All Questions

1
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0answers
75 views

Why is a square circle metaphysically impossible?

We have definitions for both a square and a circle. By definition, I understand that it's impossible to have a square circle. However, why does the word 'square' have to necessarily mean 'a plane ...
2
votes
2answers
43 views

Looking for a piece regarding the relationship between subject and object (by Schopenhauer?)

I am desperately looking for a piece I've read years ago on the internet. It is written as a conversation (literally) between the subject and the object. The quintessence is that neither can exist ...
1
vote
0answers
70 views

If logical propositions aren't tautologies (a la Wittgenstein), then what could they be?

This is a historical question about philosophical views. I believe I understand the claim made by Wittgenstein and others that logical propositions are tautologies. I'd like to know what other views ...
-1
votes
1answer
103 views

Tacit inferences?

Does anyone give a useful account of tacit inferences? I am interested in the psychological notion of inference here, and do not in the context focus upon the logical notions of validity and soundness....
3
votes
3answers
155 views

The tree of knowledge

A group of scientists come into a hostel and start studying people's behaviour. They create subgroups sorting by countries, jobs, habits, and so on; build models to predict whether someone is up to ...
16
votes
8answers
7k views

How is the claim “I am in New York only if I am in America” the same as "If I am in New York, then I am in America?

It makes absolutely zero sense to me. It would make sense if "I am in America" is the antecedent and the consequent is the former. Even though it wouldn't be sound, it would make logical sense. I ...
2
votes
4answers
156 views

Does evolution always entail progress?

It was Darwin who first introduced the concept of Evolution in his Evolution Theory. However, whenever he and in general people speak about Evolution, I always have the feeling that they connote it ...
1
vote
3answers
55 views

Relationship between entailment and equivalence with consistency

If A entails B, why is it not true that A is also consistent with B? Given the definition requires A and B to be able to be true at the same time.
0
votes
1answer
109 views

Is this argument equivalent to the argument of prime mover of Aristotle?

For alternation in the status of A to be a cause of the alteration in the status of B, we naively demand that the former alteration exists before the later, and so the later [i.e.; the alteration in ...
1
vote
1answer
62 views

Which philosophers has proven existing is being part of the change in time?

Does anyone know any philosopher(s)/mathematician(s) who has proven that existing is being part of change in time or a journal article from a credential academician/scholar who conclude this with ...
0
votes
1answer
88 views

Checking the validity of the logical conclusion gleaned from a heated conversation

I have two friends - call them John and Jane. I was recently privy to an argument concerning a book between John and Jane that went like this: John: This book did not make a single coherent, ...
1
vote
0answers
21 views

Papers on the history of the answers to Parmenides

I'd like to ask if any of you know of a paper which talks about the history of the answers to Parmenides and Zeno(from Plato and Aristotle to more recent works such as Russell's and )
1
vote
0answers
66 views

Are Marx's crises of capitalism essentially crises for the working class?

Are Marx's crises of capitalism essentially crises for the working class? It is well known that Marx predicted increased immiseration of the working class relative to the bourgeoisie, and that crises,...
1
vote
2answers
339 views

Why do ethics inherently matter?

On SE you can often find questions like: is something-something ethical? is it ethical to do x, y, z? etc. For example: Academia: Is pseudonymous publication ethical? Workplace: Is it unethical ...
1
vote
2answers
88 views

Does linguistic idealism imply scientific anti-realism, and are any existentialists committed to anti-realism for that reason?

Does linguistic idealism imply scientific anti-realism? By scientific anti-realism I mean the opinion that the unobservable world we study with science is not real, not mind independent. By ...
-1
votes
0answers
52 views

The Cynic Philosophers were a 'strange lot' in their choice of lifestyle; sparse, their beliefs minimimalistic. Can we copy them?

The Cynics [circa 450 BCE] were a strange lot they wore next to nothing, ranted against materialistic lifestyles and caused quite a ruckus. At the same time their no-nonsense approach to life has some ...
2
votes
2answers
151 views

Can a human being not be part of human beings' species?

I know that this question may sound silly, that it may look like the asker is just trying to acquire attention, that it may seem as if by one's asking this question one is partaking in something ...
4
votes
3answers
140 views

When is a connective truth functional?

I got this question from Logic, laws of truth, by Nicholas J.J Smith. He says (page 24) : "A connective is truth functional if it has the property that the truth or falsity of a compound ...
5
votes
0answers
51 views

Is Spinoza a Pantheist?

I define "Pantheism" as the postition that affirm the equality between God and the whole reality(not of course equal to every single existing thing, but equal to ALL reality, the reality as a totality)...
4
votes
1answer
242 views

How to Prove P(a) → ∀x(P(x) ∨ ¬(x = a)) using Natural Deduction

How would a formal Fitch proof look like. I am given P(a) → ∀x(P(x) ∨ ¬(x = a)) to prove using Natural Deduction of predicate logic. I am confused on how to proceed with the proof. Please advice me ...
6
votes
2answers
147 views

Quantum mechanics and the principle of bivalence

Does quantum mechanics, due to the phenomenon of superposition (Schrodinger's cat is both dead and alive), give reasons to alter the laws of logic, specifically the principle of bivalance (something ...
1
vote
0answers
63 views

What was Wittgenstein's argument against Cantor's transfinite numbers and where did he make his objection?

G. E. M. Anscombe had this to say about propositions in Wittgenstein's Tractatus: (page 137) It seems likely enough, indeed, that Wittgenstein objected to Cantor's result even at this date, and ...
3
votes
1answer
89 views

Difference between 'marxist' and 'Marxist'?

What is the difference between 'marxist' (with a small 'm') and 'Marxist'? This question arose to me when I came across this: It follows from this belief that if you can totally change the '...
5
votes
2answers
479 views

What is the difference between NTP and validity in Smith's “Logic: The Laws of Truth”?

The book I got this question from is "logic, the laws of truth" by Nicholas j.j smith. "Necessary truth preserving" (NTP in the book) is defined as the property that an argument has when it is ...
1
vote
0answers
60 views

Does “Binary Exam” make philosophical sense? [closed]

My teacher gives what he calls "binary exams" where student either gets 100 or get 0. He said that this is consistent with his belief in absolute truth (like some sort of "platonic ideal") in that a ...
9
votes
2answers
514 views

Gödel's incompleteness theorems - what are the religious implications?

Apparently Kurt Gödel believed that his incompleteness theorems have some kind of religious implications. Despite Gödel's belief in a personal God, this was still somewhat surprising to me. ...
12
votes
10answers
462 views

How to answer people who would claim that “philosophy is useless”?

How to answer people who would claim that "philosophy is useless"? My take: "Philosophy, since it by def. considers fundamental matters, such as existence, cannot be rationally neglected, because ...
3
votes
4answers
103 views

Is there another state besides existence and nonexistence?

Today I told someone who said that there is no objective truth the next thing: "For example, we, as humans, cannot know if God exists or he does not but we can know for sure that one of these two ...
-2
votes
5answers
493 views

How does atheism answer the problem of goodness? [closed]

If God does not exist how do we explain all the good in the world? All the charities that operate of the goodwill of the public? All the doctors working in Somalia for doctors without borders? If we ...
1
vote
2answers
120 views

Can one know and not know at the same time the same truth?

How to analyse the fact that , at the age of 6, (1) I knew that : 1 + 1 =2 but, at the same time, (2) I did not know that 1² + 1² = square root of 4 ? Can someone know the first thing ...
0
votes
1answer
189 views

Gödel's Results and Philosophy of Mathematics [closed]

Gödel's results essentially conclude that there are True but Unprovable statements in arithmetic. My thoughts are as follows: Axioms form the foundation of mathematics -because we need to assume ...
2
votes
1answer
44 views

Questions concerning Hume's argument for the unknowability of ultimate causes

I'm currently reading through Hume's An Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding, and I'm having trouble understanding one of his big arguments in the section entitled "Skeptical Doubts Concerning the ...
0
votes
1answer
120 views

The real world is infinite! [closed]

The real world is the totality of all objects existing in it. i.e. every object that exists in the real world is a PART of the real world. An infinite is defined as having a part of it that doesn't ...
-1
votes
2answers
69 views

Can Cognitive-Moral Bio-Enhancement be considered as a valid category of enhancement?

Persson and Savulescu (2008) argue that cognitive enhancement and moral enhancement have separate aims. They argue that cognitive enhancement without moral enhancement is dangerous. John Harris (2011)...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

Is Schopenhauerian pessimism truly passive nihilism?

Nietzsche referred to Schopenhauerian pessimism as passive nihilism. Does the categorization happen to be true or is Nietzsche's analysis somehow flawed?
1
vote
2answers
72 views

What is moral inquiry in the context of James Lenman's paper?

I’ve been trying to understand this concept on my own, but I’m unable to grasp it. Google keeps referring to a paper published in the Aristotelian Society, but that article is hidden behind a paywall. ...
1
vote
0answers
50 views

Epistemology: What role does “ intensionality” play in the knowledge relation? Is “ intension” a third term in the knowledge relation?

How to analyse the fact that , at the same time, my 7 y. old nephew (1) knows that : 1+1 =2 (2) does not know that : sqrt (1) + 1² = the absolute value of the cube root of -8. ? Certainly, "...
5
votes
2answers
197 views

What does Wittgenstein mean when he says “there are no numbers in logic”?

From the Tractatus: 5.453 All numbers in logic stand in need of justification. Or rather, it must become evident that there are no numbers in logic. There are no pre-eminent numbers. What does ...
2
votes
0answers
48 views

What does Kierkegaard mean by 'spirit' in the following passage from “A Sickness unto Death”?

Soren Kierkegaard- "Sickness unto Death", (Princeton University Press 1983) 1848- From- Chapter 1- That 'despair' is the 'Sickness unto Death'- p 9 Man is a spirit. But what is spirit? Spirit is ...
1
vote
2answers
80 views

In what way did the "Logical Positivist' movement influence contemporary Analytical Academic Philosophy? [closed]

Rudolf Carnap and the Vienna Circle made a concerted effort to 'move' Philosophy away from its traditional focus on 'speculative' metaphysics by establishing a regimen of scientific rigor within the ...
2
votes
2answers
137 views

How can we be accountable if we are chemically programmed?

If we accept that molecular biology largely explains cognitive function deterministically, how can we be accountable? Is determinism not inherently nihilist in that a person is a victim of ...
0
votes
1answer
112 views

Can you argue against a moral absolute by saying yes it's rational, but not practically so?

Can you argue against a moral absolute by saying yes it's rational, because it's true, but not practically so? So can you, in principle, coherently claim that it is true that not lying is good, and ...
0
votes
1answer
39 views

What are the most popular arguments against moral universalism, rather than for relativism or nihilism?

What are the most popular arguments against moral universalism, rather than for relativism or nihilism? I'm asking in case deontology is the only viable universalist ethics, because deontology seems ...
0
votes
1answer
59 views

Questions on Descartes' Certainty? [closed]

1)What is the certainty that Descartes discovers in the Second Meditation? 2)What does Descartes go on to attempt to prove in the Third Meditation and how is this proof related to what was ...
1
vote
2answers
61 views

Perpetual Division

I recall a story about a philosopher who proposed an idea that everything is essentially perpetually divisible. That is to say, you can divide a whole into two halves and for each half (regarded as ...
6
votes
0answers
61 views

Quantifying Ethics

It seems like a relation like '<' exists in morality, as most ethical systems view moral actions as more evil/good than other actions. Has any philosopher tried to quantify this, e.g. how much ...
6
votes
3answers
105 views

Is it possible to infer the non-existence of a thing?

Is it possible to rationally infer the non-existence of a phenomenon or a thing, because of a lack of evidence? I've heard of the Null Hypothesis - I heard it says that you can infer that something ...
3
votes
1answer
99 views

Is there a world behind you when you do not look behind your back? [closed]

There is a very famous philosophical question that almost all of us have heard before: If a tree falls in a forest and no one is around to hear it, does it make a sound? My question is a little ...
0
votes
1answer
261 views

Natural language into propositional logic

Need some help putting these two examples of natural language into sentence logic. For reference, use the transcription guide below: D = you think so; E = I think so; F = it is true If you think so, ...
-1
votes
0answers
53 views

Name that fallacy: X is good for my enemy, therefore X is bad for me

So, I have a friend who lives in Country A. He thinks that Country B is bad. Country B wants Country A to have President X. Therefore, President X is bad for Country A. It is quite clear to me that ...

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