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The first mention of this I have seen is in Aristotles Generation & Corruption; he suggests that according to Democritus, even if the space between a lamp and a wall was completely void, light will be still cast onto the wall.

Aristotle disagrees with this, and states if the space between the lamp and the wall was properly void nothing, including light, would reach the wall; he's implicitly saying that Democritus notion is actually a vacuum and not a void - he goe's into more detail of this in his Physics.

It's this notion thats later codified into the principle of locality, of which there are a few variants.

Notably for Aristotle cause need not be temporal, and his definition of cause does not mention either time or space but merely change; however he does earlier admit that change is an aspect of time.