All Questions

2
votes
5answers
446 views

Is anything real?

What if everything were fake? We are not real. We are all figments of the imagination of a single person's mind generating all the countless different minds with different worlds and different ...
3
votes
0answers
51 views

Is there any evidence that Nietzsche read anything by Zarathustra?

Here are two verses of Zarathustra from his Gathas published in the The Hymns of Zoroaster: A New Translation of the Most Ancient Sacred Texts of Iran by M. L. West: 40.10 And that reward, ...
1
vote
4answers
246 views

Is the Kalam cosmological argument scientifically provable?

Kalam Cosmological Argument: (1) Everything that has a beginning of its existence has a cause of its existence. (2) The universe has a beginning of its existence. Therefore: (3) The universe has a ...
1
vote
1answer
57 views

Ethical question: Student unknowingly benefitted from cheater [closed]

Hypothetical: Alice and Bob are students, and will be tested in a week. Bob steals a copy of the test (and answer key) ahead of time. Bob likes Alice, so he helps her prepare for the test, but doesn't ...
0
votes
1answer
124 views

Of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, who is generally considered the better philosopher?

Of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, who is generally considered the better philosopher? My apologies if too up for debate for any philosopher to have ever answered, as I can only find the answers of ...
1
vote
1answer
50 views

In what order should I read The Republic, Aristotle's Politics, and The Prince?

I want to read Plato's The Republic, Aristotle's politics, and Machiavelli's The Prince. Is there an order in which I should read them to better understand the development of political philosophy?
2
votes
3answers
74 views

What does it mean to be a 'consequence'?

A Logical Consequence, in terms for formal language, is derivable from a given set of statements by manipulating symbols according to fixed rules. That I understand, for that is the only way to move ...
4
votes
2answers
94 views

Why do I doubt my logical reasoning?

I have been wondering for several years why I just can't trust my own proofs in math or when giving some logical arguments. I keep thinking I might be making a mistake at some step of the proof and ...
2
votes
4answers
86 views

What does Descartes mean by thinking?

He says, that he cannot think that he is thinking while actually not thinking. So, the fact that he thinks that he is thinking already guarantees that he thinks. But what kind of thinking is it? Does ...
1
vote
1answer
48 views

If the mind is spatial does that mean it is material and cannot contain qualia?

The reason that people like mind body dualism is that material things cannot contain qualia and therefore there must be another entity that explains our consciousness. However, if we assume that the ...
3
votes
5answers
279 views

Why must the first mover be unmovable?

In the first way of Aquinas it is proved that there exists an unmoved mover (or unchanged changer or even better, actualizer which was not actualized). It is often claimed that God is pure act without ...
3
votes
3answers
115 views

Wittgenstein and the meaning of intermediate cases

I am reading Wittgenstein's philosophical investigations and want to understand what intermediate cases are. In paragraph 122 Wittgenstein writes in the first section A main source of our failure ...
1
vote
2answers
65 views

Logical expression that non-existent things don't do anything?

How could we express the idea that "something that doesn't exist cannot possibly do anything" using a logical argument? And if so, it is at all possible to prove that kind of proposition?
-2
votes
1answer
36 views

How many Greek gods are there in Greek mythology? [closed]

I was wondering how many Greek gods there were. I'm working on a Greek school protect and need the answer. Thanks!
1
vote
2answers
71 views

Meaning, Properties and Definition

According to my understanding, language is an attempt to describe the properties of objects. A sentence can only succeed so far as to be able to list the properties or characteristics. There are ...
-1
votes
1answer
108 views

Apart from nurture, nature and grace is there another ingredient from which humans are made?

Some think we are, say, 70% formed by nurture and 30% nature and since together these make 100% that together they represent the totality of that from which we are formed. Others might argue for ...
0
votes
0answers
30 views

Did Nietzsche elaborate on his notion of a 'political caste to rule over Europe'

In Aphorism 251 in Beyond Good and Evil, Nietzche says: What is serious for me ... [is] the cultivation of a new caste to rule over Europe. And according to Nietzschean scholar Ronald Beiner, when ...
1
vote
0answers
21 views

What were the 'philosophical cover-up' practised by Heidegger in his Nietzschean lectures 1936-45

In Bambachs, Heidegger Roots, he offers an authoritative analysis of the manipulations practised by Heidegger in his Nietzsche lectures between 1936-45. He calls them a 'philosophical cover-up' ...
3
votes
1answer
52 views

Had Kant ever said anything about “Beauty is not on the rosy cheeks of a maiden”?

My "Introduction to Aesthetics" textbook (a cheap-looking book made by people of questionable credentials) claims that Immanuel Kant had said something to the effect of "Beauty doesn't lie on the rosy ...
23
votes
19answers
5k views

Can time exist without change?

Imagine an event of one second in length, like two hands clapping. Suppose that another interval of time elapses between the clap, a period in which nothing happens in the whole universe (or in all ...
1
vote
1answer
142 views

What do theologians study about? [closed]

I have never seen a word which is as ill defined as the word "God". Consider a group of 10 people, if we ask them what do they mean by God.I am certain all of them will have different definitions. Yet ...
0
votes
0answers
26 views

Did Simone Weil analyse the conditions that allowed the growth of an oppressive bureaucratic state in the former Soviet Union?

In the short book by John Hellman, Simone Weil, an introduction to her thought, he quotes from her essay, La Revolutienne Proletarienne: Throughout history men have struggled, suffered and died to ...
0
votes
0answers
140 views

Semantic expressiveness of modal logic

I am wondering how much of the semantic of basic philosophical questions can be expressed by formal arguments in modal logic. Here is one argument I formalised myself: P1 ◇ ∀a, ∃x // GNB(x, a) ∧ ...
1
vote
2answers
145 views

How does Ravi Zacharias' defence of the problem of evil jump from the need of a moral law giver to there being a God?

On first finding this defense by Zacharias, I was rather convinced, but upon reading it again, I have some doubts. Firstly, here is the transcript from what he said about the problem of evil. ......
-1
votes
1answer
49 views

Aren't we most likely subject to artificial selection?

Since intelligent design is just artificial selection, and since we're most likely to be artificially selected for, then you can say we've been subjected to intelligent design. Since most animals on ...
1
vote
1answer
34 views

Do I have to use the BARBARA, CELARENT… etc?

My logic book is making me memorize the mnemonic that lists all these Latin names in order to remember valid syllogism forms, as well as how to reduce them into the first figure. My question is, do I ...
3
votes
5answers
124 views

Can an exception ever “prove” a rule?

It is a common thing to say that, when an "exception" is found, this proves (as in it provides evidence) there is a rule (or succinctly stated as "the exception proves the rule"). Is there a logical/...
3
votes
3answers
144 views

Can potentiality be used to dispel Parmenides's monism?

Can we say that beings are different precisely because this being has this potencies and that being has that potencies? Is the (only) thing differentiating two different things their set of potencies? ...
2
votes
4answers
164 views

Is there an alternative to cardinalities that makes proper subsets smaller than their sets?

Cantor defined an infinite set as a set whose subset can be placed in a one-to-one correspondence with its subset. That is, take the set of all natural numbers: {0, 1, 2, 3, 4,...}. From that set, you ...
0
votes
2answers
95 views

Which English translation of “The Social Contract” is better?

I was trying to read Rousseau's The Social Contract and Discourses. On archive.org I found a copy of the Everyman's Library version translated by G.D.H. Cole (1913). However, on amazon.com, a reviewer ...
4
votes
2answers
120 views

How much the world is logical [closed]

In her book The Art of Logic in an Illogical World, Eugenia Cheng writes:"I have already asserted the fact that nothing in the world actually behaves according to logic. So how can we use logic in the ...
0
votes
2answers
64 views

Can we infer the rarity of sapience in the universe by looking at the rarity of the universe itself?

This is similar to the anthropic principle, where we can make certain claims by looking at the conclusion: our existence. We can see that our universe is huge and therefore rare. A smaller universe ...
2
votes
2answers
115 views

Justification of existing methods of formal logic [duplicate]

What is it that mathematicians, and more likely perhaps philosophers, give as an explicit justification that any method of formal logic, which is actually used by mathematicians, or even by automatic ...
2
votes
1answer
178 views

Classical logic, symbolic logic, higher-order logic, First-order logic? Learning from scratch

I'd like to ask you a question about logic. I study philosophy in a Spanish Christian university. In the first year, we study logic but it's the classical one, following Aristotle's Organon, the ...
5
votes
2answers
76 views

Why is “re-evaluating all values” necessary to become an Übermensch?

From previous answers it became clear to me that Nietzsche did not think that there has been any Übermensch yet. He identified Goethe as a person that has overcome and disciplined himself to advance ...
2
votes
4answers
68 views

How would i go about using natural deduction to prove this argument is valid?

How would I use natural deduction to prove this argument is correct? It's always either night or day. There'd only be a full moon if it were night-time. So, since it's daytime, there's no full moon ...
2
votes
2answers
226 views

Is it light that is first or darkness? [closed]

A friend asked about what the existence of darkness in the universe is, and that it's white light instead of darkness. And I said if the universe was only white, how can you see all the planets or a ...
1
vote
2answers
51 views

What irreducible functions constitute thinking?

Because all new knowledge, to be not illogical, must obey logic i.e. every thinking step must be consistent with rules of logic; so can we write an effective procedure/algorithm which may be followed ...
4
votes
1answer
41 views

Identification and identity

One's identity is routinely associated with one's body, and most will readily make the claim that they are their body. Their body is the referent for their identity. I'm having a bit of a problem ...
1
vote
0answers
35 views

Opinions on the Newcomb Paradox [closed]

Need some opinions on the Newcomb Paradox. You’re invited to play a game, which consists of an opaque box and a transparent box. In the transparent box, there is $1000. You can see it and it will ...
1
vote
1answer
118 views

Does philosophy nurture guilt?

In his Eschatological Laundry List, Sheldon Kopp wrote, Learn to forgive yourself, again and again and again and again. That made me wonder if philosophy commonly leads people towards feelings of ...
2
votes
3answers
166 views

Nihilist paradox

As Nietzsche is an obvious example, I am focusing on him. I think that there are no nihilist philosophers, because if someone is a nihilist, why would the nihilist even bother telling us? As a ...
2
votes
0answers
50 views

Which major philosophers (if any) prior to the 1900s believed that consciousness was an emergent property of the brain?

I am going to be doing an Independent Study with one of my professors, and I am obligated (due to the professor's expertise) to choose a philosopher prior to the 1900s. Were there any philosophers ...
1
vote
2answers
103 views

Is Frank Herbert's view on 'equality' similar to Aristotle justice?

Herbert was not a philosopher, but a philosophically astute author that used futuristic fiction to comment on contemporary problems, "impossible to pin you down to neatly packaged ideas" according to ...
1
vote
1answer
101 views

Do humans have the comprehension of an ant regarding certain things?

The leading theory behind the anomaly that is human intelligence is that humans had the greatest diversity in selective pressures over the course of our evolutionary history which allowed only the ...
3
votes
1answer
54 views

Problem understanding a paragraph about the Enlightenment project

Could you explain the following sentences especially the last one? I have a problem understanding them: The Enlightenment project, writes David Harvey in The Condition of Postmodernity, 'took it as ...
4
votes
0answers
133 views

Is there a natural example of a non-self-referential semantic paradox in philosophy?

A commonly studied paradox is the liar's paradox. The liar's paradox is to determine whether "this statement is false". The usual resolution is to state this the sentence is not actually a statement ...
4
votes
2answers
181 views

Can an animal have qualia without self awareness?

Can an animal have qualia without self awareness? I understand that many animals are said to have qualia but not self awareness (perhaps not the great apes). In particular, I'm having a hard time ...
2
votes
1answer
77 views

What are the best arguments for the defense of the “principle of motion”?

How would someone (I would love to hear how Aquinas and/or Aristotle would) defend the principle of motion (that is, whatever is changed is changed by another or only actual being can actualize ...
0
votes
2answers
109 views

Validity of a modal argument?

Would you say that the following argument is valid? And if not, why exactly? For all we know, A may be the state of B; What C does is determined by the state of B; Therefore, for all ...

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