<sub>Source: p 362 Top. [*Introducing Philosophy for Canadians: A Text with Integrated Readings*](https://www.amazon.ca/Introducing-Philosophy-Canadians-Integrated-Readings/dp/0195430964) (2011 1 ed).</sub>

>Nagasena's point? As it is with 'chariot', so it is with 'person'. Like 'chariot', 'person' refers 
not to a substance—there are no substances in the Buddhist scheme—but simply **[1.]** to a set 
of attributes that we can directly apprehend or know **[End of 1.]**. In the case of a chariot, those attributes are the axle, the wheels, the poles, the yoke, the reins, the flag-post, and so forth. In 
the case of a person, those attributes are transient phenomena known to Buddhist as 'the 
five skandhas': 'forms, feelings, perceptions, impulses, and consciousness'. So if a person is 
nothing more than a bundle of ever-changing attributes, then there is nothing to him over 
and above those attributes; and if there is nothing to him over and above those ever-changing 
attributes, then there is nothing to which a name such as 'Nagasena' can correspond or 
refer. There is no fixed 'I', no substantial soul, no rock-solid self, no enduring ego, no static 
core of being hidden beneath the flimsy wrapping of phenomenal fact. 

> [ [ Buddhism.about.com : ](http://buddhism.about.com/od/sacredbuddhisttexts/fl/King-Milindas-Questions.htm)] Now the King acknowledged the designation "chariot" depended on these constituent parts, but that "chariot" itself is a concept, or a mere name.

>Just so, Nagasena said, "Nagasena" is a designation for something conceptual. It is a mere name. **[2.]** When the constituent parts  are present **[End of 2.]**  we call it a chariot; **[2.]** When the Five Skandhas are present **[End of 3.]** , we call it a being.

I abbreviate 1-3 (i.e. attributes + the dependence on the constituent attributes) to 'Synergy'. So a Synergy ⊋ this Synergy's attributes. 

Nagasena argues that names (e.g. 'Nagasena', 'chariot') refer to Synergy.    
But why cannot Synergies (1 and 2) be Substances? Synergies must be something, correct?