# All Questions

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5 views

### Question About Shoemaker's Thought Experiment (Time Without Change)

In his argument that time intervals can exist without change, Shoemaker gives us an interesting thought experiment. For those unfamiliar, here it is: Assume that an entire universe is divided into ...
8 views

### Which came first, the semantic approach or the syntactic approach?

Logic is today developing in many, very different directions. But the basic distinction between the semantic approach (truth, "⊨") and the syntactic one (provability, "⊢") is still important and ...
4 views

### What is the link with nihilism and hypocrisy?

What is the link with nihilism and hypocrisy? I know that Nietzsche mentions hypocrisy. I think to the effect that the old values helped it flourish, that it is now debased, with at least the ...
13 views

### Is everything still and happens at the same time?

I really don't know if there's a theory that explains if everything happens at the same time, meaning that there is no such thing as time and time is simply an illusion. This line of thought comes ...
7 views

### Formalisation of an Argument

I just came across the following passage in the Appendix B of "Why Race Matters" by Michael Levine: Let $G$ be a genotype expressed by phenotypic variable $P$, and lets $G$'s home organism $O$ ...
5 views

### What exactly did Marcus Autelius mean by “To pursue the impossible is madness: and it is impossible for bad men not to act in character.”?

why he did write that? Does this paragraph make any sense? Maybe, he wanted to say it is impossible to be good man without good characters? Any assumption?
9 views

### Aristotelian vs Boolean, trying to determine the exact difference

Good afternoon, I've looked at some other answers and I feel those don't quite answer what I'm trying to ask, so I'll just ask it here. I'm in a logic course and I'm either misunderstanding ...
14 views

### Logic Philosophy question [duplicate]

I am looking for help in answering the full question with a full conditional proof (cp). This will help me understand this question and others that I am trying to understand. Thank you. Would ...
15 views

### Difficulty trying to distinguish between an illocutionary act and speech act

Consider the following scenario: an impatient man is sitting in a restaurant, and asked the waiter 'Where is my dinner?'. My understanding is this: Asking for the location of the man's dinner is the ...
11 views

### Marcus Aurelius' meditations, book 5

can you help me with questions from book 5 meditations of Marcus Aurelius? Are you have any questions from book 5 that can be discussed during class? Pls help, questions should be some kinda ...
39 views

### Why Christianity did not evolve into “strict” monothiesm?

Answering Jewish / Muslim objections to their faith, Christians frequently appeals to historical research, which illustrates that existence of "semi-god" or godly king etc. was not a strange thing to ...
18 views

### Love triangle: ethical state

An ethical problem: Daniel is in love with Rose, who is in a long-term romantic relationship with David. Rose enjoys Daniel's love. Daniel asks Rose that David should know that they text each other, ...
44 views

### What kind of philosophy of the foundations of physics can there be?

I'm currently trying to read into topos foundations for theories of physics and I wonder if we are really able to give a philosophical foundation for what a possible future theory of physics should ...
38 views

### Philosophy of concepts - can it be (gradually) expressed in type theory?

Reasoning in mathematics is simple and subject to automation and discipline/system, because every concept (e.g. integer number, real number, derivative, integral, differential equation and its ...
34 views

### Help with a Predicate Logic homework proof

I have a Predicate Logic argument I need to translate into the symbolism of predicate logic first and then I need to construct a proof in CP. The argument is "Some wars are just. No war of ...
60 views

### Is the permanent soul still tenable?

I wonder what a possible objection could be: P1) The self is static in change; P2) If P1 is true then change cannot be the self otherwise the self wouldn't be static; C) Therefore, change is the ...
40 views

### Whence does the standard of what is and is not Philosophy derive? [on hold]

What, for instance, would be the key criteria for determining the status of a suspected Philosopher. For instance there seems an uncertainty as to whether Zizek is a philosopher, a cultural theorist ...
39 views

### Rhetoric: How to frame redundancy in an argument as deficiency?

How can we categorize redundancy in an argument as deficiency? That is, weaken the argument because of its redundancy? Suppose X is an argument that boasts coherence and clarity, but it has various ...
60 views

### Is the concept of Aporia the same as the concept of A Beginners Mind?

Is the concept of Aporia the same as the zen concept of A Beginners Mind, or related to it, or a completely different concept?
65 views

### Meaning of a diagram by Althusser

A diagram by Althusser captioned “The future lasts a long time” (the title of his memoirs) appears on several of his book covers. Below is my own reproduction, based on a sketched version found here. ...
42 views

### What does it mean for something/someone to be violent? [on hold]

Growing up my impression was that violence was some harm that you physically apply to someone, however, I have seen other definitions that use violence as applying force against someone through your ...
2k views

### How does Berkeley justify existence of other minds?

I don't understand how Berkeley justifies existence of other minds in his system. Is it something that he takes for granted? Because, his position seems very close to that of a solipsist except for ...
24 views

### Why propensities do not work for Quine?

I am deepening the concept of probability in science and I have read that some philosophers interpret probability as propensity and that this concept has often been considered not clear (...
30 views

### Is reverse Injustice Mercy or Justice or both of them?, Hence, is Justice reverse both Mercy and Injustice?

Approximately, there's no doubt about considering Justice reverse Injustice. But the doubt is about Mercy. In new approach I indicated that it's more accurate to define Mercy as Inversed (Reversed) ...
42 views

### General characteristics of rules

I'm starting a research on rules -- whether moral rules, laws, game rules, etc. Can anyone point me to references which investigate rules as their object? EDIT (in response to @YechiamWeiss ) @...
61 views

### Is this difficulty in Popper's notion previously known, and is it Intelligible?

Popper, in his test theory, says that a hypothesis can not be in accord with all possible observable phenomena (I lack the exact formulation). There must be something observable that falsifies (or, ...
42 views

### What views have Philosophers given about what Philosophy is? [on hold]

What are the most urgent and the most powerful views concerning this question throughout the ages?
71 views

### Is Mercy for the Merciful, Justice for the Just and Injustice for the Unjust constitute a type of Justice? [on hold]

Of course, there are types of Justice found in Philosophy, Social studies and Humanities like: - Distributive. - Retributive. - Compensatory. - Procedural. All of these types speak about a style of ...
36 views

### Which Philosophers developed standards of Intelligence? [on hold]

Which Philosophers have spoken most tellingly, or exercised themselves most thoroughgoingly, on the proper subject matter of the idea of intelligence? And which views are the most serious? It's clear ...
43 views

### Is freedom from discrimination a positive or a negative right?

Because of the recent controversy regarding pronouns on Meta, I started thinking about this question. In general, is freedom from discrimination as protected in most modern liberal states a positive ...
745 views

### Is Heraclitus really a Mobilist?

I learned that Heraclitus stressed the importance of change and the ephemeral nature of things in the cosmos. However, it seems that Heraclitus refers to a "logos": The opening of Heraclitus' book ...
45 views

### What is Quine’s Confirmation theory?

I have just read that Quine relies on his confirmation theory to establish if a scientific theory is “valid” or not. But I am not sure to have understood what is Quine’s confirmation theory and why ...
26 views

### Is There a Maximally Consistent Set That is Not $\omega$-complete? [on hold]

I was going back through Mates 2nd edition Elementary Logic and am having a bit of trouble on one of the exercises; it says, "Find a counter example to the following assertion: for any set of ...
93 views

### Morality, Animal Cruelty, and Non-Vegetarianism

This is a very common question, but I've always been torn about how I can give a rational moral justification for being a non-vegetarian. Is it not hypocritical for me to condemn other acts of animal ...
58 views

### Which Philophers are the most intelligent? [on hold]

Are the philosophers of the past more intelligent, or those of our own time? Have any philosophers taken a stand on this question? How do they understand the criterion of absolute intelligence?
359 views

### Is Mercy Reverse Injustice or Reversed Injustice? [on hold]

The problem, so easily, is that: To have Mercy is to abuse against myself,i.e: to loss, or to give up some rights of mine to the real abuser or the real oppressor or whoever does the act of Injustice. ...
36 views

### When entities started being plural?

As per the creator of the idea, Parmenides, entities started as one (entity). When or who established entities as many?
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### Did William of Soissons prove the law of explosion in the 12th century?

In the 12th century, William of Soissons attempted to prove that any proposition can be inferred from a contradiction. I've adapted his proof into a logical system I'm more familiar with: Let E ...
56 views

### What is it when someone from some group (ethnic, religious, disability, etc.) can automatically talk for others from it?

Is there a term for being for and against the view that (only) someone from some group (ethnic, religious, disability, etc.) can automatically talk for others from it? It's kind of a political and ...
28 views

### Do followers of Lyotard consider modernism deconstructive?

Do followers of Lyotard consider modernism deconstructive? I ask only because I've read that Furthermore, says Lyotard, a work can become modern only if it is first postmodern, for postmodernism ...
39 views

### Will power and longevity — a connection? [on hold]

What is the general, philosophical outlook on willpower and life, physically and/or spiritually? I get the general argument: "Willpower cannot stop death because everyone dies; therefore, given ...
58 views

### Does a pattern constitute evidence, logic or something else? [on hold]

Powerful groups (e.g. tribes and states) often exploit or attack weaker groups. That's a historical pattern suggesting that people will continue to prey on each other. Many wars have begun with ...
38 views

### The view from the universe if meaning changes, but also subsists [on hold]

I understand that the view from everywhere is a nihilistic problem for philosophers like Nagel (who denies it has authority in question about 'meaning' and life). Our projects just have no meaning ...
34 views

### What does Derek Parfit mean by “I ought to regard having a Replica as being about as good as ordinary survival”

Having trouble with this one. What does it mean and what might be some reasons leading to this conclusion. The relevant text is "What We Believe Ourselves To Be"
43 views

### Proof by natural deduction advice

Any advice on shortening my right to left proof will be appreciated.
74 views

### The Full Scope of Sloth [on hold]

Disclaimer one: I am not a Christian, nor do I have any religious agendas with this post. Disclaimer two: This is a quite lengthy post, with a considerable amount of preliminary stuff, and also a few ...
90 views

### What does Nietzsche refer to with the “backworldsmen”?

I'm a rookie to philosophical thinking but trying my best to understand the concepts. I'd be appreciated if you could enlighten me about this: In Chapter 3 of Thus Spake Zarathustra, he is addressing ...
47 views

### Examples of identical sets which are not causal?

Google is failing me in my search for examples of identical sets which do no have causal relationships between them. What I mean is that all and only objects which belong to set A belong to set B, but ...