All Questions

2
votes
5answers
344 views

Has the instinct of survival a philosophical equivalent?

Descartes' fundamental truth (cogito, ergo sum) would help me accept without any doubt that I do exist. So, I accept that I do exist without any doubt. But there's another truth that --for me-- seem ...
3
votes
1answer
77 views

S5 proof of ⊢◻(◻P→◻Q)∨◻(◻Q→◻P)

I'm trying to construct an S5 proof of ⊢◻(◻P→◻Q)∨◻(◻Q→◻P). I know that ϕ∨ψ is equivalent to ~ϕ→ψ, and so what I'm really trying to derive is ~◻(◻P→◻Q)→◻(◻Q→◻P) (which is equivalent to ◊~(◻P→◻Q)→◻(◻Q→◻...
1
vote
1answer
44 views

Axiomatic proof of ⊢ □P → □◇□P in S4

As the title explains, I'm trying to give an axiomatic proof of ⊢ □P → □◇□P in S4. This is simple to prove in B, but I'm struggling to see how it's done in S4. I'd really appreciate any help you ...
3
votes
0answers
62 views

Formal logic to describe causation?

I'm looking for any formal work that has been done on describing causation the way people understand it. I am not looking for logical implication, more a way to talk about "Why?" questions. Basically, ...
1
vote
0answers
42 views

About the advantages of the propensity perspective on probability

I am wandering what are the advantages of the propensity perspective on probability. Why would it be better to explain probability in physics? Except for the fact that it solves various problems of ...
1
vote
3answers
147 views

Modal validity & vagueness

(2nd version to make explicit my implicit assumptions about A, B and C, and the definitions of the non-logical constants "⊂" and "≡".) Intuitively, the following modal argument seems valid to me and ...
14
votes
10answers
8k views

What fallacy is assuming something is the case because of past events

I'm sure this is a simple question. What I am referring to is disbelieving someone on Day 20 because they have lied every day previous to Day 20. Another example is the boy who cried wolf. The 50th ...
3
votes
3answers
70 views

Question about the Argument of Recollection from Plato's Phaedo

Under the argument of recollection, what would the answer to the following scenario? A young child has not learned a single thing about geometrical shapes. If a person were to draw a triangle and ...
4
votes
7answers
196 views

What am I missing in texts that say things that are so obvious as to seem pointless?

I'm currently taking a course in early modern philosophy. The focus is on psychology, morality, and aesthetics. I've taken philosophy courses in the past, but I'm having a lot of trouble with this one,...
0
votes
2answers
130 views

What does it mean exactly to live a good life in a place like earth?

I don’t know what living a good life means - people say being honest, truthful, generous, or to possess and practice many of the most important virtues. But all these things depend upon the way we ...
0
votes
1answer
45 views

What is Don Marquis argument that a being does not have to be a person to have a right to life; even potential persons have a right to life?

The original Don Marquis paper "Why Abortion is Immoral". Many moral theories agree that the bearers of rights should be “persons”, not merely biological humans. What are the counter-arguments for it?...
-1
votes
0answers
13 views

What are the examples of cases that would be judged differently by relational and Kantian conceptions of autonomy?

Relational concept of autonomy and Kantian concept of autonomy- Are there any examples from the real world where a case can be judged differently using these two aspects?
2
votes
2answers
198 views

Number, Category and Set

Can it be said that a number is a category is a set? There is such a variety of ideas on numbers, categories and sets that probably anything one says about them will be controversial, but I was ...
2
votes
1answer
42 views

What is the historical entitlement conception of justice? How does it differ from the patterned conception?

Related to Nozick. What are the policy implications of the two approaches? Any examples?
1
vote
1answer
33 views

According to Nozick, what is a “patterned” conception of justice?

Any examples of a policy issue on which a patterned conception of justice might plausibly disagree with a historical entitlement based conception of justice
5
votes
3answers
127 views

underdetermination in the engineering world

Newbie here- please go easy on me. Now that I am retired from the world of physics and engineering, I am struggling to come to terms with my career failings. The most spectacular of these occurred ...
1
vote
1answer
56 views

Modus Tollens / Popperian Syllogism for the Black Swan

If it is a swan, then it will always be white. It seems like Popper is not asking so much people to build syllogisms, but rather DEPENDING on Modus Tollens as an engine for falsification. So that, ...
3
votes
1answer
72 views

What is the difference between Theory of Knowledge and Epistemology?

What are the differences, similarities, and contrasts between the two fields of study, namely, Theory of Knowledge and Epistemology? Are these terms interchangeable? Are they near-identical? What ...
1
vote
1answer
57 views

Inductive Logic on Existence

Because we, only by inductive reasoning, are sure about next moment 'happening' (or more precisely, not worried about it not happening), does this mean that there is no logical guarantee that next ...
3
votes
4answers
105 views

Does this experiment really prove dishonesty?

The experiment: People are asked to guess the outcome of a coin flip. If they guess correctly, they get a reward. However, people only reveal their initial guess after they've seen the outcome of ...
1
vote
2answers
41 views

A necessary condition for being P applies to all things that are P. does a sufficient condition for being P apply to only things that are P?

My textbook says that a definition of P has to apply to 'all and only things that are P.' How does this map onto necessary and sufficient conditions? If being F is a necessary condition for being G, ...
0
votes
1answer
30 views

If a proposition a priori if the premises require empirical evidence?

If I say that 50% of birds are black, and so I then say that I have a 50% chance of choosing a black bird if I pick a bird at random, is this an a priori or a posteriori proposition? Since given the ...
2
votes
1answer
130 views

What were the theological objections to Plotinus' One?

Dominic O'Meara notes (page 68) that there were religious criticisms of Plotinus in which it is claimed that the necessity whereby Plotinus' One generates things compares (unfavourably) with the ...
5
votes
5answers
223 views

Are there any attempts to define “doubt”?

Traditionally, Knowledge is defined as a True Justified Belief (Let us ignore epistemic caveats and objections to this definition). According to Wittgenstein, there is no place for knowledge where ...
2
votes
1answer
111 views

Philosophers who did not think that language is more special than cognition as a whole

There are pretty many philosophers who talked and wrote on the philosophy of language. Usually language only means the use of words and symbols, however, I noticed that symbols may have different ...
2
votes
2answers
143 views

Does ◻(∀x)(Fx ⊃ ◻(E!x & (E!x ⊃ Fx))) entail ◻((∃x)Fx ⊃ ◻(∃x)Fx)?

I was wondering if we can derive ◻((∃x)Fx ⊃ ◻(∃x)Fx) from ◻(∀x)(Fx ⊃ ◻(E!x & (E!x ⊃ Fx)))? (By the way 'E!' is the existence predicate.) I am using the Quantified Free Modal Logic constructed/...
2
votes
1answer
50 views

What does “E!” mean in free logic?

Reading John Nolt's "Free Logic" article I see the symbol "E!" in the "2.1 Axiom Systems". The following axioms are special for free logics. (A4) ∀xA→(E!t→A(t/x)) (A5) ∀xE!x (A4) modifies ...
0
votes
2answers
71 views

Can the existence of something be proven by logic alone [duplicate]

I want to know if proving the existence of something by using only logic is possible.
2
votes
3answers
81 views

Affirming the Consequent Reasoning You See in Everyday Life

What are common examples of affirming the consequent reasoning you see in everyday life?
0
votes
2answers
408 views

If I want everyone to be a friend to everyone, am I an anarchist? [closed]

I am not defining friendship. It's easier to say what is not friendship. In most aspects there are some signifiers of friendship. What language do you use, how do you treat people, what do you feel. ...
3
votes
1answer
55 views

What is reflexivity in temporal logic?

According to Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, reflexivity can be defined by : ∀x(x ≺ x) Where ≺ means "Precedes" : For all x, x precedes x But what does it mean for an instant in time x ...
1
vote
1answer
46 views

How does Charles Taylor’s “politics of recognition” differ from the traditional liberal universalist conception of equal respect and recognition?

Any examples of how these two different approaches might lead to different policy recommendations ?
0
votes
1answer
94 views

Does reaching independently identical reasoning mean some potentially pre-formatted mind?

I am collecting examples of persons/.../groups reaching identical reasoning but in an independent way. Here are only three examples of such collection: *[Leibniz/Newton: Calculus], [The Lotka - ...
3
votes
4answers
96 views

Fallacy identification

I have been seeing a lot of “if you_____then you____ .” fallacy in communication lately. Examples would be “If you don’t support “Black Life’s Matter then you hate black people” “If you didn’t vote ...
3
votes
2answers
75 views

What are the relationships between Foucault's medical gaze, scientific investigation, and Buddhist detachment?

From this note from a clinical psychologist, the Foucault's gaze is described as: ... with this powerful gaze the physician could penetrate illusion and see through to the underlying reality, that ...
0
votes
2answers
35 views

Why is this sentence containing “except” translated into this conjunction?

All except students are invited This proposition was translated into No student is invited, and all non-students are invited Why was it translated into this conjunction of form A∧B and not ...
3
votes
3answers
80 views

Does Descartes' internalism make him vulnerable to scepticism?

I've been reading about internalism and externalism and their responses to scepticism. I'm aware that many regard internalism as more susceptible to a sceptical attack than externalism, for example ...
5
votes
3answers
261 views

According to Popper, what is logical positivism's role in scientific ethics?

What are the arguments for and against this? Any resources that are easy to read would help
1
vote
0answers
52 views

What approach, choosing from Barnes and Bloor from SSK, or Kitcher from ESK, best described current practices in economics

Can someone help me with this question, because I can't get the answer myself, would like to start a discussion as well. SSK is the sociology of scientific knowledge and ESK is the economics of ...
0
votes
3answers
68 views

What fallacy, paradox or cognitive bias is this? [closed]

You do an advertisement, "Lowest price in town", but a vast majority of people now suspect that your prices are not the lowest. They now start hunting around for lower prices than yours and they ...
4
votes
2answers
74 views

What kind of circularity, if any, is it acceptable for a philosophical argument to contain?

I'm studying circularity in arguments and was wondering if there is any acceptable circularity possible in a good philosophical argument. For instance, I gather that some regard rule-circularity as ...
2
votes
1answer
76 views

Equivalence of strings of modal operators in modal logic

I'm trying to solve a question which asks me to show that for any two finite strings O₁ and O₂ of □s and ◊s, (e.g. □□◊□◊□), that i) if O₁≡O₂ then OO₁≡OO₂ and ii) if O₁≡O₂ then O₁O≡O₂O where O is ...
1
vote
1answer
154 views

What is the current state of translation of Hegel's Lectures on the History of Philosophy in English?

There seem to be quite a few different versions of Hegel's Lectures on the History of Philosophy floating around. What gives?
5
votes
1answer
191 views

Why was the quest for an objective universal demarcation criteria deemed untenable after Kuhn?

I know that Kuhn had developed his own demarcation criteria to determine whether something is science or not. But according to my lecturer the quest for an objective, universal demarcation criteria ...
2
votes
1answer
59 views

Nietzsche aphorism about happiness - interpretation

THE DANGER IN HAPPINESS.--"Everything now turns out best for me, I now love every fate:--who would like to be my fate?" From Beyond Good and Evil. I wondered if anyone could share some wisdom ...
0
votes
2answers
166 views

Defending the value of Moral Philosophy against Scientism

What are the best arguments against someone who believes 'Moral philosophy is useless, what we call morality is simply evolutionary instincts to do what we were designed to do as a species'. This ...
0
votes
1answer
93 views

For interactionist dualism, what is the mechanism that allows the mind to interact with the body?

I've looked everywhere for this answer but still can't find anything. If the mind and body are separate substances how can the mind interact with the body? What's the mechanism for the interaction?
-1
votes
0answers
48 views

Definition of Cults in Popular language vs Sociological Terms

There seem to be a huge difference between the use of the word cult in popular use and the academic definition of cult. To my understanding the academic definition basically fit any new religious ( ...
0
votes
0answers
43 views

Did Nietzsche have anything to say about the trans-Atlantic slavery trade?

Given that there are over 300 references to slavery in Nietzsches work did he, in any of his works, address what was the most significant revival of slavery since Graeco-Roman times, that is the trans-...
6
votes
1answer
66 views

What did Confucius mean by saying that the 'rectification of names' is the first thing required to rule a state?

In Analects XII, a disciple asked Confucius the right principle of government whereupon Confucious said: The one thing needed first is the rectification of names. What did Confucius mean by this?

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