All Questions

0
votes
2answers
17 views

A difficulty I've had with this “This sentence is false” and Russell's Paradox

I'm not sure if I'm engaging in some sort of circular logical trap but I don't really think "this sentence is false" is all that logically problematic. But it would be helpful if someone could fix up ...
2
votes
0answers
25 views

Is are the “laws” of deductive logic empirically verifiable?

"Is Logic Empirical?" strongly suggests a question that I would like very much to get a handle on. That phrase is a title of an article by Hilary Putnam, and, according to synopses/reviews, the ...
1
vote
0answers
24 views

How to fully understand the first three chapters of Phenomenology of Spirit?

I read The Phenomenology of Spirit like 10 years ago, but I felt like it was very vague and abstract. Hegel seemed to have been describing the development of human thought with respect to the absolute ...
0
votes
1answer
35 views

How do I keep up with the latest in the cutting edge of philosophy? [duplicate]

I always viewed philosophy to be dead after the arrival of modern science. The last great philosopher in metaphysics was Kant, I believe the others who followed him were made irrelevant by the ...
3
votes
1answer
22 views

Where does 'numerical' in 'numerical identity' come from?

L.S., the word numerical has several meanings. E.g. numerical in the meaning ''given by numbers', and when saying Numerical Identity, meaning 'only one'. When was the first time the word was ...
1
vote
2answers
909 views

Is the following statement true, false, or can't be determined? Why?

"If it snows and we don't have school, then (x^3)<0 implies x is negative" (Assume x is a real number).
-1
votes
1answer
44 views

What would be the negation of the following statement

"I sometimes work on Monday night" I'm struggling with the word 'sometimes'. Any advice on how to deal with this word?
2
votes
0answers
24 views

Hilary Putnam's criticism of Carnap's 'Principle of Tolerance'

I am left quite confused at how Hilary Putnam showed that Carnap's response to the self-defeating objection of the verification principle was circular and hence unviable. Can anybody help explain it ...
0
votes
3answers
64 views

How much platonism do I need to handle the halting property?

I always considered myself as platonist (in contrast to formalist / finitist) but recently I realized (if this is actually true) that you need a bit of platonism to even make sense of questions like '...
1
vote
1answer
42 views

I need some help determining the validity of the following argument

“I got the highest grade on the last test and I have perfect attendance. If I get a cold, then I miss at least one class. I came down with a cold. Therefore, if I missed at least one class, then I ...
2
votes
4answers
976 views

A doctor saves lives, but he is a murderer in normal life. Is he good or bad? Or Both? [on hold]

Is he or is he not? Does the society accept him/her like that? This question came up to my mind when my father mentioned about a professional killer whose nickname was The Iceman. PS. Don't know ...
0
votes
1answer
33 views

Any contemporary/older philosophers who criticize the Christian concept of “preservation in the memory of others”? [on hold]

I'm trying to sort out my ideas, so bear with me here if my questions is not abundantly clear. There's a Christian understanding that when one dies, only the body dies, therefore, the spirit remains, ...
1
vote
0answers
17 views

Plato or Aristotle on trading lives

I am sure I remember either Plato or Aristotle saying that most people, if a god approached them with an offer to trade their life for someone else's, would run away. But I have been wrong before ...
4
votes
5answers
129 views

Is an argument in natural language as logically valid as in formal logic?

Is a natural language philosophical argument which is argued strictly from first principles widely considered equally as valid as a proof written in formal logic?
-1
votes
0answers
80 views

What are Christians “responsible” for seeing that Paul says “It is no longer I who live”? [on hold]

Firstly to establish that Christians do think they are "responsible" I would quote a well known one: John MacArthur in a comment on the back page of "What about free will?" says "God's absolute ...
2
votes
2answers
92 views

What is the name of this kind of reasoning? (Not a logical fallacy.)

Alice and Bob are playing rock-paper-scissors. Alice typically throws rock. Bob, while thinking to himself, is naïve and wants to throw paper, but also knows that Alice is sneaky and so will ...
-2
votes
0answers
44 views

Logic and critical thinking [on hold]

Identify the premise and conclusions by underlining the appropriate propositions using C for conclusion; and premise, P1 and P2. a. It follows from the fact that all cats are pest that this cat is a ...
0
votes
1answer
41 views

Lists and predicates on lists in classical first order logic

I have to express some basic Prolog code in classical first order logic (FOL). In Prolog i use lists, together with member/2 and append/3 a lot. Could you give me some tips for writing clauses like ...
2
votes
1answer
56 views

Is ◻((◻(P → ◻P)) ↔ (◻P v ◻~P)) derivable in S5?

Is ◻((◻(P → ◻P)) ↔ (◻P v ◻~P)) a theorem in S5? If so, is it also a theorem in B or just S5?
2
votes
1answer
87 views

Help with philosophical interpretation of the movie Cloud Atlas

I feel very sorry to ask for this but I really need help, I have a hard time getting an answer to what I need for my metaphysical essay related to the movie "Cloud Atlas", I have seen it several times ...
8
votes
1answer
115 views

Where to find Descartes’ violin player analogy?

I really tried finding the original passage where Descartes lays out the following argument: Descartes himself anticipated an objection like this and argued that dependence does not strongly ...
2
votes
2answers
103 views

Prove or disprove ~◇◻p → ◇◇~p in system K

How to start with the following proof? Any help would be appreciated. I have tried by assuming the left side is true, however, I get confused with the negation. ~◇◻p → ◇◇~p
5
votes
5answers
253 views

What is an example of an innate idea?

I don't see any justification to argue a person has an idea or knowledge that is not derived from its environment. How come Plato raised this question at all: How is it that we have certain ideas ...
0
votes
2answers
142 views

How far can faith reasonably go? [on hold]

[EDIT] Faith is not usually invoked in justifying detailed accounts! To see what I mean, take the following statements: "I have faith in the determination of our players that I think they'll win the ...
24
votes
14answers
7k views

Isn't the existence of Hell inherently evil, and isn't God therefore evil in allowing Hell to exist?

In many religions, for example, the Abrahamic ones, there exists a place of eternal punishment for those who live in violation of God's commandments. Assuming an infinitely-long afterlife, in which "...
1
vote
1answer
88 views

Is it possible to conclude, whether similarity or difference is more fundamental notion?

Is it possible to conclude, whether similarity or difference is more fundamental notion? Is there any support from e.g. biology as to whether our senses support similarity more than difference? From ...
1
vote
1answer
60 views

Is metaphysical necessity an unambiguous concept, and if so, how do we capture it?

In Nature of Necessity (1974), Plantinga writes: The distinction between necessary and contingent truth is as easy to recognize as it is difficult to explain to the sceptic's satisfaction. ...we ...
0
votes
0answers
40 views

Does Epistemological Infinitism Require Infinite Regress? [on hold]

According to infinitism:"No reason is sufficiently justified in the absence of a further reason. That is, there are no foundational reasons". Pretend that somehow there was a statement whose chain of ...
2
votes
5answers
198 views

What are examples of causes that do not require energy to produce an effect?

As a comment to an answer Conifold mentioned that "Causes may not require any energy to produce the effect". After thinking about that, I couldn't come up with any such causes outside of metaphysical ...
1
vote
2answers
46 views

Does utilitarianism distinguish between pain/suffering and pleasure/happiness?

I consider myself a utilitarian and in my conception of it, happiness and suffering are distinct from pleasure and pain. I came to this conclusion by noting that I could be in pain but happy, or ...
-3
votes
0answers
51 views

My philosophy question is about Identity [on hold]

Bertrand Williams describes a thought experiment involving a swapping machine. What does his hypothetical machine do? How does he think we should identify A and B after the machine? Is he right? ...
50
votes
11answers
12k views

Does human life have innate value over that of other animals?

Does human life have innate value over that of other animals? If so, why? And is it wrong to murder another human, but morally permissible to hunt or fish?
5
votes
5answers
233 views

How can we argue for the uniqueness of a God-like entity?

(I have in mind here, something similar to "uniqueness" proofs in math. I think if we want to name something, we should show both that it exists and is unique.) (By "divine attributes", I mean ...
2
votes
0answers
266 views

How should an atheist rationally respond to finding out they're about to die?

What is the rational, or most rational, response to finding out you're about to die? Not just to mortality, but that there's little more you can do in your life, and you're soon going to be, or are, ...
0
votes
1answer
54 views

If people didn’t have a moral sense, would we still have enforced cultural moral codes?

Diverse, contradictory, and bizarre as they are, people commonly feel that everyone ought to conform to their culture’s moral norms and even feel violators deserve punishment, though perhaps that ...
3
votes
0answers
41 views

Are there writers on the topic of an inherent human bias towards the value of rational thinking?

Some people place humans as 'higher animals' because we are uniquely capable of rational thought, while most other animals are not. This assumes that the trait of rationality is superior to other ...
0
votes
0answers
58 views

Is “physicality precedes spiritual” a view or a state of nature?

Is "physicality precedes spiritual" a view or a state of nature? Are there views that would question this kind of "physicalism"? Perhaps one can find some dichotomy in expressing the idea through ...
1
vote
3answers
69 views

How is/was “good” (as the contrary of bad) defined?

As Nietzsche differentiated there are two kind of good: this question focus is on the contrary of bad, not the contrary of evil. There are quite a lot possibilities to define the common term "good". ...
1
vote
1answer
48 views

Why isn't Descartes using psychologism?

Descartes says "I think therefore I am", isn't he using psychologism, by using a personal experience of thinking? I had read someone claim he was against foundationalism, or specifically psychologism....
3
votes
2answers
96 views

Criticism of stoicism

In relation to the writings of Epictetus or Seneca, what is some adequate criticism to stoicism? Any writings/papers dealing with that in particular?
1
vote
1answer
70 views

When to label a philosopher as either a western philosopher or an eastern philosopher? [closed]

The criterion that determines a person who is professionally trained in philosophy and does philosophical research, to be either a western or eastern philosopher is not clear to me. Suppose, we have ...
3
votes
2answers
92 views

Do picture proofs of the Pythagorean theorem make it empirical?

As I understand it, the Pythagorean Theorem, which defines the metric for Euclidean space, is said to be strictly mathematical in the sense that it is derived from a set of purely theoretical axioms (...
-4
votes
3answers
247 views

Can science prove that the earth is not flat?

I've heard Neil deGrasse Tyson and other important scientists say that mature science does not rely on our senses, but all explanations I read about the roundness of earth are sense-based: How a ship ...
-3
votes
0answers
55 views

Is observer the creater and destroyer of the cosmos ( read theory below )? [closed]

As we know that most of the values in Special Relativity such as energy and also in general physics like Kinetic Energy are defined with respect to the frame of the observer but in this world who is ...
3
votes
2answers
115 views

Are there any solutions to the Euthyphro dilemma?

Is there a way to believe that God is the source of morality without also having to believe that morality is arbitrary?
2
votes
1answer
87 views

Did Nietzsche violate Christian morality in his life? Was he urging anyone to do so? [on hold]

Did Nietzsche violate Christian morality in his life, in his behaviour? Was he urging anyone to do so? He seems to have had a long standing grudge against it.
17
votes
12answers
8k views

Is religion necessary for the good life?

According to Aristotle, you will be deemed as living well if you experience worldly pleasures while still being morally upright and virtuous. How can you identify what is morally right without the ...
20
votes
17answers
17k views

If you place a pencil in an opaque box and close the box, does the pencil exist? [on hold]

I’m trying to explain to my friends about things existing. I gave them this question: if you place a pencil in an opaque box and close the box, does the pencil exist? They say yes and I ask how do ...
2
votes
0answers
184 views

Philosophy of Physics/Mathematics PhD with Mathematics/Physics undergrad (no philosophy undergrad)

I've found that I'm really interested in some research in the philosophy of mathematics and physics that's currently happening at various institutions. However, I don't have much experience in ...
5
votes
4answers
161 views

Can simulation theory be considered a form of religion?

The simulation theory has gained track in recent years; even Elon Musk has spoken on it. As it follows the associated, can belief in the simulation theory be considered a form of religion? The ...

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