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18 views

Help me solve this predicate logic proof theory: -(∀z)(∃y)Tzy ⊢ (∃z)(∀y)-Tzy

-(∀z)(∃y)Tzy ⊢ (∃z)(∀y)-Tzy Using Lande, (AI,EI,AE,EE,->E,->I,-I,--E,^I,^E,vI,vE) I cannot figure out the proof on this sequent.
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0answers
18 views

Did Nietszche say "all human institutions are intended to prevent mankind from feeling their life"?

Someone shared this quote with me, saying it's from Nietzsche, but I can't find a source for the translation: Is it not the case that all human institutions are intended to prevent mankind from ...
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2answers
40 views

How can we know (with absolute certainty) that our logic is correct?

How can we know (with absolute certainty) that our logic is correct? Even statements like Descartes’ “I think therefore I am” relies on our logic: that I exist is a logical consequence of my ...
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0answers
27 views

Existence being analytic of God vs. God being analytic of existence

Elsewhere, in light of the idea that understanding is not a species of knowledge but an epistemic genus parallel to knowledge, and then in terms of an understanding logic, I asked whether knowledge of ...
2
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2answers
46 views

Need help with this paper on epistemic justice

What form must a theory of epistemic injustice take in order to successfully illuminate the epistemic dimensions of struggles that are primarily political? How can such struggles be understood as ...
-1
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1answer
33 views

Is the opposite of black white or invisible? Why so?

Likewise, is 0 the opposite of 1? Or is -1? Well, from the perspective of a computer, 1 and 0 seem to be absolute opposites... Opposites seem to be a relative and socially constructed notion, is it?
3
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1answer
91 views

How does hylomorphism solve mind-body and form-matter problem? How do they interact?

So, I have been reading Aristotle and Aquinas for quite a while, but their nuanced terms make their philosophy hardly graspable. It is not clear to me how do they solve mind-body and form-matter ...
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2answers
51 views

Isn’t ‘person’ with two personalities technically two people?

Isn’t ‘person’ with the same body and two personalities technically two people? For example, we call conjoined twins two people because they have two personalities.
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0answers
42 views

If the most powerful group of people make the law, how can law be just? [closed]

Its the least worst way of justice, but it is still horrible for most people. I can give examples if you want.
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3answers
797 views

Can people who deny naturalism consistently believe in science? [closed]

Naturalism is connected very much to Inductive reasoning. In science, if we see something happening again and again we generalize it into a law and we believe it as true. It will be only considered as ...
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0answers
62 views

Has any philosopher/theologian wrote about "The unimpressiveness of the religious miracles"?

I have an argument against religions and I expected that it would have already been discussed somewhere and I searched online but couldn't find any resources written by philosophers who talked about ...
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0answers
60 views

De Morgan's Quantifier Proof

I am currently a Philosophy student taking a logic course and I am confused about how to formally prove De Morgan's quantifier laws using Fitch. Especially the following ¬∀xP(x) ↔ ∃x¬(P(x). I have no ...
2
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1answer
80 views

Simone de Beauvoir on woman's job and sex

I am reading The Second Sex by Simone de Beauvoir, and there are two quotes from page 92 struck me A truly socialist ethic—one that seeks justice without restraining liberty, one that imposes ...
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0answers
48 views

Logic of ‘one person is needed three times.‘ [closed]

Context: One person is needed to take care of a dog at a time, but the dog should be taken care by three people. One person is needed three times. Can this be interpreted in two ways? The same ...
4
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4answers
260 views

How do non-theist idealists account for laws of physics?

Berkeley has a god that forces regularity of sensations/perception on all other minds. So a super-mind is the source of the laws of physics. I assume it's the same with any theistic idealism. But I ...
4
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5answers
144 views

In our best scientific theories, is there a difference between "the universe" and "reality"?

In our best scientific theories, is there a difference between "the universe" and "reality"? Are all scientific realists committed to the idea that there is a mind independent ...
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0answers
39 views

The anti socratic method: what is it?

Socrates' interlocutor asserts a thesis, for example "Courage is endurance of the soul". Socrates decides whether the thesis is false and targets for refutation. Socrates secures his ...
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1answer
60 views

Does eudemonia depend on tense?

Not asking about any particular concept of well being or happiness. The question may seem odd: if I am happy today now then I will have been happy for the day. But I suspect it at least may be more ...
2
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1answer
63 views

What is the relationship between Anekantavada and Pyrrhonic skepticism?

Best skeptic arguments, five tropes of Agrippa are these: (wiki) Dissent – The uncertainty demonstrated by the differences of opinions among philosophers and people in general. Progress ad infinitum – ...
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0answers
27 views

Epictetus quote on Love and Wise

" If someone is incapable of distinguishing good things from bad and neutral things from either – well, how could such a person be capable of love? The power to love, then, belongs only to the ...
3
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3answers
568 views

What is the most unique type of philosophy someone can naturally develop?

A couple of days ago I read about metaphysics. Because I recognised this type of philosophical activity and people who do it and searched it up. I know one person who has developed their own ...
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2answers
57 views

Correct wording for analysis? What is the nature of this relation?

I'm trying to analyse the statement "The computer has the capacity to perform long division", but I can't decide whether to use the connector because or therefore. Which one is more fitting ...
5
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2answers
83 views

Why is the law of the excluded middle not a exclusive disjunction?

So the law of the excluded middle, as I have read in every logic textbook that I have read, has been ( ϕ ∨ ¬ ϕ ) , but this seems somewhat unintuitive, since I was under the impression that the ...
21
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7answers
7k views

Is it ethical to convince someone to get vaccinated?

I'm currently writing about the ethics of vaccinations, and I have two long-standing concerns about the matter. "Is refusing vaccination a morally justifiable position?" will be my question. ...
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1answer
122 views

How to say “everyone respects someone” and “someone respects everyone” in quantified logic?

I’m having a hard time with this logic obviously isn’t my thing
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0answers
86 views

Who was the first philosopher who explicitly connected belief with habit formation?

Aristotle speaks about habit but I can't find anywere in his works any explicit connection of habit with belief. Is there any subsequent philosopher who explicitly connected belief with habit ...
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0answers
39 views

How have the last ~100 years of findings in physics and neuroscience affected philosophical ideas?

Have philosophers' notions of reality been affected by recent findings of physics and neuroscience? Have there spawned notable, new notions about reality?
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3answers
56 views

Would you recommend the book "Philosophical devices: Evidence, Probability, Possibility and Sets" by David Papineau?

Would you recommend the book "Philosophical devices: Evidence, Probability, Possibility and Sets"? I am not familiar with the author, David Papineau, and would like to ask for an opinion ...
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0answers
42 views

Mathematical "forms" as a relation of varying arity

This might be more a MathSE question, but on the other hand, it would involve a peculiar reimagining of the relation between set theory and type theory, so I'll try it out here. OK, so earlier I ...
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0answers
56 views

Laws of logic literature recommendations

What are some books/papers/articles I could read to develop an informed perspective on questions like "where do the laws of logic come from? Do they have a deep connection with the structure of ...
2
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5answers
139 views

How do some traditions defend realities outside of scientific space and time?

Some metaphysical systems assert that "the ultimate reality" is outside of space and time. For example Schopenhauer, many forms of theism, more recently Kastrup and his Analytical Idealism. ...
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0answers
30 views

Is there a quantitative measure for a philosopher's skill?

Obviously, the property you should be interested in here is fame. Below a ranking of the philosophers included in Leiter's list, sorted by fame (measured in dBHa, the international logarithmic unit of ...
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1answer
147 views

How does hylomorphic dualism (Thomism) deal with free will?

As I understand, according to hylomorphism the soul and the body are one in the same. The soul "informs" the matter, but does not interact as it would in interactionism. But how does this ...
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0answers
84 views

When is an absence a nothingness?

When is an absence a nothingness, completely nothing? I've read all of Heidegger's basic writings, a handful of commentaries on him and lots on Buddhism. Both these topics talk a lot about "...
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0answers
13 views

Which ideal of justice have in mind the a legislative body in society [closed]

I was reading about the legal vacuum. I thought of it as the extension of the legal texts being less than all possible human facts. Regulation can not cover all human activity. In that difference, ...
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1answer
74 views

“Water froze”: What does it mean? [closed]

I said, “Water froze.” Then, what did I mean by that? I have to add ‘the.’ Water Frozen water Water & frozen water Ridiculously, English SE told me that it’s about philosophy, so I post here. ...
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0answers
21 views

Aristotle Physics: Things found in virtue of a concomitant attribute

Synopsis I am trying to understand better Aristotle's notion of things that do not exist by nature. I will give my understanding below, and hopefully, you guys can help me see any flaws in my ...
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0answers
54 views

Can you explain the problem with Aristotle's doctrine of terms presented in this excerpt?

I'm really confused about the second paragraph. This is form Kenny's "A New History of Philosophy". "One of the dysfunctional features of the doctrine of terms is that it fosters ...
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1answer
60 views

Argument against unrestricted quantification

I have problems understanding the argument against unrestricted quantification based on Russell’s paradox, which does not work with sets, but instead with semantic interpretations (as objects). The ...
-2
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1answer
38 views

What are several repetitive occurrences in nature that could serve as a reasonable time standard? [closed]

How the notion and understanding of time by human beings has emerged and got evolved? What are several repetitive occurrences in nature that could serve as a reasonable time standard?
5
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3answers
339 views

What did Godel mean by intensional paradoxes?

I have read recently a chapter in Hao Wang: A logical journey: From Godel to Philosophy , where Wang mentions his discussions with Godel on intensional paradoxes, but I have no clue what exactly they ...
0
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1answer
23 views

Can a representation be a system?

What's the definition of system? I am wondering if a representation like a graph be considered a system, or a system needs to have some kind of effect on something and not merely represent something. ...
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0answers
48 views

Reference requested: follow-up to Kant's COPR

Still reading the First Critique, still confused about multiple facts, please be indulgent and helpful with the errors in my understanding... thanks. Perhaps the most important goal of Immanuel Kant, ...
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0answers
23 views

What philsophical Essay prompts can be taken from the Watchmen (Movie or Comic)? [closed]

I'm writing an academic essay for college and we read through a bit of The Watchmen together. I'm really interested in the underlying themes and philosophical aspects of the comic and was wondering ...
2
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1answer
41 views

? as a logical connective

I am reading Doubt Truth to be a Liar by Graham Priest. In it he uses the symbol ? as a logical connective, and I am unsure of it's meaning. Given his use of ? (a ? a) to denote the Law of Identity, ...
0
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1answer
84 views

Science, where is the difference between law and principle?

Theories contain laws, definitions, explain and predict aspects of nature. A law in itself does not explain, but only reflects cause-effect relationships of empirical data (usually in the form of a ...
0
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1answer
46 views

Is it the incorrect assumption of an "a priori determined universe", which creates the paradox of determinism versus free will?

I reached a bit of a watershed recently in my thinking on the question of whether we live in a deterministic universe, and what I see as a the related question of whether we enjoy real freedom of ...
1
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2answers
92 views

Can Cogito, ergo sum be formalized?

I was wondering lately whether Descartes argument for the existence of undoubtable truth could be formalized. I tried to formalize his argument in FOL, but only his light version proving that there ...
0
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1answer
103 views

Philosophy and personal identity

It seems to me that the concept of personal identity - as a coherent whole - is a corner stone of Western culture. We build a LinkedIn/Facebook/etc. profile to sell a whole personality. We go to ...
1
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1answer
46 views

bad practices in statistics - ratio of a ratio

I haven't been able to think of good search terms for my question, and I'm happy to be redirected to another stackoverflow site. I frequently see statistics presented in scientific summaries (written ...

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