A prolific modern Leibnizian, Mike Hockney, might be somewhat like what you are looking for, see e.g. his Mathematical Universe and Smith's review of it, but do not expect the caliber of Badiou or Deleuze. Hockney, following Leibniz, interprets the phenomenal world as derivative from the primary ontology of dimensionless minds, monads (which Leibniz tells are "not parts but foundations of phenomena"). The Fourier transform, or rather its inverse, plays the key role of converting the timeless monadology ("frequency domain") into extensional spacetime. Here is a taste:
"The whole mystery of existence is contained within Fourier mathematics because it's none other than the means by which unextended Cartesian minds (frequency domains) communicate with extended Cartesian bodies (spacetime entities)… Monads are composed of nothing but eternal, immutable sine and cosine waves of every conceivable type (via the generalized Euler Formula)…
Via inverse Fourier transforms, this monadic frequency information can be combined to create any spacetime representation. In other words, mental “ideas” can be converted into physical “bodies” via Fourier mathematics. Mind is the basis of matter, not the other way around (as scientific materialists have always claimed). The phenomenal world is simply a mathematical way of presenting noumenal frequency (mental) data. Fourier mathematics... turned the Cartesian unextended, thinking domain into an eternal monadic frequency domain (the Soul Domain), and the Cartesian extended, material domain into a spacetime domain (the World)…".
Hockney also gives an atemporal interpretation of the Big Bang based on his metaphysics, according to which the Big Bang singularity is not an event in time but rather a metaphysical posit somewhat reminiscent of the "initial state" of Plotinian One or Hegel's Geist. I suppose there is also some affinity to the no-boundary cosmological proposals, a la Hartle–Hawking, where the temporal world is emergent on a timeless substrate in a manner that can be remotely analogized to performing a Fourier transform, see On the Emergence of Time in Quantum Gravity by Isham and Butterfield (especially pp.52-62). Here is more Hockney:
"If there are infinite monads all occupying the same Singularity, they can all be regarded as mental bosons. However, the application of a simple antisymmetry operation converts them into mental fermions. This has the most astounding consequence: it confers unique coordinates on each of the monads and instantly creates an extended Cartesian coordinate grid.
The monads haven't actually moved anywhere – they are still inside the Singularity – but they now have unique identifiers (coordinates) and this produces the effect (illusion) of all monads now being separated from each other. To put it another way, they now have extended (fermionic) relations with each other. A Cartesian extended world has come into being... The infinite Cartesian grid is still wholly contained within the Singularity and is thus a mathematical illusion. Existence can only ever take place within a single point (everything that exists is contained within the Singularity: we live inside the Big Bang Singularity, and the Big Bang itself took place within that Singularity, and remains contained within it). The Big Bang was nothing but an internal mathematical restructuring of the Singularity via an antisymmetry operation and Fourier mathematics."