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votes
2answers
79 views

Fitch Proof - Logic LPL 6.31

I am trying to complete the following proof in Fitch but am completely clueless on how to approach it. Any help would be appreciated! Thanks
0
votes
1answer
70 views

What is the definition of 'object' in philosophy?

I have two examples in my mind that I'm unsure if they can be considered Objects: The second usage of things, as in, each thing has usually a defined usage, but sometimes people use things in a ...
0
votes
1answer
32 views

De Morgan's Law Formal Proof [duplicate]

Does anyone know how to do this without the use of addition rules? We have not covered that in class, and all the info I can find online suggests that as a solution. Thanks]1
3
votes
1answer
113 views

What's the simplest thing?

If we imagine the world and what surrounds us as concepts, if you then had to explain these ideas (i.e. What's a person? What's an animal? What's a living being? ...) you'd then need to recursively ...
0
votes
1answer
32 views

How can a undecidable theory be complete?

I don't understand how a theory can be undecidable (there is no effective procedure for determining if a sentence of the language is a theorem) and also be complete. How do we know all sentences are ...
1
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0answers
35 views

Subjective idealism of Berkeley and Social reality

If one were to accept immaterialist position that Berkeley takes. how can it explain social reality? From what I understand, Berkeley does not deny existence of physical objects, he says that ...
2
votes
3answers
116 views

Are some expressions such as 'In my opinion', 'I think', 'In my view' philosophical?

All of us went through some periods where he philosophized. When we philosophise, we use normally, and naturally, expressions like: In my opinion, In my point of view, I think, I propose, I suppose ...
4
votes
4answers
153 views

Is the laughable person beautiful?

All of us when see a laughable comedy star, for example: a fatty actor having a laughable face, i.e: physically laughable whose appearance makes us smile or laugh, we feel happiness and joy. Does this ...
4
votes
3answers
987 views

Is fascism intrinsically violent?

Has every group or nation that is generally considered to be fascist, descended from the nationalist ideology of Mussolini (I don't mean 'fascism' in the sense of just any right wing demagogy), ...
0
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0answers
105 views

Is there a philospher who thinks that there is a Thing, we call it [Thing], which is Infinite? [closed]

Suppose that any thing to be a thing it must be finite, so Godhood and Godhead must be finite. Life only is the infinite. Life=flowing and becoming of Things. So, Things are Finite, but flowing of ...
-1
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0answers
71 views

Is there any philosopher who think that this cycle of creation is very new, Just few hundreds of years, or just few generations? [closed]

In my contemplation, and checking the history, I noticed that: mythology and mythological figures come before 550 B.c., this means that the cycle of creation may started around 500 B.c. For some ...
2
votes
3answers
54 views

Do questions of Infinite regress, uncased cause and nothingness just point to our limits?

A lot of debates and conversations with theists seem to end up with the "ultimate" questions where the questions themselves seem to me to be conceptual/linguistic/psychological dead ends. Infinite ...
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5answers
114 views

Is fascist Ideology purely negative? [closed]

Is fascism a set of purely negative, instrumental things such as dictatorship and Nationalism that are means to an end rather than having end in itself (besides "lower taxes" (???)) ? Or are their ...
4
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0answers
66 views

Is Herbrand semantics a kind of term formalism?

Michael Genesereth and Eric Kao describe Herbrand semantics as follows: Herbrand semantics is an alternative semantics for First Order Logic based on truth assignments for ground sentences rather ...
5
votes
1answer
292 views

Rationalism and Catholicism / Protestantism

How much more “incompatible” was rationalism with Catholicism compared to Protestant christianity? Of course everyone learned in high school that the enlightenment was in direct opposition to ...
2
votes
1answer
38 views

Why doesn't one assert in metamathematics that a sentence S is a logical consequence of the conjunction of a set of sentences?

In other words, why isn't there -- at least in standard textbook presentations of things like the deduction theorem and the compactness theorem -- a conjunction connective that is applied to sets of ...
0
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0answers
31 views

Is it good to have a society where people care about people and live there? [closed]

I am thinking of choosing where to live in the long term, depending on whether people care about other people. Is such a society good, and is such a way of choosing where to live a good choice? For ...
-4
votes
1answer
75 views

How do liberals escape hyperreality [closed]

Do they accept. Or do they become annihlated. Or annihlate each other. Or go even further than that.
1
vote
1answer
25 views

Ramifications of a world of unrestrained truth [duplicate]

Are there any papers/books/studies on the ramifications of a theoretical world of unrestrained truth, meaning no secrets? A part of the motivation for this question is the fictional show, Code Geass, ...
1
vote
3answers
189 views

Did early Wittgenstein view mathematics as “sense-less” or “non-sensical”?

G. E. M Anscombe makes the following distinction between Wittgenstein's use of sense-less (sinnlos) and nonsense (unsinnig): (page 163) We must distinguish in the theory of the Tractatus between ...
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3answers
169 views

Although Russell's paradox has the virtue of simplicity, is it a distraction from other paradoxes of naive set theory?

Given that Russell's paradox exhibits a contradiction in naive set theory, the interpretation of the binary relation "∈" called "membership" (where the expression "x ∈ m" is pronounced as "x is an ...
3
votes
2answers
95 views

Is phenomenology a science?

Is phenomenology a science? I know Husserl was fond of saying it is. Specifically, is any of it scientific? By "phenomenology" I mean the study of structures of consciousness as experienced from ...
2
votes
2answers
42 views

Does anyone discuss 'limit' in Wittgenstein?

Does anyone discuss 'limit' in Wittgenstein? The word "limit" keeps appearing in the Tractatus: of thinking; of language; of the world; of the natural sciences; of my visual field. It's used even more ...
2
votes
1answer
33 views

Contrapositive Fitch Proof

I can't seem to figure out how to get past this step. Any suggestions?
0
votes
0answers
25 views

Why jain philosophy denies indeterminate stage of perception?

Ok ,so I'm reading now Indian philosophy and I found that Buddhism and many other Indian philosophy recognise both ' determinate and indeterminate stage of perception ' while jainas don't !
0
votes
2answers
123 views

To connect or to disconnect mathematics and platonism?

How [do philosophers] strongly support or refute the view that: mathematics is a bag of tricks for real-world problem solving; undecidable statements are an irrelevant and harmless side-effect of an ...
0
votes
1answer
67 views

Complement of “at least two people share the same birthday”

Suppose a room contains 𝑛 people. What is the probability that at least two people share the same birthday? So this is actually a question on probability, but I'm really confused in the logic and ...
2
votes
0answers
24 views

If only the present is ideal in McTaggart's sense are we still obliged to accept his C-series or something close to it?

If only the present in the A series is ideal in McTaggert's sense are we still obliged into accepting his C-series or something close to it, in order to account for the appearance of change? It seems ...
5
votes
4answers
99 views

Why are referring and predicating distinct from illocutionary acts?

I have been reading Searle's Speech Acts and he mentioned that in the four sentences mentioned below, while they share the same reference (Sam) and predication (smoking habitually), they are four ...
1
vote
3answers
148 views

Was Bertrand Russell correct in characterising the United States as 'a Nazi State'? [closed]

In his book, War Crimes in Vietnam, published in 1967 Russell several times calls the United States a Nazi State: The United States government is conducting a war of annihilation in the Vietnam. ...
0
votes
2answers
77 views

Is every reason reducible to a sequence of tautological statements? [closed]

I think of tautological statements as those statements which when explained should repeat themselves, and should intuitively explain the reason. For example, A = A because 'A is equal to A'; Dog is ...
2
votes
3answers
90 views

Is this quote flawed when it comes to not understanding racism and also not admiring it? [closed]

Can anyone please help me with how to respond to someone who has told me that he doesn't understand racism and can't admire it either? Is it possible that someone doesn't get what racism is? Here is ...
5
votes
2answers
207 views

What philosophical axes did 19th century mathematicians have to grind?

Tim Button's presentation of set theory motivates the subject by providing a history of 19th century mathematics where the notion of limit allowed definitions of the derivative and continuity. These ...
2
votes
2answers
84 views

Do Aristotle's three laws of logic apply to statements about the future?

I have just read about Aristotle's Three Laws of Logic. I was wondering if statements such as "There is a chance of it raining in the next hour" can be evaluated using the three laws. Can you apply ...
5
votes
1answer
76 views

Henry George vs. Karl Marx

I recently came across some of Marx's critique of Georgism, and was wondering where else the theories of these two thinkers conflict. Georgism to me certainly seems to have a slight materialist bent ...
0
votes
1answer
24 views

Logic Question in a fitch style system - disjunction elimination

I am having difficulty in formally proving two arguments. Firstly, given the premises A ∨ (B∧C) ¬B∨¬C∨ D derive A v D. I can see why it has to be either A or D, because if it's B and C, ...
3
votes
1answer
278 views

Proof Using Model Universe

Suppose I am trying to prove the following argument (∀x)(Cx → Dx), (∀x)(Ex → ~Dx), /∴ (∀x)(Ex → ~Cx) Now, let's also assume that I don't know if this argument is valid or not. Because of this, I try ...
20
votes
6answers
6k views

What do you call the fallacy of thinking that some action A will guarantee some outcome B, when in reality B depends on multiple other conditions?

Example: Dentist: “You have multiple cavities.” Patient: “That’s ridiculous! You always told me that brushing my teeth prevents cavities. I brush my teeth every night. Therefore, I can’t possibly ...
4
votes
1answer
102 views

Difference between “neither true nor false” and “either true or false.”

What is the difference between "neither true nor false" and "either true or false."? I was reading about definitions And I read a line saying "Lexical definitions are either true or false". After ...
1
vote
0answers
50 views

Human relations for the future

If the future had lesser jobs for humans at all would (seems to head that way now like AI,partial self reliance vacuum cleaner, smart car) the world be undoing what it just done?What do I mean?For a ...
-2
votes
1answer
60 views

What would you do? [closed]

To give some background, I'm trained in biology (UCSC) and seem to have a knack for it. My success with software probably gives credibility to my ability with simple logic. I've worked on a long term ...
1
vote
2answers
57 views

Clarification on what is and isn't a logical statement

After reading the article from Wikipedia I feel more confused on what the scope of the definition of a 'logical statement' or proposition is. First, is the statement "It is raining" considered to be ...
0
votes
1answer
43 views

What is the difference between a function and a relation in first-order logic?

Consider this definition of first-order (or Herbrand) logic syntax. Here is the vocabulary: Definition (Vocabulary): A vocabulary V consists of: A set of relation constants {r1, ...,...
1
vote
0answers
39 views

Difference between the ensemble of organizations in an anarchy and a state?

Even an anarchy needs organizations to provide security, legal judgment, roads, etc. and to prepare large-scale plans and arrangements. Probably, for the sake of efficiency and harmony, there should ...
2
votes
0answers
43 views

The perfect definition of impossible [closed]

When i think about the true impossible, for me is a very dark area, that causes depression, because when we think about this simple question that begins whit, an example, "God creates the Human ...
4
votes
3answers
192 views

Is space experienced?

Space doesn't have a taste, a smell, a sound or a "shape". Anything we experience and think seem to require it. It doesn't have any experiential property whatsoever, but we still normally refer to it ...
2
votes
1answer
67 views

What's the difference between a second-order relation and a relation between objects?

I was reading an article in philosophy and found this: Some philosophers have denied that there is such a relation as identity. Thus Ludwig Wittgenstein writes (Tractatus 5.5301): "That ...
0
votes
2answers
76 views

How should one symbolize “and then” in logic?

Graham Priest observed that not all uses of "and" in English commute: (page 15) ...according to the truth table for &, 'a and b' always has the same value as 'b and a', namely, they are both ...
1
vote
2answers
51 views

What's the difference between “All A are B” and “A is B”?

I'm having trouble catching the difference between these two forms. I tried to draw some Venn diagrams but it's not helping. "All A are B" means A is contained in B. Does "A is B" mean A is also ...
1
vote
4answers
85 views

Who first said that words express emotions, and do not describe objects?

I was reading a critique of Daniel Dennett's 'From Bacteria to Bach and Back', and in this criticism it is alleged that Dennett's conception of words as object descriptions is false. The suggestion ...

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