go. This classic standoff between Kantian ethics and utilitarianism is discussed @ "...
2
votes
0answers
32 views

Does bayesianism accept the idea of knowledge

In bayesianism, you get probalities for the truth of any given statement. As I understand it, this can never be 100%. Since there is no "most certain" you can be, does that mean there is no conception ...
0
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1answer
60 views

What does Beyond Good and Evil aphorism 4 mean?

It ends: recognise untruth as a condition of life: that, to be sure, means to resist customary value-sentiments in a dangerous fashion; and a philosophy which ventures to do so places itself, ...
2
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0answers
24 views

Grice: Comparing Natural Meaning, Non-Natural Meaning, Conventional Implicature and Generalized Conversational Implicature

I am currently reading "Meaning" and "Logic and Conversation" by Paul Grice. I find it a little difficult to differentiate clearly between his concepts "natural meaning", "non-natural meaning", "...
0
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0answers
31 views

What is the distinction between “experimental philosophy” and Anthropology?

My first thought is simply 'time frame', but then Anthropology isn't exactly bound to the past...
-2
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1answer
56 views

Why or How? Which one do we prefer more in philosophy? [closed]

Why or How? Which one of them do we use in Philosophy to understand and describe the world around us? More simply, which one do we prefer more and why? In physics, more likely, we use HOW to know how ...
2
votes
2answers
88 views

Why are Plato's Idealism and German Idealism so different?

Plato's Idealism seems to imply an objectivity and an anti-pluralism, instead rationalizing forms into main groups, yet German Idealism seems to do just the opposite. I was wondering why the use of ...
3
votes
1answer
77 views

What have been the historical interpretations of Aristotle's definition of syllogistic deduction?

What have been historically the various interpretations given to Aristotle's notion of validity implicit in his syllogistic? Here is one authoritative translation of the relevant text: A syllogism ...
3
votes
10answers
3k views

Isn't the knowledge of the non-existence of “God”, objective? [closed]

The term Objectivity can be defined as: of, relating to, or being an object, phenomenon, or condition in the realm of sensible experience independent of thought and perceptible by all observers : ...
0
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2answers
62 views

If you “know best”, should you refuse to fulfil your previously sworn duty? [closed]

Say you are a law-maker elected to represent the views of a population in the legislature. The population are specifically and deliberately asked how to proceed on a political issue and use the ...
0
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1answer
102 views

On age and Wisdom

Often it happens that a writer will change their position over time. For example a consummate materialist in youth may temper their outlook with a pinch of idealism in more advanced years. This state ...
3
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0answers
196 views

Which rational thinkers, prior to 1850 (theologians, philosophers, scientists, mathematicians etc.) disagreed with Aristotle's logic?

Did any intellectual luminary ever articualted any major disagreement with Aristotle's logic prior to the inception of modern mathematical "classical" logic? Which rational thinkers, such as ...
4
votes
4answers
129 views

Pandora's Box: Is hope evil? [closed]

I know, most questions here are more sophisticated, but this question sparked in my mind some time ago: Is hope a bad thing? The reason I got to this idea is that I had a hard time with lots of ...
2
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0answers
36 views

What does Hume's “customary connection” between objects mean?

David Hume writes "All belief of matter of fact or real existence is derived from some object, present to the memory or the senses, and a customary conjunction between that and some other object." ...
0
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0answers
177 views

How much this theory fulfills of criteria for a foundational theory of mathematics?

[EDIT] The criteria for a founding theory of mathematics, especially if it uses large cardinal axioms that I want to refer to are those of Harvey Friedman's 2000 criteria given in pages 5-6 of the ...
-1
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0answers
40 views

Is there a way to study philosophy of art, fiction, and tropes / cliches?

I've been thinking of becoming a philosopher. However I'm an artist at heart, I don't think I would be studying the meaning of life or anything. I'm more interested in how fiction, art and tropes can ...
1
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0answers
45 views

For Aristotle, how and why does friction generate heat?

I'm still a bit new to Aristotle, so this question may be imperfect: In Meteorology, Aristotle uses friction to explain how the sun generates heat. Although it's composed of aether, and not fire, ...
1
vote
1answer
65 views

how can i keep my motivation high all time? [closed]

Can any body help me to know how to keep my motivation on track . sometimes it goes too high and too low. I think Watching videos reading books won't help us , how can we be good at something do we ...
2
votes
2answers
141 views

How is philosophy of science essential? [closed]

How is philosophy of science still one of the most essential fields after it broke from classical philosophy and established its own discipline?

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